An effective control of malaria vectors requires an extensive knowledge of mechanisms underlying the resistance-phenotypes developed by these vectors against insecticides. We investigated Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes from Benin and Togo for their intensity of insecticide resistance and we discussed the involvement of genotyped mechanisms in the resistance-phenotypes observed.
Irrigation systems have been identified as one of the factors promoting malaria disease around agricultural farms in sub-Saharan Africa. However, if improved water management strategy is adopted during rice cultivation, it may help to reduce malaria cases among human population living around rice fields. This study aimed to assess the impact of the different irrigation practices on malaria transmission, as well as to evaluate the water management system that will best mitigate malaria transmission in Malanville, Benin.
Harmful maternal and neonatal health outcomes result from malaria in pregnancy, the prevention of which primarily relies on intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP). WHO recommends IPTp-SP in sub-Saharan Africa, but implementation is highly heterogeneous and often sub-optimal in terms of the number of doses and their timing. In this study, we assessed the impact of this heterogeneity on malaria in pregnancy, mainly with respect to submicroscopic Plasmodium falciparum infections.
Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are largely responsible for the gains made in the proportion of malaria cases confirmed with a parasitological test. However, quality assurance programs to support their use remain a challenge. A dried tube specimen (DTS) method was developed that showed potential for use as a stable source of quality control (QC) sample for RDTs and for use in external quality assessments or proficiency testing (PT). DTS was further assessed with focus on sample stability under field settings in Benin and Liberia.
Neonatal sepsis outreaches all causes of neonatal mortality worldwide and remains a major societal burden in low and middle income countries. In addition to limited resources, endemic morbidities, such as malaria and prematurity, predispose neonates and infants to invasive infection by altering neonatal immune response to pathogens. Nevertheless, thoughtful epidemiological, diagnostic and immunological evaluation of neonatal sepsis and the impact of gestational malaria have never been performed.
New classes of insecticides with novel modes of action, which can provide effective and prolonged control of insecticide-resistant malaria vector populations, are urgently needed for indoor residual spraying. Such insecticides can be included in a rotation plan to manage and prevent further development of resistance in mosquito vectors of malaria. Chlorfenapyr, a novel pyrrole insecticide with a unique mode of action, is being developed as a long-lasting IRS formulation.
Malaria infections in the first trimester of pregnancy are frequent and deleterious for both mother and child health. To investigate if these early infections are newly acquired or already present in the host, we assessed whether parasites detected before pregnancy and those detected in early pregnancy are the same infection.
Malaria during pregnancy is a major cause of maternal morbidity as well as fetal and neonatal mortality. Previous studies including our own suggested that placental and peripheral cytokines and chemokines levels measured at delivery can be used as biomarkers for pregnancy outcomes. However, the timing of malaria infection during pregnancy matters and these studies lack in addressing the effect of different cytokines in peripheral blood plasma samples taken at early- mid-pregnancy and at delivery. Here we aimed to investigate whether peripheral plasma cytokine levels were associated with pregnancy outcomes in a cohort of 400 Beninese pregnant women.
While sub-microscopic malarial infections are frequent and potentially deleterious during pregnancy, routine molecular detection is still not feasible. This study aimed to assess the performance of a Histidine Rich Protein 2 (HRP2)-based ultrasensitive rapid diagnostic test (uRDT, Alere Malaria Ag Pf) for the detection of infections of low parasite density in pregnant women.
The use of agrochemicals in vegetable production could influence the selection for insecticide resistance in malaria vectors. Unfortunately, there is a dearth of information on the potential contribution of agrochemicals to insecticide resistance in Anopheles mosquitoes breeding on vegetable farms in southern Benin.