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Benin

Pre-intervention characteristics of the mosquito species in Benin in preparation for a randomized controlled trial assessing the efficacy of dual active-ingredient long-lasting insecticidal nets for controlling insecticide-resistant malaria vectors

May 25, 2021 - 14:56 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Yovogan B, Sovi A, Akogbéto MC, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2021 May 20;16(5):e0251742

This study provides detailed characteristics of vector populations in preparation for a three-arm cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) aiming to compare the community impact of dual active-ingredient (AI) long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) that combine two novel insecticide classes–chlorfenapyr or pyriproxifen–with alpha-cypermethrin to improve the prevention of malaria transmitted by insecticide-resistant vectors compared to standard pyrethroid LLINs.

Methods

The study was carried out in 60 villages across Cove, Zangnanando and Ouinhi districts, southern Benin. Mosquito collections were performed using human landing catches (HLCs). After morphological identification, a sub-sample of Anopheles gambiae s.l. were dissected for parity, analyzed by PCR for species and presence of L1014F kdr mutation and by ELISA-CSP to identify Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite infection. WHO susceptibility tube tests were performed by exposing adult An. gambiae s.l., collected as larvae from each district, to 0.05% alphacypermethrin, 0.75% permethrin, 0.1% bendiocarb and 0.25% pirimiphos-methyl. Synergist assays were also conducted with exposure first to 4% PBO followed by alpha-cypermethrin.

Human biting rhythm of Anopheles gambiae Giles, 1902 (Diptera: Culicidae) and sleeping behaviour of pregnant women in a lagoon area in Southern Benin

May 25, 2021 - 14:11 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Djènontin A, Bouraima A, Soares C, Egbinola S, Cottrell G
Reference: 
BMC Res Notes. 2021 May 22;14(1):200

In the framework of EVALMOUS study aiming to assess the use and effectiveness of mosquito nets by pregnant women and other members of their household in a lagoon area in southern Benin, the behaviour of pregnant women relative to the time they go to bed using the net were recorded. Malaria vectors biting rhythm, Plasmodium falciparum infection and insecticide resistance genes in malaria vectors were also determined.

Intensity and mechanisms of deltamethrin and permethrin resistance in Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations in southern Benin

April 22, 2021 - 08:50 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sagbohan HW, Kpanou CD, Akogbeto M, et al.
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2021 Apr 14;14(1):202

Insecticide resistance is threatening the effectiveness of efforts to control malaria vectors in Benin. This study explores the levels and mechanisms of insecticide resistance in An. gambiae s.l. to pyrethroids.

NOT Open Access | Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-F and -G gene polymorphisms and haplotypes are associated with malaria susceptibility in the Beninese Toffin children

March 31, 2021 - 14:24 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Sonon P, Tokplonou L, Donadi EA, et al.
Reference: 
Infect Genet Evol. 2021 Mar 26:104828

Little attention has been devoted to the role of the immunoregulatory HLA-E/-F/−G genes in malaria. We evaluated the entire HLA-E/-F/−G variability in Beninese children highly exposed to Plasmodium falciparum (P.f.) malaria.

Assessing the efficacy of two dual-active ingredients long-lasting insecticidal nets for the control of malaria transmitted by pyrethroid-resistant vectors in Benin: study protocol for a three-arm, single-blinded, parallel, cluster-randomized controlled t

February 23, 2021 - 13:08 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Accrombessi M, Cook J, Protopopoff N, et al.
Reference: 
BMC Infect Dis. 2021 Feb 19;21(1):194

Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are currently the primary method of malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa and have contributed to a significant reduction in malaria burden over the past 15 years. However, this progress is threatened by the wide-scale selection of insecticide-resistant malaria vectors. It is, therefore, important to accelerate the generation of evidence for new classes of LLINs.

Low prevalence of highly sulfadoxine‐resistant dihydropteroate synthase alleles in Plasmodium falciparum isolates in Benin

February 8, 2021 - 10:52 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Samaly Souza Svigel, Adicath Adeothy, Naomi W. Lucchi, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:72, 5 February 2021

In 2004, in response to high levels of treatment failure associated with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) resistance, Benin changed its first-line malaria treatment from SP to artemisinin-based combination therapy for treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Resistance to SP is conferred by accumulation of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in P. falciparum genes involved in folate metabolism, dihydrofolate reductase (Pfdhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (Pfdhps), targeted by pyrimethamine and sulfadoxine, respectively. Because SP is still used for intermittent preventive treatment in pregnant women (IPTp) and seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMCP) in Benin, the prevalence of Pfdhfr and Pfdhps SNPs in P. falciparum isolates collected in 2017 were investigated.

Investigation of DDT resistance mechanisms in Anopheles funestus populations from northern and southern Benin reveals a key role of the GSTe2 gene

December 23, 2020 - 09:53 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Genevieve M. Tchigossou, Seun M. Atoyebi, Romaric Akoton, Eric Tossou, Djegbe Innocent, Jacob Riveron, Helen Irving, Akadiri Yessoufou, Charles Wondji and Rousseau Djouaka
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:456, 17 December 2020

Understanding the molecular basis of insecticide resistance in mosquito, such as Anopheles funestus, is an important step in developing strategies to mitigate the resistance problem. This study aims to assess the role of the GSTe2 gene in DDT resistance and determine the genetic diversity of this gene in An. funestus.

Digitalized mass distribution campaign of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) in the particular context of Covid-19 pandemic in Benin: challenges and lessons learned

November 25, 2020 - 12:47 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Rock Aïkpon, Cyriaque Affoukou, Aurore Ogouyemi Hounto, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:431, 25 November 2020

In 2020, Benin has implemented a digitalized mass distribution campaign of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) in the particular context of COVID-19 pandemic. This paper describes the implementation process as well as the challenges and lessons learned from this campaign.

PfEMP1 A-Type ICAM-1-Binding Domains Are Not Associated with Cerebral Malaria in Beninese Children

November 19, 2020 - 13:47 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Joste V, Guillochon E, Fraering J, Vianou B, Watier L, Jafari-Guemouri S, Cot M, Houzé S, Aubouy A, Faucher JF, Argy N, Bertin GI
Reference: 
mBio. 2020 Nov 17;11(6):e02103-20

PfEMP1 is the major antigen involved in Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocyte sequestration in cerebrovascular endothelium. While some PfEMP1 domains have been associated with clinical phenotypes of malaria, formal associations between the expression of a specific domain and the adhesion properties of clinical isolates are limited. In this context, 73 cerebral malaria (CM) and 98 uncomplicated malaria (UM) Beninese children were recruited. We attempted to correlate the cytoadherence phenotype of Plasmodium falciparum isolates with the clinical presentation and the expression of specific PfEMP1 domains.

Not Open Access | Phenotypic Insecticide Resistance in Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae): Specific Characterization of Underlying Resistance Mechanisms Still Matters

October 13, 2020 - 12:56 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Medjigbodo AA, Djogbenou LS, Koumba AA, Djossou L, Badolo A, Adoha CJ, Ketoh GK, Mavoungou JF
Reference: 
J Med Entomol. 2020 Oct 12:tjaa195

An effective control of malaria vectors requires an extensive knowledge of mechanisms underlying the resistance-phenotypes developed by these vectors against insecticides. We investigated Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes from Benin and Togo for their intensity of insecticide resistance and we discussed the involvement of genotyped mechanisms in the resistance-phenotypes observed.

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