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Toward the Definition of Efficacy and Safety Criteria for Advancing Gene Drive-Modified Mosquitoes to Field Testing

March 17, 2020 - 15:16 -- Open Access
James SL, Marshall JM, Christophides GK, Okumu FO, Nolan T
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2020 Mar 9

Mosquitoes containing gene drive systems are being developed as complementary tools to prevent transmission of malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases. As with any new tool, decision makers and other stakeholders will need to balance risks (safety) and benefits (efficacy) when considering the rationale for testing and deploying gene drive-modified mosquito products. Developers will benefit from standards for judging whether an investigational gene drive product meets acceptability criteria for advancing to field trials.

NOT Open Access | Neotropical Anopheles (Kerteszia) mosquitoes associated with bromeliad-malaria transmission in a changing world

March 2, 2020 - 14:10 -- NOT Open Access
Multini LC, Wilke ABB, Marrelli MT
Acta Tropica, 21 February 2020, 105413

Kerteszia is a neotropical subgenus of Anopheles composed of 12 species. The species in this subgenus are strongly associated with humid forests rich in epiphytic bromeliads. Forest fragmentation and anthropogenic changes can therefore have a negative impact on the abundance and survival of these mosquito species. Within this subgenus, four species are considered primary vectors of malaria: An. cruzii, An. bellator, An. homunculus and An. neivai. Malaria cases associated with Kerteszia species are often referred to as bromeliad malaria, a type of malaria reported to be endemic in the coastal rainforest of the neotropical region since the end of the nineteenth century.

Autogeny in Culiseta longiareolata (Culicidae: Diptera) mosquitoes in laboratory conditions in Iran

February 25, 2020 - 16:06 -- Open Access
Khaligh FG, Naghian A, Soltanbeiglou S, Gholizadeh S
BMC Res Notes. 2020 Feb 19;13(1):81

Culiseta longiareolata is a cosmopolitan species and has implicated in the transmission of avian malaria, tularemia, and arboviruses. Despite the wide distribution of Cs. longiareolata in Iran, little is known about its biology and physiology. The current research was conducted to study the autogeny behavior in this potential vector. During 2018, larvae and pupae were collected from Nazloo region in Urmia City using standard methods. Mosquitoes were reared in cages and fed by 5% sugar in laboratory conditions and were then dissected in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) under a stereo microscope.

Controlling mosquitoes with semiochemicals: a review

February 22, 2020 - 17:20 -- Open Access
Wooding M, Naudé Y, Rohwer E, Bouwer M
Parasites Vectors 2020 Feb 17; 13(1):80

The use of semiochemicals in odour-based traps for surveillance and control of vector mosquitoes is deemed a new and viable component for integrated vector management programmes. Over 114 semiochemicals have been identified, yet implementation of these for management of infectious diseases such as malaria, dengue, chikungunya and Rift Valley fever is still a major challenge. The difficulties arise due to variation in how different mosquito species respond to not only single chemical compounds but also complex chemical blends.

Large-scale field trial of attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB) for the control of malaria vector mosquitoes in Mali, West Africa

February 22, 2020 - 16:19 -- Open Access
Mohamad M. Traore, Amy Junnila, Sekou F. Traore, Seydou Doumbia, Edita E. Revay, Vasiliy D. Kravchenko, Yosef Schlein, Kristopher L. Arheart, Petrányi Gergely, Rui-De Xue, Axel Hausmann, Robert Beck, Alex Prozorov, Rabiatou A. Diarra, Aboubakr S. Kone, Silas Majambere, John Bradley, John Vontas, John C. Beier & Günter C. Müller
Malaria Journal 2020 19:72, 14 February 2020

The aim of this field trial was to evaluate the efficacy of attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB) in Mali, where sustained malaria transmission occurs despite the use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). ATSB bait stations were deployed in seven of 14 similar study villages, where LLINs were already in widespread use. The combined use of ATSB and LLINs was tested to see if it would substantially reduce parasite transmission by Anopheles gambiae sensu lato beyond use of LLINs alone.

NOT Open Access | Efficient Transmission of Mixed Plasmodium falciparum/vivax Infections From Humans to Mosquitoes

January 24, 2020 - 14:42 -- NOT Open Access
Balasubramanian S, Rahman RS, Lon C, Parobek C, Ubalee R, Hathaway N, Kuntawunginn W, My M, Vy D, Saxe J, Lanteri C, Lin FC, Spring M, Meshnick SR, Juliano JJ, Saunders DL, Lin JT
The Journal of Infectious Diseases, Volume 221, Issue 3, 1 February 2020, Pages 428–437

In Southeast Asia, people are often coinfected with different species of malaria (Plasmodium falciparum [Pf] and Plasmodium vivax [Pv]) as well as with multiple clones of the same species. Whether particular species or clones within mixed infections are more readily transmitted to mosquitoes remains unknown.

Inhibition of Plasmepsin V Activity Blocks Plasmodium falciparum Gametocytogenesis and Transmission to Mosquitoes

January 15, 2020 - 09:25 -- Open Access
Jennison C, Lucantoni L, O'Neill MT, McConville R, Erickson SM, Cowman AF, Sleebs BE, Avery VM, Boddey JA
Cell Reports Volume 29, ISSUE 12, P 3796-3806.e4 December 17, 2019

Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes infect mosquitoes and are responsible for malaria transmission. New interventions that block transmission could accelerate malaria elimination. Gametocytes develop within erythrocytes and activate protein export pathways that remodel the host cell. Plasmepsin V (PMV) is an aspartyl protease that is required for protein export in asexual parasites, but its function and essentiality in gametocytes has not been definitively proven, nor has PMV been assessed as a transmission-blocking drug target.

Hold your breath - Differential behavioral and sensory acuity of mosquitoes to acetone and carbon dioxide

January 15, 2020 - 07:44 -- Open Access
Ghaninia M, Majeed S, Dekker T, Hill SR, Ignell R
PLoS ONE 14(12): e0226815

Host seeking in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, and the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles coluzzii, relies on specific and generic host-derived odorants. Previous analyses indicate that the behavioral response of these species depends differentially on the presence of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other constituents in human breath for activation and attraction.

Excito-repellency Activity of Andrographis paniculata (Lamiales: Acanthaceae) Against Colonized Mosquitoes

January 14, 2020 - 09:30 -- Open Access
Sukkanon C, Karpkird T, Saeung M, Leepasert T, Panthawong A, Suwonkerd W, Bangs MJ, Chareonviriyaphap T
Journal of Medical Entomology, Volume 57, Issue 1, January 2020, Pages 192–203

Excito-repellency activity of plant extracts have been increasingly studied as mosquito repellents. In this study, the crude extract of Andrographis paniculata was evaluated for its noncontact repellency, contact excitation (irritancy + repellency), and knockdown/toxicity response against five colonized mosquitoes; Aedes aegypti (L.), Aedes albopictus (Skuse), Anopheles dirus Peyton & Harrison, Anopheles epiroticus Linton & Harbach, and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) using an excito-repellency assay system under laboratory-controlled conditions.

Malaria mosquitoes use leg push-off forces to control body pitch during take-off

January 7, 2020 - 14:06 -- Open Access
Wouter G. van Veen, Johan L. van Leeuwen, Florian T. Muijres
J Exp Zool A Ecol Integr Physiol. 2020 Jan;333(1):38-49

Escaping from a blood host with freshly acquired nutrition for her eggs is one of the most critical actions in the life of a female malaria mosquito. During this take‐off, she has to carry a large payload, up to three times her body weight, while avoiding tactile detection by the host. What separates the malaria mosquito from most other insects is that the mosquito pushes off gently with its legs while producing aerodynamic forces with its wings. Apart from generating the required forces, the malaria mosquito has to produce the correct torques to pitch‐up during take‐off.


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