Regulatory genes are often multifunctional and constrained, which results in evolutionary conservation. It is difficult to understand how a regulatory gene could be lost from one species' genome when it is essential for viability in closely related species. The gene paired is a classic Drosophila pair-rule gene, required for formation of alternate body segments in diverse insect species.
The transitions between developmental stages are critical points in the Plasmodium life cycle. The development of Plasmodium in the livers of their mammalian hosts bridges malaria transmission and the onset of clinical symptoms elicited by red blood cell infection. The egress of Plasmodium parasites from the liver must be a carefully orchestrated process to ensure a successful switch to the blood stage of infection.
Plasmodium knowlesi is a significant cause of human malaria in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. Only one study has been previously undertaken in Sarawak to identify vectors of P. knowlesi, where Anopheles latens was incriminated as the vector in Kapit, central Sarawak. A study was therefore undertaken to identify malaria vectors in a different location in Sarawak.
Passage of malaria parasites through mosquitoes involves multiple developmental transitions, from gametocytes that are ingested with the blood meal, through to sporozoites that are transmitted by insect bite to the host. During the transformation from gametocyte to oocyst, the parasite forms a unique transient organelle named the crystalloid, which is involved in sporozoite formation. In Plasmodium berghei, a complex of six LCCL domain-containing proteins (LAPs) reside in the crystalloid and are required for its biogenesis.
Mosquito borne diseases are a group of infections that affect humans. Emerging or reemerging diseases are those that (re)occur in regions, groups or hosts that were previously free from these diseases: dengue virus; chikungunya virus; Zika virus; West Nile fever and malaria. In Europe, these infections are mostly imported; however, due to the presence of competent mosquitoes and the number of trips both to and from endemic areas, these pathogens are potentially emergent or re-emergent.
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Standard and direct membrane-feeding assays (SMFA and DMFA) are fundamental assays to evaluate efficacy of transmission-blocking intervention (TBI) candidates against Plasmodium falciparum and vivax. To compare different candidates precisely, it is crucial to understand the error range of measured activity, usually expressed as percent inhibition in either oocyst intensity (% transmission reducing activity, %TRA), or in prevalence of infected mosquitoes (% transmission blocking activity, %TBA).
Bed nets are the commonest malaria prevention tool and arguably the most cost-effective. Their efficacy is because they prevent mosquito bites (a function of physical durability and integrity), and kill mosquitoes (a function of chemical content and mosquito susceptibility). This essay follows the story of bed nets, insecticides and malaria control, and asks whether the nets must always have insecticides.
Mosquitoes are the main vector of multiple diseases worldwide and transmit viral (malaria, chikungunya, encephalitis, yellow fever, as well as dengue fever), as well as bacterial diseases (tularemia). To manage the outbreak of mosquito populations, various management programs include the application of chemicals, followed by biological and genetic control.
Our current knowledge of the clinical burden, biology, and transmission of Plasmodium malariae is extremely scarce. To start addressing some of those questions, we experimentally infected Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes with fresh P. malariae isolates obtained from asymptomatic individuals in Lambaréné, Gabon.