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mosquitoes

Assessing the impact of low-technology emanators alongside long-lasting insecticidal nets to control malaria

December 29, 2020 - 15:23 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Hellewell J, Sherrard-Smith E, Ogoma S, Churcher TS
Reference: 
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2021 Feb 15;376(1818):20190817

Malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa relies on the widespread use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) or the indoor residual spraying of insecticide. Disease transmission may be maintained even when these indoor interventions are universally used as some mosquitoes will bite in the early morning and evening when people are outside. As countries seek to eliminate malaria, they can target outdoor biting using new vector control tools such as spatial repellent emanators, which emit airborne insecticide to form a protective area around the user.

NOT Open Access | A conserved malaria parasite antigen Pb22 plays a critical role in male gametogenesis in Plasmodium berghei

November 25, 2020 - 11:54 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Liu F, Yang F, Wang Y, Hong M, Zheng W, Min H, Li D, Jin Y, Tsuboi T, Cui L, Cao Y
Reference: 
Cell Microbiol. 2020 Nov 22:e13294

Gametogenesis, the formation of gametes from gametocytes, an essential step for malaria parasite transmission, is targeted by transmission-blocking drugs and vaccines. We identified a conserved protein (PBANKA_0305900) in Plasmodium berghei, which encodes a protein of 22 kDa (thus named Pb22) and is expressed in both asexual stages and gametocytes. Its homologs are present in all Plasmodium species and its closely related Hepatocystis, but not in other apicomplexans. Pb22 protein was localized in the cytosols of schizonts, as well as male and female gametocytes.

Transmission of artemisinin-resistant malaria parasites to mosquitoes under antimalarial drug pressure

November 4, 2020 - 14:46 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Witmer K, Dahalan FA, Baum J, et al.
Reference: 
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2020 Nov 2:AAC.00898-20

Resistance to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in the Plasmodium falciparum parasite is threatening to reverse recent gains in reducing global deaths from malaria. Whilst resistance manifests as delayed parasite clearance in patients the phenotype can only spread geographically via the sexual stages and mosquito transmission. In addition to their asexual killing properties, artemisinin and its derivatives sterilise sexual male gametocytes.

The role of improved housing and living environments in malaria control and elimination

November 4, 2020 - 09:56 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Richard Carter and Nadira D. Karunaweera
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:385, 31 October 2020

Malaria risk and endemicity is often associated with the nature of human habitation and living environment. The disappearance of malaria from regions where it had been endemic for centuries, such as coastal areas of southern England, has been attributed, at least in part, to improvement in the quality of housing. Moreover, indigenous malaria transmission ceased throughout England without the necessity to eliminate the vector mosquitoes.

Impact of outdoor residual spraying on the biting rate of malaria vectors: A pilot study in four villages in Kayin state, Myanmar

November 3, 2020 - 15:29 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Chaumeau V, Kajeechiwa L, Nosten F, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2020 Oct 29;15(10):e0240598

Outdoor and early mosquito biters challenge the efficacy of bed-nets and indoor residual spraying on the Thailand-Myanmar border. Outdoor residual spraying is proposed for the control of exophilic mosquito species. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of outdoor residual spraying on the biting rate of malaria vectors in Kayin state, Myanmar. Outdoor residual spraying using lambda-cyhalothrin was carried out in two villages in December 2016 (beginning of the dry season) and two villages were used as a control.

NOT Open Access | Antibody Therapy Goes to Insects: Monoclonal Antibodies Can Block Plasmodium Transmission to Mosquitoes

November 3, 2020 - 14:40 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Coelho CH, Jore MM, Canepa GE, Barillas-Mury C, Bousema T, Duffy PE
Reference: 
Trends Parasitol. 2020 Nov;36(11):880-883

Malaria eradication is a global priority but requires innovative strategies.

NOT Open Access | Field Evaluation of a Spatial Repellent Emanation Vest for Personal Protection Against Outdoor Biting Mosquitoes

October 21, 2020 - 09:36 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Sukkanon C, Tisgratog R, Muenworn V, Bangs MJ, Hii J, Chareonviriyaphap T
Reference: 
J Med Entomol. 2020 Oct 20:tjaa213

Exophilic vectors are an important contributor to residual malaria transmission. Wearable spatial repellents (SR) can potentially provide personal protection in early evening hours before people retire indoors. An SR prototype for passive delivery of transfluthrin (TFT) for protecting humans against nocturnal mosquitoes in Kanchanaburi, western Thailand, is evaluated. A plastic polyethylene terephthalate (PET) sheet (676 cm2) treated with 55-mg TFT (TFT-PET), attached to the back of short-sleeve vest worn by human collector, was evaluated under semifield and outdoor conditions.

Lure, retain, and catch malaria mosquitoes. How heat and humidity improve odour-baited trap performance

October 8, 2020 - 08:10 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Antoine Cribellier, Jeroen Spitzen, Henry Fairbairn, Cedric van de Geer, Johan L. van Leeuwen and Florian T. Muijres
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:357, 7 October 2020

When seeking a human for a blood meal, mosquitoes use several cues to detect and find their hosts. From this knowledge, counter-flow odour-baited traps have been developed that use a combination of CO2, human-mimicking odour, visual cues and circulating airflow to attract and capture mosquitoes. Initially developed for monitoring, these traps are now also being considered as promising vector control tools. The traps are attractive to host-seeking mosquitoes, but their capture efficiency is low. It has been hypothesized that the lack of short-range host cues, such as heat and increased local humidity, often prevent mosquitoes from getting close enough to get caught; this lack might even trigger avoidance manoeuvres near the capture region.

Regulatory gene function handoff allows essential gene loss in mosquitoes

October 1, 2020 - 16:02 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Cheatle Jarvela AM, Trelstad CS, Pick L
Reference: 
Commun Biol. 2020 Sep 30;3(1):540

Regulatory genes are often multifunctional and constrained, which results in evolutionary conservation. It is difficult to understand how a regulatory gene could be lost from one species' genome when it is essential for viability in closely related species. The gene paired is a classic Drosophila pair-rule gene, required for formation of alternate body segments in diverse insect species.

A Plasmodium cysteine protease required for efficient transition from the liver infection stage

September 23, 2020 - 08:55 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Putrianti ED, Schmidt-Christensen A, Heussler V, Matuschewski K, Ingmundson A
Reference: 
PLoS Pathog. 2020 Sep 21;16(9):e1008891

The transitions between developmental stages are critical points in the Plasmodium life cycle. The development of Plasmodium in the livers of their mammalian hosts bridges malaria transmission and the onset of clinical symptoms elicited by red blood cell infection. The egress of Plasmodium parasites from the liver must be a carefully orchestrated process to ensure a successful switch to the blood stage of infection.

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