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mosquitoes

Testing Mosquitoes for Student Inquiry: Husbandry Lessons in the Lab

April 1, 2021 - 09:14 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Erica Kosal, Beverly I. Anaele
Reference: 
The American Biology Teacher (2021) 83 (3): 180–184.

Because mosquitoes are a public health concern, several chemical insect repellents have been created and used for many years. While some of these products, such as DEET and permethrin, are effective at controlling mosquito populations, their excessive use may lead to animal, human, and environmental harm if applied improperly. Understanding the life cycles of mosquitoes, their feeding preferences, and their responses to natural plant extracts could enable scientists to develop more environmentally safe but still effective insect repellents.

Sub-lethal aquatic doses of pyriproxyfen may increase pyrethroid resistance in malaria mosquitoes

March 23, 2021 - 14:40 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Opiyo MA, Ngowo HS, Mapua SA, Mpingwa M, Nchimbi N, Matowo NS, Majambere S, Okumu FO
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2021 Mar 18;16(3):e0248538

Pyriproxyfen (PPF), an insect growth hormone mimic is widely used as a larvicide and in some second-generation bed nets, where it is combined with pyrethroids to improve impact. It has also been evaluated as a candidate for auto-dissemination by adult mosquitoes to control Aedes and Anopheles species. We examined whether PPF added to larval habitats of pyrethroid-resistant malaria vectors can modulate levels of resistance among emergent adult mosquitoes.

Mosquitoes of the Maculipennis complex in Northern Italy

March 23, 2021 - 14:32 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Calzolari M, Desiato R, Montarsi F, et al.
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2021 Mar 19;11(1):6421

The correct identification of mosquito vectors is often hampered by the presence of morphologically indiscernible sibling species. The Maculipennis complex is one of these groups that include both malaria vectors of primary importance and species of low/negligible epidemiological relevance, of which distribution data in Italy are outdated. Our study was aimed at providing an updated distribution of Maculipennis complex in Northern Italy through the sampling and morphological/molecular identification of specimens from five regions.

Ugandan stakeholder hopes and concerns about gene drive mosquitoes for malaria control: new directions for gene drive risk governance

March 18, 2021 - 09:21 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sarah Hartley, Robert D. J. Smith, Adam Kokotovich, Chris Opesen, Tibebu Habtewold, Katie Ledingham, Ben Raymond and Charles B. Rwabukwali
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:149, 16 March 2021

The African Union’s High-Level Panel on Emerging Technologies identified gene drive mosquitoes as a priority technology for malaria elimination. The first field trials are expected in 5–10 years in Uganda, Mali or Burkina Faso. In preparation, regional and international actors are developing risk governance guidelines which will delineate the framework for identifying and evaluating risks. Scientists and bioethicists have called for African stakeholder involvement in these developments, arguing the knowledge and perspectives of those people living in malaria-afflicted countries is currently missing. However, few African stakeholders have been involved to date, leaving a knowledge gap about the local social-cultural as well as ecological context in which gene drive mosquitoes will be tested and deployed. This study investigates and analyses Ugandan stakeholders’ hopes and concerns about gene drive mosquitoes for malaria control and explores the new directions needed for risk governance.

Preliminary review on the prevalence, proportion, geographical distribution, and characteristics of naturally acquired Plasmodium cynomolgi infection in mosquitoes, macaques, and humans: a systematic review and meta-analysis

March 17, 2021 - 17:21 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kotepui M, Masangkay FR, Kotepui KU, Milanez GJ
Reference: 
BMC Infect Dis. 2021 Mar 12;21(1):259

Plasmodium cynomolgi is a simian malaria parasite that has been reported as a naturally acquired human infection. The present study aims to systematically review reports on naturally acquired P. cynomolgi in humans, mosquitoes, and macaques to provide relevant data for pre-emptive surveillance and preparation in the event of an outbreak of zoonotic malaria in Southeast Asia.

Impact and cost-effectiveness of a lethal house lure against malaria transmission in central Cote d'Ivoire: a two-arm, cluster-randomised controlled trial

March 2, 2021 - 15:12 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sternberg ED, Cook J, Thomas MB, et al.
Reference: 
Lancet. 2021 Feb 27;397(10276):805-815

New vector control tools are required to sustain the fight against malaria. Lethal house lures, which target mosquitoes as they attempt to enter houses to blood feed, are one approach. Here we evaluated lethal house lures consisting of In2Care (Wageningen, Netherlands) Eave Tubes, which provide point-source insecticide treatments against host-seeking mosquitoes, in combination with house screening, which aims to reduce mosquito entry.

Safety and feasibility of apheresis to harvest and concentrate parasites from subjects with induced blood stage Plasmodium vivax infection

January 20, 2021 - 08:23 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Anand Odedra, Kari Mudie, Fiona Amante, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:43, 14 January 2021

In the absence of a method to culture Plasmodium vivax, the only way to source parasites is ex vivo. This hampers many aspects of P. vivax research. This study aimed to assess the safety of apheresis, a method for selective removal of specific components of blood as a means of extracting and concentrating P. vivax parasites.

Behavioral response of insecticide-resistant mosquitoes against spatial repellent: A modified self-propelled particle model simulation

January 1, 2021 - 16:06 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Zhou G, Yu L, Wang X, Zhong D, Lee MC, Kibret S, Yan G
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2020 Dec 29;15(12):e0244447

Rapidly increasing pyrethroid insecticide resistance and changes in vector biting and resting behavior pose serious challenges in malaria control. Mosquito repellents, especially spatial repellents, have received much attention from industry. We attempted to simulate interactions between mosquitoes and repellents using a machine learning method, the Self-Propelled Particle (SPP) model, which we modified to include attractiveness/repellency effects. We simulated a random walk scenario and scenarios with insecticide susceptible/resistant mosquitoes against repellent alone and against repellent plus attractant (to mimic a human host).

Control of malaria-transmitting mosquitoes using gene drives

December 30, 2020 - 13:35 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Nolan T
Reference: 
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2021 Feb 15;376(1818):20190803

Gene drives are selfish genetic elements that can be re-designed to invade a population and they hold tremendous potential for the control of mosquitoes that transmit disease. Much progress has been made recently in demonstrating proof of principle for gene drives able to suppress populations of malarial mosquitoes, or to make them refractory to the Plasmodium parasites they transmit.

Assessing the impact of low-technology emanators alongside long-lasting insecticidal nets to control malaria

December 29, 2020 - 15:23 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Hellewell J, Sherrard-Smith E, Ogoma S, Churcher TS
Reference: 
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2021 Feb 15;376(1818):20190817

Malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa relies on the widespread use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) or the indoor residual spraying of insecticide. Disease transmission may be maintained even when these indoor interventions are universally used as some mosquitoes will bite in the early morning and evening when people are outside. As countries seek to eliminate malaria, they can target outdoor biting using new vector control tools such as spatial repellent emanators, which emit airborne insecticide to form a protective area around the user.

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