When there is significant uncertainty in an innovation project, research literature suggests that strictly sequencing actions and stages may not be an appropriate mode of project management. We use a longitudinal process approach and qualitative system dynamics modelling to study the development of genetically modified (GM) mosquitoes for malaria eradication in an African country.
The species-specific mode of action for DEET and many other mosquito repellents is often unclear. Confusion may arise for many reasons. First, the response of a single mosquito species is often used to represent all mosquito species. Second, behavioural studies usually test the effect of repellents on mosquito attraction towards human odorants, rather than their direct repulsive effect on mosquitoes. Third, the mosquito sensory neuron responses towards repellents are often not directly examined.
Mosquitoes containing gene drive systems are being developed as complementary tools to prevent transmission of malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases. As with any new tool, decision makers and other stakeholders will need to balance risks (safety) and benefits (efficacy) when considering the rationale for testing and deploying gene drive-modified mosquito products. Developers will benefit from standards for judging whether an investigational gene drive product meets acceptability criteria for advancing to field trials.
Kerteszia is a neotropical subgenus of Anopheles composed of 12 species. The species in this subgenus are strongly associated with humid forests rich in epiphytic bromeliads. Forest fragmentation and anthropogenic changes can therefore have a negative impact on the abundance and survival of these mosquito species. Within this subgenus, four species are considered primary vectors of malaria: An. cruzii, An. bellator, An. homunculus and An. neivai. Malaria cases associated with Kerteszia species are often referred to as bromeliad malaria, a type of malaria reported to be endemic in the coastal rainforest of the neotropical region since the end of the nineteenth century.
Culiseta longiareolata is a cosmopolitan species and has implicated in the transmission of avian malaria, tularemia, and arboviruses. Despite the wide distribution of Cs. longiareolata in Iran, little is known about its biology and physiology. The current research was conducted to study the autogeny behavior in this potential vector. During 2018, larvae and pupae were collected from Nazloo region in Urmia City using standard methods. Mosquitoes were reared in cages and fed by 5% sugar in laboratory conditions and were then dissected in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) under a stereo microscope.
The use of semiochemicals in odour-based traps for surveillance and control of vector mosquitoes is deemed a new and viable component for integrated vector management programmes. Over 114 semiochemicals have been identified, yet implementation of these for management of infectious diseases such as malaria, dengue, chikungunya and Rift Valley fever is still a major challenge. The difficulties arise due to variation in how different mosquito species respond to not only single chemical compounds but also complex chemical blends.
The aim of this field trial was to evaluate the efficacy of attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB) in Mali, where sustained malaria transmission occurs despite the use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). ATSB bait stations were deployed in seven of 14 similar study villages, where LLINs were already in widespread use. The combined use of ATSB and LLINs was tested to see if it would substantially reduce parasite transmission by Anopheles gambiae sensu lato beyond use of LLINs alone.
In Southeast Asia, people are often coinfected with different species of malaria (Plasmodium falciparum [Pf] and Plasmodium vivax [Pv]) as well as with multiple clones of the same species. Whether particular species or clones within mixed infections are more readily transmitted to mosquitoes remains unknown.
Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes infect mosquitoes and are responsible for malaria transmission. New interventions that block transmission could accelerate malaria elimination. Gametocytes develop within erythrocytes and activate protein export pathways that remodel the host cell. Plasmepsin V (PMV) is an aspartyl protease that is required for protein export in asexual parasites, but its function and essentiality in gametocytes has not been definitively proven, nor has PMV been assessed as a transmission-blocking drug target.
Host seeking in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, and the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles coluzzii, relies on specific and generic host-derived odorants. Previous analyses indicate that the behavioral response of these species depends differentially on the presence of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other constituents in human breath for activation and attraction.