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plasmodium

Spatio-temporal associations between deforestation and malaria incidence in Lao PDR

March 13, 2021 - 16:33 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Rerolle F, Dantzer E, Lover AA, Marshall JM, Hongvanthong B, Sturrock HJ, Bennett A
Reference: 
Elife. 2021 Mar 9;10:e56974

As countries in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) increasingly focus their malaria control and elimination efforts on reducing forest-related transmission, greater understanding of the relationship between deforestation and malaria incidence will be essential for programs to assess and meet their 2030 elimination goals. Leveraging village-level health facility surveillance data and forest cover data in a spatio-temporal modeling framework, we found evidence that deforestation is associated with short-term increases, but long-term decreases in confirmed malaria case incidence in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR).

Molecular and morphological identification of suspected Plasmodium vivax vectors in Central and Eastern Sudan

March 10, 2021 - 14:49 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Omnia Fathelrhman Abdelwhab, Arwa Elaagip, Musab M. Albsheer, Ayman Ahmed, Giacomo Maria Paganotti and Muzamil Mahdi Abdel Hamid
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:132, 4 March 2021

In spite of the global effort to eliminate malaria, it remains the most significant vector-borne disease of humans. Plasmodium falciparum is the dominant malaria parasite in sub-Saharan Africa. However, Plasmodium vivax is becoming widely spread throughout Africa. The overuse of vector control methods has resulted in a remarkable change in the behaviour of mosquito that feeds on human as well as on vector composition. The aim of this study was to identify Anopheles mosquito species in vivax malaria endemic regions and to investigate their role in P. vivax circumsporozoite protein (Pvcsp) allele diversity.

Malaria parasites differentially sense environmental elasticity during transmission

March 10, 2021 - 13:24 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ripp J, Kehrer J, Smyrnakou X, Tisch N, Tavares J, Amino R, Ruiz de Almodovar C, Frischknecht F
Reference: 
EMBO Mol Med. 2021 Mar 5:e13933

Transmission of malaria-causing parasites to and by the mosquito relies on active parasite migration and constitutes bottlenecks in the Plasmodium life cycle. Parasite adaption to the biochemically and physically different environments must hence be a key evolutionary driver for transmission efficiency. To probe how subtle but physiologically relevant changes in environmental elasticity impact parasite migration, we introduce 2D and 3D polyacrylamide gels to study ookinetes, the parasite forms emigrating from the mosquito blood meal and sporozoites, the forms transmitted to the vertebrate host.

Plasmodium transcription repressor AP2-O3 regulates sex-specific identity of gene expression in female gametocytes

March 9, 2021 - 15:44 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Li Z, Cui H, Guan J, Liu C, Yang Z, Yuan J
Reference: 
EMBO Rep. 2021 Mar 4:e51660

Male and female gametocytes are sexual precursor cells essential for mosquito transmission of malaria parasite. Differentiation of gametocytes into fertile gametes (known as gametogenesis) relies on the gender-specific transcription program. How the parasites establish distinct repertoires of transcription in the male and female gametocytes remains largely unknown.

Hemozoin in Malarial Complications: More Questions Than Answers

March 3, 2021 - 16:38 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Pham TT, Lamb TJ, Deroost K, Opdenakker G, Van den Steen PE
Reference: 
Trends Parasitol. 2021 Mar;37(3):226-239

Plasmodium parasites contain various virulence factors that modulate the host immune response. Malarial pigment, or hemozoin (Hz), is an undegradable crystalline product of the hemoglobin degradation pathway in the parasite and possesses immunomodulatory properties.

Mentorship on malaria microscopy diagnostic service in Ethiopia: baseline competency of microscopists and performance of health facilities

March 3, 2021 - 15:35 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Bokretsion Gidey, Desalegn Nega, Ebba Abate, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:115, February 2021

In Ethiopia, malaria cases are declining as a result of proven interventions, and in 2017 the country launched a malaria elimination strategy in targeted settings. Accurate malaria diagnosis and prompt treatment are the key components of the strategy to prevent morbidity and stop the continuation of transmission. However, the quality of microscopic diagnosis in general is deteriorating as malaria burden declines. This study was carried out to evaluate the competency of microscopists and the performance of health facilities on malaria microscopic diagnosis.

NOT Open Access | Understanding Host-Pathogen-Vector Interactions with Chronic Asymptomatic Malaria Infections

March 2, 2021 - 15:37 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Nyarko PB, Claessens A
Reference: 
Trends Parasitol. 2021 Mar;37(3):195-204

The last malaria parasite standing will display effective adaptations to selective forces. While substantial progress has been made in reducing malaria mortality, eradication will require elimination of all Plasmodium parasites, including those in asymptomatic infections. These typically chronic, low-density infections are difficult to detect, yet can persist for months.

NOT Open Access | Choline and PEG dually modified artemether nano delivery system targeting intra-erythrocytic Plasmodium and its pharmacodynamics in vivo

March 2, 2021 - 15:17 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Wang R, Shi G, Chai L, Wang R, Zhang G, Ren G, Zhang S
Reference: 
Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 2021 Mar 1:1-11

The choline derivative (CD) and polyethylene-glycol (PEG) dually modified artemether (ARM) nanostructured lipid carriers (CD-PEG-ARM-NLC) have been designed to prolong the circulation of ARM in blood, as well as to develop targeting for new permeability pathways (NPPs) and erythrocyte choline carriers (ECCs) that are expressed on the Plasmodium-infected erythrocyte membrane.

NOT Open Access | Comparison of polymerase chain reaction, microscopy, and rapid diagnostic test in malaria detection in a high burden state (Odisha) of India

March 2, 2021 - 15:10 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Ahmad A, Soni P, Kumar L, Singh MP, Verma AK, Sharma A, Das A, Bharti PK
Reference: 
Pathog Glob Health. 2021 Feb 26:1-6

Precise identification of Plasmodium species is critical in malaria control and elimination. Despite several shortcomings, microscopy and rapid diagnostic test (RDT) continue to be the leading diagnostic methods. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is the most sensitive method but its dependency on advanced laboratory and skilled workers limits its use.

Polyparasitism with Schistosoma haematobium, Plasmodium and soil-transmitted helminths in school-aged children in Muyuka-Cameroon following implementation of control measures: a cross sectional study

February 25, 2021 - 10:05 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sumbele IUN, Otia OV, Bopda OSM, Ebai CB, Kimbi HK, Nkuo-Akenji T
Reference: 
Infect Dis Poverty. 2021 Feb 17;10(1):14

Despite the ubiquity of polyparasitism, its health impacts have been inadequately studied. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and determinants of polyparasitism with Schistosoma haematobium, Plasmodium and soil-transmitted helminths (STH) following sustained control measures, as well as evaluate the outcomes and clinical correlates of infection in school-aged children (SAC) living in the schistosomiasis endemic focus of Muyuka-Cameroon.

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