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Diversity, distribution, and drivers of polychromophilus infection in Malagasy bats

March 24, 2021 - 14:29 -- Open Access
Mercia Rasoanoro, Steven M. Goodman, Milijaona Randrianarivelojosia, Mbola Rakotondratsimba, Koussay Dellagi, Pablo Tortosa and Beza Ramasindrazana
Malaria Journal 2021 20:157, 20 March 2021

Numerous studies have been undertaken to advance knowledge of apicomplexan parasites infecting vertebrates, including humans. Of these parasites, the genus Plasmodium has been most extensively studied because of the socio-economic and public health impacts of malaria. In non-human vertebrates, studies on malaria or malaria-like parasite groups have been conducted but information is far from complete. In Madagascar, recent studies on bat blood parasites indicate that three chiropteran families (Miniopteridae, Rhinonycteridae, and Vespertilionidae) are infected by the genus Polychromophilus with pronounced host specificity: Miniopterus spp. (Miniopteridae) harbour Polychromophilus melanipherus and Myotis goudoti (Vespertilionidae) is infected by Polychromophilus murinus. However, most of the individuals analysed in previous studies were sampled on the western and central portions of the island. The aims of this study are (1) to add new information on bat blood parasites in eastern Madagascar, and (2) to highlight biotic and abiotic variables driving prevalence across the island.

NOT Open Access | Differential diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in mixed infection by colorimetric nanogold probes

March 24, 2021 - 14:18 -- NOT Open Access
Wangmaung N, Chomean S, Ittarat W
Anal Biochem. 2021 Mar 20:114173

Malaria is an infectious disease reported mostly in the tropical region. The most severe human malaria is Plasmodium falciparum since it can cause cerebral malaria. Therefore, the presence of P.falciparum either in single or mixed infection needs accurate diagnosis. In some mixed infections, the presence of P.falciparum may be cryptic which cannot be detected by microscopic examination.

Comparison of Plasmodium ovale curtisi and Plasmodium ovale wallikeri infections by a meta-analysis approach

March 24, 2021 - 14:16 -- Open Access
Mahittikorn A, Masangkay FR, Kotepui KU, Milanez GJ, Kotepui M
Sci Rep. 2021 Mar 19;11(1):6409

Malaria caused by Plasmodium ovale species is considered a neglected tropical disease with limited information about its characteristics. It also remains unclear whether the two distinct species P. ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri exhibit differences in their prevalence, geographic distribution, clinical characteristics, or laboratory parameters. Therefore, this study was conducted to clarify these differences to support global malaria control and eradication programs. Studies reporting the occurrence of P. ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri were explored in databases.

Malaria Surveillance - United States, 2017

March 23, 2021 - 14:54 -- Open Access
Mace KE, Lucchi NW, Tan KR
MMWR Surveill Summ. 2021 Mar 19;70(2):1-35

Malaria in humans is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. These parasites are transmitted by the bite of an infective female Anopheles species mosquito. The majority of malaria infections in the United States occur among persons who have traveled to regions with ongoing malaria transmission. However, malaria is occasionally acquired by persons who have not traveled out of the country through exposure to infected blood products, congenital transmission, nosocomial exposure, or local mosquitoborne transmission. Malaria surveillance in the United States is conducted to provide information on its occurrence (e.g., temporal, geographic, and demographic), guide prevention and treatment recommendations for travelers and patients, and facilitate rapid transmission control measures if locally acquired cases are identified.

Malaria transmission in landscapes with varying deforestation levels and timelines in the Amazon: a longitudinal spatiotemporal study

March 23, 2021 - 14:45 -- Open Access
Laporta GZ, Ilacqua RC, Sallum MAM, et al.
Sci Rep. 2021 Mar 19;11(1):6477

The relationship between deforestation and malaria is a spatiotemporal process of variation in Plasmodium incidence in human-dominated Amazonian rural environments. The present study aimed to assess the underlying mechanisms of malarial exposure risk at a fine scale in 5-km2 sites across the Brazilian Amazon, using field-collected data with a longitudinal spatiotemporally structured approach.

NOT Open Access | Fifty years after the eradication of Malaria in Italy.The long pathway toward this great goal and the current health risks of imported malaria

March 23, 2021 - 14:37 -- NOT Open Access
Martini M, Angheben A, Riccardi N, Orsini D
Pathog Glob Health. 2021 Mar 18:1-9

Fifty years ago, Italy was declared a malaria-free country by the World Health Organization (WHO). In remembering this important anniversary, the authors of this paper describe the long journey that led to this goal. In the century following the unification of Italy, malaria was one of the main public health problems. At the end of the 19th century, malaria cases amounted to 2 million, with 15,000-20,000 deaths per year.

NOT Open Access | Loss of forest cover and host functional diversity increases prevalence of avian malaria parasites in the Atlantic Forest

March 17, 2021 - 17:12 -- NOT Open Access
Fecchio A, Lima MR, De La Torre GM, et al.
Int J Parasitol. 2021 Mar 12:S0020-7519(21)00093-X

Host phylogenetic relatedness and ecological similarity are thought to contribute to parasite community assembly and infection rates. However, recent landscape level anthropogenic changes may disrupt host-parasite systems by impacting functional and phylogenetic diversity of host communities. We examined whether changes in host functional and phylogenetic diversity, forest cover, and minimum temperature influence the prevalence, diversity, and distributions of avian haemosporidian parasites (genera Haemoproteus and Plasmodium) across 18 avian communities in the Atlantic Forest.

NOT Open Access | Molecular Identification and Characterization of Plasmodium ovale curtisi in Field Isolates from Symptomatic Children in North-Central Nigeria

March 17, 2021 - 17:10 -- NOT Open Access
Oyedeji SI, Awobode HO, Ojurongbe O, Anumudu C, Bassi PU
Acta Parasitol. 2021 Mar 12

Plasmodium ovale is not usually the focus of most malaria research or intervention programmes and has lately been termed the neglected human malaria parasites. The parasite exists as two genetically distinct sympatric species namely P. ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri but information on the distribution of P. ovale sub-species is lacking in Nigeria. The objective of this study, therefore, was aimed at characterizing the P. ovale sub-species in isolates from symptomatic individuals in North-central Nigeria.

Expansion microscopy provides new insights into the cytoskeleton of malaria parasites including the conservation of a conoid

March 17, 2021 - 09:14 -- Open Access
Bertiaux E, Balestra AC, Bournonville L, Louvel V, Maco B, Soldati-Favre D, Brochet M, Guichard P, Hamel V
PLoS Biol. 2021 Mar 11;19(3):e3001020

Malaria is caused by unicellular Plasmodium parasites. Plasmodium relies on diverse microtubule cytoskeletal structures for its reproduction, multiplication, and dissemination. Due to the small size of this parasite, its cytoskeleton has been primarily observable by electron microscopy (EM). Here, we demonstrate that the nanoscale cytoskeleton organisation is within reach using ultrastructure expansion microscopy (U-ExM).

NOT Open Access | Malaria parasite egress at a glance

March 13, 2021 - 17:04 -- NOT Open Access
Tan MSY, Blackman MJ
J Cell Sci. 2021 Mar 8;134(5):jcs257345

All intracellular pathogens must escape (egress) from the confines of their host cell to disseminate and proliferate. The malaria parasite only replicates in an intracellular vacuole or in a cyst, and must undergo egress at four distinct phases during its complex life cycle, each time disrupting, in a highly regulated manner, the membranes or cyst wall that entrap the parasites.


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