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plasmodium

The prevention and treatment of Plasmodium vivax malaria

April 28, 2021 - 14:31 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Chu CS, White NJ
Reference: 
PLoS Med. 2021 Apr 23;18(4):e1003561

Plasmodium vivax is more geographically dispersed than Plasmodium falciparum, with transmission occurring over a wider range of temperatures than for P. falciparum, and at latitudes as far as 64° North.

NOT Open Access | Plasmodium simium: population genomics reveals the origin of a reverse zoonosis

April 22, 2021 - 08:30 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
de Oliveira TC, Rodrigues PT, Early AM, Duarte AMRC, Buery JC, Bueno MG, Catão-Dias JL, Cerutti C Jr, Rona LDP, Neafsey DE, Ferreira MU
Reference: 
J Infect Dis. 2021 Apr 19:jiab214

The population history of Plasmodium simium, which causes malaria in sylvatic Neotropical monkeys and humans along the Atlantic Coast of Brazil, remains disputed. Genetically diverse P. vivax populations from various sources, including the lineages that founded the species P. simium, are thought to have arrived in the Americas in separate migratory waves.

Gametocyte carriage of Plasmodium falciparum (pfs25) and Plasmodium vivax (pvs25) during mass screening and treatment in West Timor, Indonesia: a longitudinal prospective study

April 14, 2021 - 07:50 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ayleen Kosasih, Cristian Koepfli, M. Sopiyudin Dahlan, William A. Hawley, J. Kevin Baird, Ivo Mueller, Neil F. Lobo and Inge Sutanto
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:177, 9 April 2021

A goal of malaria epidemiological interventions is the detection and treatment of parasite reservoirs in endemic areas—an activity that is expected to reduce local transmission. Since the gametocyte is the only transmissible stage from human host to mosquito vector, this study evaluated the pre and post presence of gametocytes during a mass screening and treatment (MST) intervention conducted during 2013 in East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia.

Rapid Screening for Non-falciparum Malaria in Elimination Settings Using Multiplex Antigen and Antibody Detection: Post Hoc Identification of Plasmodium malariae in an Infant in Haiti

April 7, 2021 - 12:28 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
van den Hoogen LL, Herman C, Ashton RA, et al.
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 5:tpmd201450

Haiti is targeting malaria elimination by 2025. The Grand'Anse department in southwestern Haiti experiences one-third to half of all nationally reported Plasmodium falciparum cases. Although there are historical reports of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium malariae, today, non-falciparum infections would remain undetected because of extensive use of falciparum-specific histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2) rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) at health facilities. A recent case-control study was conducted in Grand'Anse to identify risk factors for P. falciparum infection using HRP2-based RDTs (n = 1,107).

Transport mechanisms at the malaria parasite-host cell interface

April 7, 2021 - 12:01 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Beck JR, Ho CM
Reference: 
PLoS Pathog. 2021 Apr 1;17(4):e1009394

Obligate intracellular malaria parasites reside within a vacuolar compartment generated during invasion which is the principal interface between pathogen and host. To subvert their host cell and support their metabolism, these parasites coordinate a range of transport activities at this membrane interface that are critically important to parasite survival and virulence, including nutrient import, waste efflux, effector protein export, and uptake of host cell cytosol.

NOT Open Access | Erythrocyte membrane proteins involved in the immune response to Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infection

April 7, 2021 - 11:58 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Castro-Salguedo C, Mendez-Cuadro D, Moneriz C
Reference: 
Parasitol Res. 2021 Apr 2

Invasion of Plasmodium into the red blood cell involves the interactions of a substantial number of proteins, with red cell membrane proteins as the most involved throughout the process from entry to exit. The objective of this work was to identify proteins of the human erythrocyte membrane capable of generating an antigenic response to P. falciparum and P. vivax infection, with the goal of searching for new molecular targets of interest with an immunological origin to prevent Plasmodium infection.

NOT Open Access | Exploring Heteroaromatic Rings as a Replacement for the Labile Amide of Antiplasmodial Pantothenamides

April 6, 2021 - 14:29 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Guan J, Spry C, Auclair K, et al.
Reference: 
J Med Chem. 2021 Apr 1

Malaria-causing Plasmodium parasites are developing resistance to antimalarial drugs, providing the impetus for new antiplasmodials. Although pantothenamides show potent antiplasmodial activity, hydrolysis by pantetheinases/vanins present in blood rapidly inactivates them. We herein report the facile synthesis and biological activity of a small library of pantothenamide analogues in which the labile amide group is replaced with a heteroaromatic ring.

NOT Open Access | Multi-omics approaches to improve malaria therapy

April 1, 2021 - 08:55 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Zhou M, Varol A, Efferth T
Reference: 
Pharmacol Res. 2021 Mar 22:105570

Malaria contributes to the most widespread infectious diseases worldwide. Even though current drugs are commercially available, the ever-increasing drug resistance problem by malaria parasites poses new challenges in malaria therapy. Hence, searching for efficient therapeutic strategies is of high priority in malaria control. In recent years, multi-omics technologies have been extensively applied to provide a more holistic view of functional principles and dynamics of biological mechanisms. We briefly review multi-omics technologies and focus on recent malaria progress conducted with the help of various omics methods.

NOT Open Access | Geographical spread and structural basis of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine drug-resistant malaria parasites

March 31, 2021 - 14:48 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Chaturvedi R, Chhibber-Goel J, Verma I, Gopinathan S, Parvez S, Sharma A
Reference: 
Int J Parasitol. 2021 Mar 25:S0020-7519(21)00113-2

The global spread of sulfadoxine (Sdx, S) and pyrimethamine (Pyr, P) resistance is attributed to increasing number of mutations in DHPS and DHFR enzymes encoded by malaria parasites. The association between drug resistance mutations and SP efficacy is complex. Here we provide an overview of the geographical spread of SP resistance mutations in Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) and Plasmodium vivax (Pv) encoded dhps and dhfr genes.

Asymptomatic Plasmodium infection and associated factors among pregnant women in the Merti district, Oromia, Ethiopia

March 31, 2021 - 14:41 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Subussa BW, Eshetu T, Degefa T, Ali MM
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2021 Mar 25;16(3):e0248074

Asymptomatic Plasmodium infection (API) that occurs during pregnancy increases the risk of stillbirths, abortion, premature delivery, and low birth weight. API also hinders the control and prevention of malaria as infected hosts serve as silent reservoirs for transmission of Plasmodium species in the community.

Objective

The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of API and associated factors among pregnant women. This community-based cross-sectional study was conducted at Merti district, Oromia, Ethiopia among 364 pregnant women from March to September 2018.

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