The cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) profile reflects the insects' physiological states. These include age, sex, reproductive stage, and gravidity. Environmental factors such as diet, relative humidity or exposure to insecticides also affect the CHC composition in mosquitoes. In this work, the CHC profile was analyzed in two Anopheles albimanus phenotypes with different degrees of susceptibility to Plasmodium, the susceptible-White and resistant-Brown phenotypes, in response to the two dietary regimes of mosquitoes: a carbon-rich diet (sugar) and a protein-rich diet (blood) alone or containing Plasmodium ookinetes.
Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) has been widely used to diagnose various infectious diseases. Malaria is a globally distributed infectious disease attributed to parasites in the genus Plasmodium. It is known that persons infected with Plasmodium vivax and P. ovale are prone to clinical relapse of symptomatic blood-stage infections. LAMP has not previously been specifically evaluated for its diagnostic performance in detecting P. ovale in an epidemiological study, and no commercial LAMP or rapid diagnostic test (RDT) kits are available for specifically diagnosing infections with P. ovale.
Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for malaria diagnosis at the point of care (POC) depends on the detection capacity of synthesized nucleic acids and the specificity of the amplification target. To improve malaria diagnosis, new colorimetric LAMP tests were developed using multicopy targets for Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum detection.
Environmental disturbance, deforestation and socioeconomic factors all affect malaria incidence in tropical and subtropical endemic areas. Deforestation is the major driver of habitat loss and fragmentation, which frequently leads to shifts in the composition, abundance and spatial distribution of vector species. The goals of the present study were to: (i) identify anophelines found naturally infected with Plasmodium; (ii) measure the effects of landscape on the number of Nyssorhynchus darlingi, presence of Plasmodium-infected Anophelinae, human biting rate (HBR) and malaria cases; and (iii) determine the frequency and peak biting time of Plasmodium-infected mosquitoes and Ny. darlingi.
No abstract available
Degradation of the endothelial glycocalyx is associated with mortality in adult falciparum malaria. However, its role in the pathogenesis of non-falciparum malaria is unknown. In Malaysian patients with knowlesi (n = 200) and vivax (n = 61) malaria, and in healthy controls (n = 50), we measured glycocalyx breakdown products plasma syndecan-1 and urinary glycosaminoglycans, and evaluated correlations with biomarkers of disease severity. Urinary glycosaminoglycans were increased in patients with knowlesi and vivax malaria compared to healthy controls, and in knowlesi malaria were highest in those with severe disease.
In 2016, we reported the presence of Plasmodium vivax in Botswana through active case detection. A real-time PCR was used during a similar study in 10 districts to assess changes in the P. vivax prevalence. We assessed 1,614 children (2-13 years of age) for hemoglobin (Hb; g/dL) and Plasmodium parasites. The median age of all participants was 5.0 years (25th percentile, 3 years; 75th percentile, 8 years).
Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by one of the five species of Plasmodium, among which Plasmodium falciparum cause the deadliest form of the disease. Plasmodium species are dependent on a vertebrate host and a blood-sucking insect vector to complete their life cycle. Plasmodium chitinases belonging to the GH18 family are secreted inside the mosquito midgut, during the ookinete stage of the parasite.
The transmission of Plasmodium parasites in residual foci is currently a major roadblock for malaria elimination. Human activities and behavior, along with outdoor biting mosquitoes with opportunistic feeding preferences are the main causes of the inefficacy of the main vector control interventions, long lasting insecticide-impregnated nets and insecticide residual spraying.
Historically, Plasmodium vivax has persisted in the shadow of the more prominent Plasmodium falciparum. Up until 2013, P. vivax malaria was little more than a footnote in WHO reports, with P. falciparum and P. vivax malaria-attributable morbidity and mortality not disaggregated by malaria species.