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plasmodium

Not Open Access | Glycolipid-peptide vaccination induces liver-resident memory CD8(+) T cells that protect against rodent malaria

June 30, 2020 - 14:30 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Holz LE, Chua YC, Heath WR, et al.
Reference: 
Science Immunology 26 Jun 2020: Vol. 5, Issue 48, eaaz8035

Liver resident-memory CD8+ T cells (TRM cells) can kill liver-stage Plasmodium-infected cells and prevent malaria, but simple vaccines for generating this important immune population are lacking. Here, we report the development of a fully synthetic self-adjuvanting glycolipid-peptide conjugate vaccine designed to efficiently induce liver TRM cells.

Bacterial diversity associated with the abdomens of naturally Plasmodium-infected and non-infected Nyssorhynchus darlingi

June 29, 2020 - 16:16 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Oliveira TMP, Sanabani SS, Sallum MAM
Reference: 
BMC Microbiol. 2020 Jun 25;20(1):180

The bacterial community present in the abdomen in Anophelinae mosquitoes can influence mosquito susceptibility to Plasmodium infection. Little is known about the bacteria associated with Nyssorhynchus darlingi, a primary malaria vector in the Amazon basin. We investigated the abdominal bacterial community compositions of naturally Plasmodium-infected (P-positive, n = 9) and non-infected (P-negative, n = 7) Ny. darlingi from the Brazilian Amazon region through massive parallel sequencing of the bacterial V4 variable region of the 16S rRNA gene.

NOT Open Access | A Plasmodium homolog of ER tubule-forming proteins is required for parasite virulence

May 21, 2020 - 06:48 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Shi X, Hai L, Govindasamy K, Gao J, Coppens I, Hu J, Wang Q, Bhanot P
Reference: 
Mol Microbiol. 2020 May 20

Reticulon and REEP family of proteins stabilize the high curvature of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) tubules. P. berghei  Yop1 (Pb Yop1) is a REEP5 homolog in Plasmodium . Here we characterize its function using a gene‐knockout (Pb yop1∆). Pb yop1∆ asexual stage parasites display abnormal ER architecture and an enlarged digestive vacuole. The erythrocytic cycle of Pb yop1∆ parasites is severely attenuated and the incidence of experimental cerebral malaria is significantly decreased in Pb yop1∆‐infected mice.

Not Open Access | A protein palmitoylation cascade regulates microtubule cytoskeleton integrity in Plasmodium

May 13, 2020 - 14:51 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Wang X, Qian P, Cui H, Yao L, Yuan J
Reference: 
EMBO J. 2020 May 12:e104168

Morphogenesis of many protozoans depends on a polarized establishment of cytoskeletal structures. In malaria‐causing parasites, this can be observed when a round zygote develops into an elongated motile ookinete within the mosquito stomach. This morphogenesis is mediated by the pellicle cytoskeletal structures, including the inner membrane complex (IMC) and the underlying subpellicular microtubules (SPMs).

NOT Open Access | Activation mechanism of plasmepsins, pepsin-like aspartic proteases from Plasmodium, follows a unique trans-activation pathway

May 13, 2020 - 13:54 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Rathore I, Mishra V, Patel C, Xiao H, Gustchina A, Wlodawer A, Yada RY, Bhaumik P
Reference: 
FEBS J. 2020 May 9

Plasmodium parasites that cause malaria produce plasmepsins (PMs), pepsin‐like aspartic proteases that are important antimalarial drug targets due to their role in host hemoglobin degradation. The enzymes are synthesized as inactive zymogens (pro‐PMs) and the mechanism of their conversion to the active, mature forms has not been clearly elucidated. Our structural investigations of vacuolar pro‐PMs with truncated prosegment (pro‐tPMs) reveal that the formation of the S‐shaped dimer is their innate property. Further structural studies, biochemical analysis, and molecular dynamics simulations indicate that disruption of the Tyr‐Asp loop (121p‐4), coordinated with the movement of the loop L1 (237‐247) and helix H2 (101p‐113p) are responsible for the extension of the pro‐mature region (harboring the cleavage site).

NOT Open Access | Endocytosis in Plasmodium and Toxoplasma Parasites

April 29, 2020 - 09:02 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Spielmann T, Gras S, Sabitzki R, Meissner M
Reference: 
Trends Parasitol. 2020 Apr 24. pii: S1471-4922(20)30075-1

Endocytosis is critical for many functions in eukaryotic cells. Uptake of host cell cytosol, an indispensable endocytic process in malaria blood-stage parasites, has been known for a long time. However, it is only recently that the proteins involved in this process have started to emerge.

NOT Open Access | Morphological and molecular characterization of Plasmodium cathemerium (lineage PADOM02) from the sparrow Passer domesticus with complete sporogony in Culex pipiens complex

April 29, 2020 - 05:32 -- NOT Open Access
Tags: 
Author(s): 
Aly MZY, Mohamed III, Sebak SI, Vanstreels RET, El Gendy AM
Reference: 
Parasitology. 2020 Apr 27:1-9

Avian malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by Plasmodium spp. protozoa. Although these parasites have been extensively studied in North America and Eurasia, knowledge on the diversity of Plasmodium, its vectors and avian hosts in Africa is scarce. In this study, we report on natural malarial infections in free-ranging sparrows (Passer domesticus) sampled at Giza Governorate, Egypt. Parasites were morphologically characterized as Plasmodium cathemerium based on the examination of thin blood smears from the avian host.

Exploring the Mechanisms of Multiple Insecticide Resistance in a Highly Plasmodium-Infected Malaria Vector Anopheles funestus Sensu Stricto from Sahel of Northern Nigeria

April 27, 2020 - 13:20 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ibrahim SS, Mukhtar MM, Irving H, Riveron JM, Fadel AN, Tchapga W, Hearn J, Muhammad A, Sarkinfada F, Wondji CS
Reference: 
Genes (Basel). 2020 Apr 22;11(4). pii: E454

The Nigerian Government is scaling up the distribution of insecticide-treated bed nets for malaria control, but the lack of surveillance data, especially in the Sudan/Sahel region of the country, may hinder targeting priority populations. Here, the vectorial role and insecticide resistance profile of a population of a major malaria vector Anopheles funestus sensu stricto from Sahel of Nigeria was characterised.

Broad spectrum immunomodulatory effects of Anopheles gambiae microRNAs and their use for transgenic suppression of Plasmodium

April 27, 2020 - 13:18 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Dong S, Fu X, Dong Y, Simões ML, Zhu J, Dimopoulos G
Reference: 
PLoS Pathog 16(4): e1008453

Malaria, caused by the protozoan parasite Plasmodium and transmitted by Anopheles mosquitoes, represents a major threat to human health. Plasmodium’s infection cycle in the Anopheles vector is critical for transmission of the parasite between humans. The midgut-stage bottleneck of infection is largely imposed by the mosquito’s innate immune system. microRNAs (miRNAs, small noncoding RNAs that bind to target RNAs to regulate gene expression) are also involved in regulating immunity and the anti-Plasmodium defense in mosquitoes.

NOT Open Access | Detection of Protein Aggregation in Live Plasmodium Parasites

April 15, 2020 - 14:14 -- NOT Open Access
Tags: 
Author(s): 
Biosca A, Bouzón-Arnáiz I, Spanos L, Siden-Kiamos I, Iglesias V, Ventura S, Fernàndez-Busquets X
Reference: 
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2020 Apr 13. pii: AAC.02135-19

The rapid evolution of resistance in the malaria parasite to every single drug developed against it calls for the urgent identification of new molecular targets. Using a stain specific for the detection of intracellular amyloid deposits in live cells we have detected the presence of abundant protein aggregates in Plasmodium falciparum blood stages and female gametes cultured in vitro, in the blood stages of mice infected by Plasmodium yoelii, and in the mosquito stages of the murine malaria species Plasmodium berghei.

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