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plasmodium

Primaquine–quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxide hybrids with action on the exo-erythrocytic forms of Plasmodium induce their effect by the production of reactive oxygen species

June 24, 2019 - 15:48 -- Open Access
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Author(s): 
Leonardo Bonilla-Ramírez, Silvia Galiano, Miguel Quiliano, Ignacio Aldana and Adriana Pabón
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:201,19 June 2019

The challenge in anti-malarial chemotherapy is based on the emergence of resistance to drugs and the search for medicines against all stages of the life cycle of Plasmodium spp. as a therapeutic target. Nowadays, many molecules with anti-malarial activity are reported. However, few studies about the cellular and molecular mechanisms to understand their mode of action have been explored. Recently, new primaquine-based hybrids as new molecules with potential multi-acting anti-malarial activity were reported and two hybrids of primaquine linked to quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxide (PQ–QdNO) were identified as the most active against erythrocytic, exoerythrocytic and sporogonic stages.

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Patterns of Plasmodium homocircumflexum virulence in experimentally infected passerine birds

May 24, 2019 - 16:04 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Mikas Ilgūnas, Dovilė Bukauskaitė, Vaidas Palinauskas, Tatjana Iezhova, Karin Fragner, Elena Platonova, Herbert Weissenböck and Gediminas Valkiūnas
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:174, 21 May 2019

Avian malaria parasites (genus Plasmodium) are cosmopolitan and some species cause severe pathologies or even mortality in birds, yet their virulence remains fragmentally investigated. Understanding mechanisms and patterns of virulence during avian Plasmodium infections is crucial as these pathogens can severely affect bird populations in the wild and cause mortality in captive individuals. The goal of this study was to investigate the pathologies caused by the recently discovered malaria parasite Plasmodium homocircumflexum (lineage pCOLL4) in four species of European passeriform birds.

NOT Open Access | Baseline Ex Vivo and Molecular Responses of Plasmodium falciparum Isolates to Piperaquine before Implementation of Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine in Senegal

April 30, 2019 - 15:21 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Marie Gladys Robert, Francis Foguim Tsombeng, Mathieu Gendrot, Silman Diawara, Marylin Madamet, Mame Bou Kounta, Khalifa Ababacar Wade, Mansour Fall, Mamadou Wague Gueye, Nicolas Benoit, Aminata Nakoulima, Raymond Bercion, Rémy Amalvict, Bécaye Fall, Boubacar Wade, Bakary Diatta and Bruno Pradines
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Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. April 2019 63:e02445-18

Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine, which was registered in 2017 in Senegal, is not currently used as the first-line treatment against uncomplicated malaria. A total of 6.6% to 17.1% of P. falciparum isolates collected in Dakar in 2013 to 2015 showed ex vivo-reduced susceptibility to piperaquine. 

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NOT Open Access | Mutation Profile of pfdhfr and pfdhps in Plasmodium falciparum among Returned Chinese Migrant Workers from Africa

April 30, 2019 - 15:18 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Chao Xu, Hui Sun, Qingkuan Wei, Jin Li, Ting Xiao, Xiangli Kong, Yongbin Wang, Guihua Zhao, Longjiang Wang, Gongzhen Liu, Ge Yan, Bingcheng Huang and Kun Yin
Reference: 
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. April 2019 63:e01927-18

We evaluated markers of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) resistance in Plasmodium falciparum among 254 returned migrant workers in China from Africa from 2013 to 2016.

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NOT Open Access | Identification of Antimalarial Compounds That Require CLAG3 for Their Uptake by Plasmodium falciparum-Infected Erythrocytes

April 30, 2019 - 15:17 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Sofía Mira-Martínez, Anastasia K. Pickford, Núria Rovira-Graells, Pieter Guetens, Elisabet Tintó-Font, Alfred Cortés and Anna Rosanas-Urgell
Reference: 
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. April 2019 63:e00052-19

During the intraerythrocytic asexual cycle malaria parasites acquire nutrients and other solutes through a broad selectivity channel localized at the membrane of the infected erythrocyte termed the plasmodial surface anion channel (PSAC). The protein product of the Plasmodium falciparum clonally variant clag3.1 and clag3.2 genes determines PSAC activity. Switches in the expression of clag3 genes, which are regulated by epigenetic mechanisms, are associated with changes in PSAC-dependent permeability that can result in resistance to compounds toxic for the parasite, such as blasticidin S. Here, we investigated whether other antimalarial drugs require CLAG3 to reach their intracellular target and consequently are prone to parasite resistance by epigenetic mechanisms. 

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Antibodies to Peptides in Semiconserved Domains of RIFINs and STEVORs Correlate with Malaria Exposure

April 30, 2019 - 15:03 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Albert E. Zhou, Andrea A. Berry, Mark A. Travassos, et al.
Reference: 
mSphere March/April 2019 4:e00097-19

The repetitive interspersed family (RIFIN) and the subtelomeric variable open reading frame (STEVOR) family represent two of three major Plasmodium falciparum variant surface antigen families involved in malaria pathogenesis and immune evasion and are potential targets in the development of natural immunity. Protein and peptide microarrays populated with RIFINs and STEVORs associated with severe malaria vulnerability in Malian children were probed with adult and pediatric sera to identify epitopes that reflect malaria exposure.

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Efficient synchronization of Plasmodium knowlesi in vitro cultures using guanidine hydrochloride

April 29, 2019 - 13:17 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sutharinee Ngernna, Anongruk Chim-ong, Wanlapa Roobsoong, Jetsumon Sattabongkot, Liwang Cui and Wang Nguitragool
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:148, 25 April 2019

Long-term in vitro culture of blood stage Plasmodium parasites invariably leads to asynchronous parasite development. The most often used technique to synchronize Plasmodium falciparum culture is sorbitol treatment, which differentially induces osmotic lysis of trophozoite- and schizont-infected red blood cells due to presence of the new permeation pathways in the membranes of these cells. However, sorbitol treatment does not work well when used to synchronize the culture-adapted Plasmodium knowlesi A1-H.1 line.

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Plasmodium knowlesi and other malaria parasites in long-tailed macaques from the Philippines

April 29, 2019 - 13:15 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Lief Erikson Gamalo, Judeline Dimalibot, Khamisah Abdul Kadir, Balbir Singh and Vachel Gay Paller
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:147, 24 April 2019

Macaca fascicularis (long-tailed macaque) is the most widespread species of macaque in Southeast Asia and the only species of monkey found naturally in the Philippines. The species is the natural host for the zoonotic malaria species, Plasmodium knowlesi and Plasmodium cynomolgi and for the potentially zoonotic species, Plasmodium inui. Moreover, other Plasmodium species such as Plasmodium coatneyi and Plasmodium fieldi are also natural parasites of M. fascicularis. The aims of this study were to identify and determine the prevalence of Plasmodium species infecting wild and captive long-tailed macaques from the Philippines.

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Cell-traversal protein for ookinetes and sporozoites (CelTOS) formulated with potent TLR adjuvants induces high-affinity antibodies that inhibit Plasmodium falciparum infection in Anopheles stephensi

April 29, 2019 - 13:13 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sakineh Pirahmadi, Sedigheh Zakeri, Akram A. Mehrizi, Navid D. Djadid, Abbas-Ali Raz, Jafar J. Sani, Ronak Abbasi and Zahra Ghorbanzadeh
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:146, 24 April 2019

Plasmodium falciparum parasite is the most deadly species of human malaria, and the development of an effective vaccine that prevents P. falciparum infection and transmission is a key target for malarial elimination and eradication programmes. P. falciparum cell-traversal protein for ookinetes and sporozoites (PfCelTOS) is an advanced vaccine candidate. A comparative study was performed to characterize the immune responses in BALB/c mouse immunized with Escherichia coli-expressed recombinant PfCelTOS (rPfCelTOS) in toll-like receptor (TLR)-based adjuvants, CpG and Poly I:C alone or in combination (CpG + Poly I:C), followed by the assessment of transmission-reducing activity (TRA) of anti-rPfCelTOS antibodies obtained from different vaccine groups in Anopheles stephensi.

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NOT Open Access | Co‐infections with Plasmodium, Ascaris and Giardia among Rwandan schoolchildren

April 9, 2019 - 13:10 -- NOT Open Access
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Author(s): 
Dominik Geus, Kevin C. Sifft, Frank P. Mockenhaupt, et al.
Reference: 
Tropical Medicine & International Health, Volume24, Issue4 April 2019 Pages 409-420

Parasitic co‐infections are common in Rwandan schoolchildren, and are associated with a rather silent clinical manifestation that nevertheless may affect school performance and long‐term development.

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