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plasmodium

Activity of Plasmodium vivax promoter elements in Plasmodium knowlesi, and a centromere-containing plasmid that expresses NanoLuc throughout the parasite life cycle

June 9, 2021 - 07:38 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Roberto R. Moraes Barros, Kittisak Thawnashom, Thomas E. Wellems, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:247, 5 June 2021

Plasmodium knowlesi is now the major cause of human malaria in Malaysia, complicating malaria control efforts that must attend to the elimination of multiple Plasmodium species. Recent advances in the cultivation of P. knowlesi erythrocytic-stage parasites in vitro, transformation with exogenous DNA, and infection of mosquitoes with gametocytes from culture have opened up studies of this pathogen without the need for resource-intensive and costly non-human primate (NHP) models. For further understanding and development of methods for parasite transformation in malaria research, this study examined the activity of various trans-species transcriptional control sequences and the influence of Plasmodium vivax centromeric (pvcen) repeats in plasmid-transfected P. knowlesi parasites.

High incidence of asymptomatic cases during an outbreak of Plasmodium malariae in a remote village of Malaysian Borneo

June 9, 2021 - 07:14 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Binti Naserrudin NA, Binti Abdul Aziz EI, Aljet E, Mangunji G, Tojo B, Jeffree MS, Culleton R, Ahmed K
Reference: 
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2021 Jun 3;15(6):e0009450

An outbreak of Plasmodium malariae occurred in Sonsogon Paliu village in the remote area of Ulu Bengkoka sub-district of Kota Marudu, Northern Sabah, Malaysian Borneo from July through August 2019. This was the first outbreak of malaria in this village since 2014. On 11th July 2019 the Kota Kinabalu Public Health Laboratory notified the Kota Marudu District Health Office of a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) positive case of P. malariae. This index case was a male from Sulawesi, Indonesia working for a logging company operating in Sonsogon Paliu. During the resulting outbreak, a total of 14 symptomatic cases were detected.

Positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in experimental human malaria to identify organ-specific changes in morphology and glucose metabolism: A prospective cohort study

June 1, 2021 - 15:43 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Woodford J, Gillman A, Jenvey P, Roberts J, Woolley S, Barber BE, Fernandez M, Rose S, Thomas P, Anstey NM, McCarthy JS
Reference: 
PLoS Med. 2021 May 26;18(5):e1003567

Plasmodium vivax has been proposed to infect and replicate in the human spleen and bone marrow. Compared to Plasmodium falciparum, which is known to undergo microvascular tissue sequestration, little is known about the behavior of P. vivax outside of the circulating compartment. This may be due in part to difficulties in studying parasite location and activity in life.

Community-based molecular and serological surveillance of subclinical malaria in Myanmar

June 1, 2021 - 15:35 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
O'Flaherty K, Oo WH, Fowkes FJI, et al.
Reference: 
BMC Med. 2021 May 28;19(1):121

In the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), current malaria surveillance strategies rely on a network of village health volunteers (VHVs) reporting the results of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), known to miss many asymptomatic infections. Integration of more sensitive diagnostic molecular and serological measures into the VHV network may improve surveillance of residual malaria transmission in hard-to-reach areas in the region and inform targeted interventions and elimination responses. However, data on residual malaria transmission that would be captured by these measures in the VHV-led testing and treatment surveillance network in the GMS is unknown.

Dietary and Plasmodium challenge effects on the cuticular hydrocarbon profile of Anopheles albimanus

June 1, 2021 - 12:39 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Claudio-Piedras F, Recio-Tótoro B, Cime-Castillo J, Condé R, Maffei M, Lanz-Mendoza H
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2021 May 27;11(1):11258

The cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) profile reflects the insects' physiological states. These include age, sex, reproductive stage, and gravidity. Environmental factors such as diet, relative humidity or exposure to insecticides also affect the CHC composition in mosquitoes. In this work, the CHC profile was analyzed in two Anopheles albimanus phenotypes with different degrees of susceptibility to Plasmodium, the susceptible-White and resistant-Brown phenotypes, in response to the two dietary regimes of mosquitoes: a carbon-rich diet (sugar) and a protein-rich diet (blood) alone or containing Plasmodium ookinetes.

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays targeting 18S ribosomal RNA genes for identifying P. vivax and P. ovale species and mitochondrial DNA for detecting the genus Plasmodium

May 26, 2021 - 09:45 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Chen X, Zhang J, Yang Z, et al.
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2021 May 24;14(1):278

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) has been widely used to diagnose various infectious diseases. Malaria is a globally distributed infectious disease attributed to parasites in the genus Plasmodium. It is known that persons infected with Plasmodium vivax and P. ovale are prone to clinical relapse of symptomatic blood-stage infections. LAMP has not previously been specifically evaluated for its diagnostic performance in detecting P. ovale in an epidemiological study, and no commercial LAMP or rapid diagnostic test (RDT) kits are available for specifically diagnosing infections with P. ovale.

Multicopy targets for Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum detection by colorimetric LAMP

May 26, 2021 - 09:11 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Oscar Nolasco, Jhoel Montoya, Ana L. Rosales Rosas, Scarlett Barrientos, Anna Rosanas-Urgell and Dionicia Gamboa
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:225, 19 May 2021

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for malaria diagnosis at the point of care (POC) depends on the detection capacity of synthesized nucleic acids and the specificity of the amplification target. To improve malaria diagnosis, new colorimetric LAMP tests were developed using multicopy targets for Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum detection.

Vector role and human biting activity of Anophelinae mosquitoes in different landscapes in the Brazilian Amazon

May 12, 2021 - 12:30 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Oliveira TMP, Laporta GZ, Bergo ES, Chaves LSM, Antunes JLF, Bickersmith SA, Conn JE, Massad E, Sallum MAM
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2021 May 6;14(1):236

Environmental disturbance, deforestation and socioeconomic factors all affect malaria incidence in tropical and subtropical endemic areas. Deforestation is the major driver of habitat loss and fragmentation, which frequently leads to shifts in the composition, abundance and spatial distribution of vector species. The goals of the present study were to: (i) identify anophelines found naturally infected with Plasmodium; (ii) measure the effects of landscape on the number of Nyssorhynchus darlingi, presence of Plasmodium-infected Anophelinae, human biting rate (HBR) and malaria cases; and (iii) determine the frequency and peak biting time of Plasmodium-infected mosquitoes and Ny. darlingi.

Retraction Note: Antimalarial efficacy of Pongamia pinnata (L) Pierre against Plasmodium falciparum (3D7 strain) and Plasmodium berghei (ANKA)

May 12, 2021 - 09:46 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Satish PVV, Sunita K
Reference: 
BMC Complement Med Ther. 2021 May 10;21(1):139

No abstract available

Endothelial glycocalyx degradation and disease severity in Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium knowlesi malaria

May 12, 2021 - 09:43 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Barber BE, Grigg MJ, Piera KA, Chen Y, William T, Weinberg JB, Yeo TW, Anstey NM
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2021 May 7;11(1):9741

Degradation of the endothelial glycocalyx is associated with mortality in adult falciparum malaria. However, its role in the pathogenesis of non-falciparum malaria is unknown. In Malaysian patients with knowlesi (n = 200) and vivax (n = 61) malaria, and in healthy controls (n = 50), we measured glycocalyx breakdown products plasma syndecan-1 and urinary glycosaminoglycans, and evaluated correlations with biomarkers of disease severity. Urinary glycosaminoglycans were increased in patients with knowlesi and vivax malaria compared to healthy controls, and in knowlesi malaria were highest in those with severe disease.

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