Plasmodium parasites contain various virulence factors that modulate the host immune response. Malarial pigment, or hemozoin (Hz), is an undegradable crystalline product of the hemoglobin degradation pathway in the parasite and possesses immunomodulatory properties.
In Ethiopia, malaria cases are declining as a result of proven interventions, and in 2017 the country launched a malaria elimination strategy in targeted settings. Accurate malaria diagnosis and prompt treatment are the key components of the strategy to prevent morbidity and stop the continuation of transmission. However, the quality of microscopic diagnosis in general is deteriorating as malaria burden declines. This study was carried out to evaluate the competency of microscopists and the performance of health facilities on malaria microscopic diagnosis.
The last malaria parasite standing will display effective adaptations to selective forces. While substantial progress has been made in reducing malaria mortality, eradication will require elimination of all Plasmodium parasites, including those in asymptomatic infections. These typically chronic, low-density infections are difficult to detect, yet can persist for months.
The choline derivative (CD) and polyethylene-glycol (PEG) dually modified artemether (ARM) nanostructured lipid carriers (CD-PEG-ARM-NLC) have been designed to prolong the circulation of ARM in blood, as well as to develop targeting for new permeability pathways (NPPs) and erythrocyte choline carriers (ECCs) that are expressed on the Plasmodium-infected erythrocyte membrane.
Precise identification of Plasmodium species is critical in malaria control and elimination. Despite several shortcomings, microscopy and rapid diagnostic test (RDT) continue to be the leading diagnostic methods. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is the most sensitive method but its dependency on advanced laboratory and skilled workers limits its use.
Despite the ubiquity of polyparasitism, its health impacts have been inadequately studied. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and determinants of polyparasitism with Schistosoma haematobium, Plasmodium and soil-transmitted helminths (STH) following sustained control measures, as well as evaluate the outcomes and clinical correlates of infection in school-aged children (SAC) living in the schistosomiasis endemic focus of Muyuka-Cameroon.
Plasmodium falciparum malaria increases plasma levels of the cytokine Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L), a haematopoietic factor associated with dendritic cell (DC) expansion. It is unknown if the zoonotic parasite Plasmodium knowlesi impacts Flt3L or DC in human malaria. This study investigated circulating DC and Flt3L associations in adult malaria and in submicroscopic experimental infection.
Malaria remains a serious health threat in the Amazonas Region of Peru and approximately 95% of the cases, mainly Plasmodium vivax, are found in native communities of The Rio Santiago District, Condorcanqui Province. In 2019, more than one thousand malaria cases were reported, with an unusual number of Plasmodium falciparum autochthonous cases. The present study aims to report this P. falciparum outbreak while describing the epidemiology of malaria and the risk factors associated in the native communities of Amazonas, Peru.
As malaria endemic countries strive towards elimination, intensified spatial heterogeneities of local transmission could undermine the effectiveness of traditional intervention policy.
As malaria incidence and transmission in a region decreases, it becomes increasingly difficult to identify areas of active transmission. Improved methods for identifying and monitoring foci of active malaria transmission are needed in areas of low parasite prevalence in order to achieve malaria elimination. Serological assays can provide population-level infection history to inform elimination campaigns.