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plasmodium

Hemozoin in Malarial Complications: More Questions Than Answers

March 3, 2021 - 16:38 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Pham TT, Lamb TJ, Deroost K, Opdenakker G, Van den Steen PE
Reference: 
Trends Parasitol. 2021 Mar;37(3):226-239

Plasmodium parasites contain various virulence factors that modulate the host immune response. Malarial pigment, or hemozoin (Hz), is an undegradable crystalline product of the hemoglobin degradation pathway in the parasite and possesses immunomodulatory properties.

Mentorship on malaria microscopy diagnostic service in Ethiopia: baseline competency of microscopists and performance of health facilities

March 3, 2021 - 15:35 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Bokretsion Gidey, Desalegn Nega, Ebba Abate, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:115, February 2021

In Ethiopia, malaria cases are declining as a result of proven interventions, and in 2017 the country launched a malaria elimination strategy in targeted settings. Accurate malaria diagnosis and prompt treatment are the key components of the strategy to prevent morbidity and stop the continuation of transmission. However, the quality of microscopic diagnosis in general is deteriorating as malaria burden declines. This study was carried out to evaluate the competency of microscopists and the performance of health facilities on malaria microscopic diagnosis.

NOT Open Access | Understanding Host-Pathogen-Vector Interactions with Chronic Asymptomatic Malaria Infections

March 2, 2021 - 15:37 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Nyarko PB, Claessens A
Reference: 
Trends Parasitol. 2021 Mar;37(3):195-204

The last malaria parasite standing will display effective adaptations to selective forces. While substantial progress has been made in reducing malaria mortality, eradication will require elimination of all Plasmodium parasites, including those in asymptomatic infections. These typically chronic, low-density infections are difficult to detect, yet can persist for months.

NOT Open Access | Choline and PEG dually modified artemether nano delivery system targeting intra-erythrocytic Plasmodium and its pharmacodynamics in vivo

March 2, 2021 - 15:17 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Wang R, Shi G, Chai L, Wang R, Zhang G, Ren G, Zhang S
Reference: 
Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 2021 Mar 1:1-11

The choline derivative (CD) and polyethylene-glycol (PEG) dually modified artemether (ARM) nanostructured lipid carriers (CD-PEG-ARM-NLC) have been designed to prolong the circulation of ARM in blood, as well as to develop targeting for new permeability pathways (NPPs) and erythrocyte choline carriers (ECCs) that are expressed on the Plasmodium-infected erythrocyte membrane.

NOT Open Access | Comparison of polymerase chain reaction, microscopy, and rapid diagnostic test in malaria detection in a high burden state (Odisha) of India

March 2, 2021 - 15:10 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Ahmad A, Soni P, Kumar L, Singh MP, Verma AK, Sharma A, Das A, Bharti PK
Reference: 
Pathog Glob Health. 2021 Feb 26:1-6

Precise identification of Plasmodium species is critical in malaria control and elimination. Despite several shortcomings, microscopy and rapid diagnostic test (RDT) continue to be the leading diagnostic methods. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is the most sensitive method but its dependency on advanced laboratory and skilled workers limits its use.

Polyparasitism with Schistosoma haematobium, Plasmodium and soil-transmitted helminths in school-aged children in Muyuka-Cameroon following implementation of control measures: a cross sectional study

February 25, 2021 - 10:05 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sumbele IUN, Otia OV, Bopda OSM, Ebai CB, Kimbi HK, Nkuo-Akenji T
Reference: 
Infect Dis Poverty. 2021 Feb 17;10(1):14

Despite the ubiquity of polyparasitism, its health impacts have been inadequately studied. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and determinants of polyparasitism with Schistosoma haematobium, Plasmodium and soil-transmitted helminths (STH) following sustained control measures, as well as evaluate the outcomes and clinical correlates of infection in school-aged children (SAC) living in the schistosomiasis endemic focus of Muyuka-Cameroon.

Reduced circulating dendritic cells in acute Plasmodium knowlesi and Plasmodium falciparum malaria despite elevated plasma Flt3 ligand levels

February 17, 2021 - 09:15 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Jessica R. Loughland, Tonia Woodberry, Gabriela Minigo, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:97, 16 February 2021

Plasmodium falciparum malaria increases plasma levels of the cytokine Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L), a haematopoietic factor associated with dendritic cell (DC) expansion. It is unknown if the zoonotic parasite Plasmodium knowlesi impacts Flt3L or DC in human malaria. This study investigated circulating DC and Flt3L associations in adult malaria and in submicroscopic experimental infection.

Plasmodium falciparum outbreak in native communities of Condorcanqui, Amazonas, Perú

February 15, 2021 - 16:14 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Carla C. Montenegro, T. Pershing Bustamante-Chauca, Cecilia Pajuelo Reyes, Miguel Bernal, Lizandro Gonzales, Rafael Tapia-Limonchi, Juan R. Tejedo and Stella M. Chenet
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:88, 12 February 2021

Malaria remains a serious health threat in the Amazonas Region of Peru and approximately 95% of the cases, mainly Plasmodium vivax, are found in native communities of The Rio Santiago District, Condorcanqui Province. In 2019, more than one thousand malaria cases were reported, with an unusual number of Plasmodium falciparum autochthonous cases. The present study aims to report this P. falciparum outbreak while describing the epidemiology of malaria and the risk factors associated in the native communities of Amazonas, Peru.

The top 1%: quantifying the unequal distribution of malaria in Brazil

February 15, 2021 - 16:03 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Raquel Lana, Narimane Nekkab, Andre M. Siqueira, Cassio Peterka, Paola Marchesini, Marcus Lacerda, Ivo Mueller, Michael White and Daniel Villela
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:87, 12 February 2021

As malaria endemic countries strive towards elimination, intensified spatial heterogeneities of local transmission could undermine the effectiveness of traditional intervention policy.

Natural infections with different Plasmodium species induce antibodies reactive to a chimeric Plasmodium vivax recombinant protein

February 15, 2021 - 15:51 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Jessica N. McCaffery, Balwan Singh, Douglas Nace, Alberto Moreno, Venkatachalam Udhayakumar and Eric Rogier
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:86, 12 February 2021

As malaria incidence and transmission in a region decreases, it becomes increasingly difficult to identify areas of active transmission. Improved methods for identifying and monitoring foci of active malaria transmission are needed in areas of low parasite prevalence in order to achieve malaria elimination. Serological assays can provide population-level infection history to inform elimination campaigns.

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