The recent World Malaria report shows that progress in malaria elimination has stalled. Current data acquisition by NMCPs depend on passive case detection and clinical reports focused mainly on Plasmodium falciparum (Pf). In recent times, several countries in sub-Saharan Africa have reported cases of Plasmodium vivax (Pv) with a considerable number being Duffy negative.
The effect of primaquine in preventing P. vivax relapses from dormant stages is well established. For P. ovale, the relapse characteristics and the use primaquine is not as well studied. We set to evaluate the relapsing properties of these two species, in relation to primaquine use among imported malaria cases in a non-endemic setting.
Plasmodium vivax is responsible for the majority of malaria cases outside Africa. Unlike P. falciparum, the P. vivax life-cycle includes a dormant liver stage, the hypnozoite, which can cause infection in the absence of mosquito transmission. An effective vaccine against P. vivax blood stages would limit symptoms and pathology from such recurrent infections, and therefore could play a critical role in the control of this species. Vaccine development in P. vivax, however, lags considerably behind P. falciparum, which has many identified targets with several having transitioned to Phase II testing.
Ethiopia has achieved considerable progresses in the prevention and control of malaria in the past decades; hitherto it is a formidable health concern and socio-economic impediment. This study aimed at assessing the magnitude, knowledge, attitudes and practices towards malaria among febrile patients attending Chagni health center, northwest Ethiopia.
Dengue virus infects millions of the people globally each year and its diagnosis remains a challenge. Conventionally used diagnostic methods are complex and time consuming. LAMP technique is a potential alternative for diagnosis of dengue virus. The benefits of LAMP are its ease and ability, as it does not require an expensive equipment and results are effortlessly visualized by the naked eye. However, it does not aid as point of care technique owing to need of contamination free area, deep freezer for chemical storage and primer self amplification.
The synthesis and antimicrobial activity of new spiro-β-lactams is reported. The design of the new molecules was based on the structural modulation of two previously identified lead spiro-penicillanates with dual activity against HIV and Plasmodium.
An estimated 229 million cases of malaria occurred worldwide in 2019. Both, Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax are responsible for most of the malaria disease burden in the world. Despite difficulties in obtaining an accurate number, the global estimates of cases in 2019 are approximately 229 million of which 2.8% are due to P. vivax, and the total number of malaria deaths are approximately 409 million.
Malaria is a parasitic illness caused by the genus Plasmodium from the apicomplexan phylum. Five plasmodial species of P. falciparum, P. knowlesi, P. malariae, P. ovale and P. vivax are responsible for causing malaria in humans. According to the World Malaria Report 2019, there were 229 million cases and ~ 0.04 million deaths of which 67% were in children below five years of age.
Malaria is transmitted through the bite of Plasmodium‐infected adult female Anopheles mosquitoes. Ivermectin, an anti‐parasitic drug, acts by killing mosquitoes that are exposed to the drug while feeding on the blood of people (known as blood feeds) who have ingested the drug. This effect on mosquitoes has been demonstrated by individual randomized trials. This effect has generated interest in using ivermectin as a tool for malaria control.
The transmission of Plasmodium spp. sporozoites to the mammalian host is the first step in the initiation of the mosquito-borne disease known as malaria. The exact route of transmission from the bloodstream to the liver is still not clearly elucidated, and identification of the host glycan structures bound by the sporozoites may inform as to which host cells are involved.