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The Pan African Vivax and Ovale Network (PAVON): Refocusing on Plasmodium vivax, ovale and asymptomatic malaria in sub-Saharan Africa

July 6, 2021 - 14:51 -- Open Access
Quaye IK, Aleksenko L, Greco B, et al.
Parasitol Int. 2021 Jun 30:102415

The recent World Malaria report shows that progress in malaria elimination has stalled. Current data acquisition by NMCPs depend on passive case detection and clinical reports focused mainly on Plasmodium falciparum (Pf). In recent times, several countries in sub-Saharan Africa have reported cases of Plasmodium vivax (Pv) with a considerable number being Duffy negative.

Relapse of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale malaria with and without primaquine treatment in a non-endemic area

July 6, 2021 - 14:43 -- Open Access
Wångdahl A, Sondén K, Wyss K, Stenström C, Björklund D, Zhang J, Hervius Askling H, Carlander C, Hellgren U, Färnert A
Clin Infect Dis. 2021 Jul 3:ciab610

The effect of primaquine in preventing P. vivax relapses from dormant stages is well established. For P. ovale, the relapse characteristics and the use primaquine is not as well studied. We set to evaluate the relapsing properties of these two species, in relation to primaquine use among imported malaria cases in a non-endemic setting.

Using Plasmodium knowlesi as a model for screening Plasmodium vivax blood-stage malaria vaccine targets reveals new candidates

July 6, 2021 - 14:38 -- Open Access
Ndegwa DN, Kundu P, Hostetler JB, Marin-Menendez A, Sanderson T, Mwikali K, Verzier LH, Coyle R, Adjalley S, Rayner JC
PLoS Pathog. 2021 Jul 1;17(7):e1008864

Plasmodium vivax is responsible for the majority of malaria cases outside Africa. Unlike P. falciparum, the P. vivax life-cycle includes a dormant liver stage, the hypnozoite, which can cause infection in the absence of mosquito transmission. An effective vaccine against P. vivax blood stages would limit symptoms and pathology from such recurrent infections, and therefore could play a critical role in the control of this species. Vaccine development in P. vivax, however, lags considerably behind P. falciparum, which has many identified targets with several having transitioned to Phase II testing.

Malaria prevalence, knowledge, attitude, and practice among febrile patients attending Chagni health center, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

July 6, 2021 - 14:32 -- Open Access
Belay B, Gelana T, Gebresilassie A
Trop Dis Travel Med Vaccines. 2021 Jul 5;7(1):20

Ethiopia has achieved considerable progresses in the prevention and control of malaria in the past decades; hitherto it is a formidable health concern and socio-economic impediment. This study aimed at assessing the magnitude, knowledge, attitudes and practices towards malaria among febrile patients attending Chagni health center, northwest Ethiopia.

NOT Open Access | Advanced Lyophilised Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification (L-LAMP) based point of care technique for the detection of dengue virus

July 6, 2021 - 13:51 -- NOT Open Access
Sandeep Kumar, Supriya Sharma, Nitin Bhardwaj, Veena Pande, Deepali Savargaonkar and Anupkumar R.Anvikar
J Virol Methods. 2021 Jul;293:114168

Dengue virus infects millions of the people globally each year and its diagnosis remains a challenge. Conventionally used diagnostic methods are complex and time consuming. LAMP technique is a potential alternative for diagnosis of dengue virus. The benefits of LAMP are its ease and ability, as it does not require an expensive equipment and results are effortlessly visualized by the naked eye. However, it does not aid as point of care technique owing to need of contamination free area, deep freezer for chemical storage and primer self amplification.

NOT Open Access | Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of new chiral spiro-beta-lactams highly active against HIV-1 and Plasmodium

July 6, 2021 - 13:06 -- NOT Open Access
Alves NG, Bártolo I, Pinho E Melo TMVD, et al.
Eur J Med Chem. 2021 Jul 5;219:113439

The synthesis and antimicrobial activity of new spiro-β-lactams is reported. The design of the new molecules was based on the structural modulation of two previously identified lead spiro-penicillanates with dual activity against HIV and Plasmodium.

Plasmodium vivax pre-erythrocytic vaccines

June 30, 2021 - 12:55 -- Open Access
Reyes-Sandoval A
Parasitol Int. 2021 Jun 21;84:102411

An estimated 229 million cases of malaria occurred worldwide in 2019. Both, Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax are responsible for most of the malaria disease burden in the world. Despite difficulties in obtaining an accurate number, the global estimates of cases in 2019 are approximately 229 million of which 2.8% are due to P. vivax, and the total number of malaria deaths are approximately 409 million.

NOT Open Access | Structural analyses of the malaria parasite aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases provide new avenues for antimalarial drug discovery

June 30, 2021 - 11:28 -- NOT Open Access
Chhibber-Goel J, Yogavel M, Sharma A
Protein Sci. 2021 Jun 28

Malaria is a parasitic illness caused by the genus Plasmodium from the apicomplexan phylum. Five plasmodial species of P. falciparum, P. knowlesi, P. malariae, P. ovale and P. vivax are responsible for causing malaria in humans. According to the World Malaria Report 2019, there were 229 million cases and ~ 0.04 million deaths of which 67% were in children below five years of age.

Ivermectin treatment in humans for reducing malaria transmission

June 30, 2021 - 09:40 -- Open Access
de Souza DK, Thomas R, Bradley J, Leyrat C, Boakye DA, Okebe J
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021 Jun 29;6:CD013117

Malaria is transmitted through the bite of Plasmodium‐infected adult female Anopheles mosquitoes. Ivermectin, an anti‐parasitic drug, acts by killing mosquitoes that are exposed to the drug while feeding on the blood of people (known as blood feeds) who have ingested the drug. This effect on mosquitoes has been demonstrated by individual randomized trials. This effect has generated interest in using ivermectin as a tool for malaria control.

NOT Open Access | Identification of the Glycan Binding Profile of Human and Rodent Plasmodium Sporozoites

June 29, 2021 - 14:08 -- NOT Open Access
Poole J, Hartley-Tassell LE, Jennings MP, et al.
ACS Infect Dis. 2021 Jun 25

The transmission of Plasmodium spp. sporozoites to the mammalian host is the first step in the initiation of the mosquito-borne disease known as malaria. The exact route of transmission from the bloodstream to the liver is still not clearly elucidated, and identification of the host glycan structures bound by the sporozoites may inform as to which host cells are involved.


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