Malaria in humans is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. These parasites are transmitted by the bite of an infective female Anopheles species mosquito. The majority of malaria infections in the United States occur among persons who have traveled to regions with ongoing malaria transmission. However, malaria is occasionally acquired by persons who have not traveled out of the country through exposure to infected blood products, congenital transmission, nosocomial exposure, or local mosquitoborne transmission. Malaria surveillance in the United States is conducted to provide information on its occurrence (e.g., temporal, geographic, and demographic), guide prevention and treatment recommendations for travelers and patients, and facilitate rapid transmission control measures if locally acquired cases are identified.
The relationship between deforestation and malaria is a spatiotemporal process of variation in Plasmodium incidence in human-dominated Amazonian rural environments. The present study aimed to assess the underlying mechanisms of malarial exposure risk at a fine scale in 5-km2 sites across the Brazilian Amazon, using field-collected data with a longitudinal spatiotemporally structured approach.
Fifty years ago, Italy was declared a malaria-free country by the World Health Organization (WHO). In remembering this important anniversary, the authors of this paper describe the long journey that led to this goal. In the century following the unification of Italy, malaria was one of the main public health problems. At the end of the 19th century, malaria cases amounted to 2 million, with 15,000-20,000 deaths per year.
Host phylogenetic relatedness and ecological similarity are thought to contribute to parasite community assembly and infection rates. However, recent landscape level anthropogenic changes may disrupt host-parasite systems by impacting functional and phylogenetic diversity of host communities. We examined whether changes in host functional and phylogenetic diversity, forest cover, and minimum temperature influence the prevalence, diversity, and distributions of avian haemosporidian parasites (genera Haemoproteus and Plasmodium) across 18 avian communities in the Atlantic Forest.
Plasmodium ovale is not usually the focus of most malaria research or intervention programmes and has lately been termed the neglected human malaria parasites. The parasite exists as two genetically distinct sympatric species namely P. ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri but information on the distribution of P. ovale sub-species is lacking in Nigeria. The objective of this study, therefore, was aimed at characterizing the P. ovale sub-species in isolates from symptomatic individuals in North-central Nigeria.
Malaria is caused by unicellular Plasmodium parasites. Plasmodium relies on diverse microtubule cytoskeletal structures for its reproduction, multiplication, and dissemination. Due to the small size of this parasite, its cytoskeleton has been primarily observable by electron microscopy (EM). Here, we demonstrate that the nanoscale cytoskeleton organisation is within reach using ultrastructure expansion microscopy (U-ExM).
All intracellular pathogens must escape (egress) from the confines of their host cell to disseminate and proliferate. The malaria parasite only replicates in an intracellular vacuole or in a cyst, and must undergo egress at four distinct phases during its complex life cycle, each time disrupting, in a highly regulated manner, the membranes or cyst wall that entrap the parasites.
As countries in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) increasingly focus their malaria control and elimination efforts on reducing forest-related transmission, greater understanding of the relationship between deforestation and malaria incidence will be essential for programs to assess and meet their 2030 elimination goals. Leveraging village-level health facility surveillance data and forest cover data in a spatio-temporal modeling framework, we found evidence that deforestation is associated with short-term increases, but long-term decreases in confirmed malaria case incidence in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR).
In spite of the global effort to eliminate malaria, it remains the most significant vector-borne disease of humans. Plasmodium falciparum is the dominant malaria parasite in sub-Saharan Africa. However, Plasmodium vivax is becoming widely spread throughout Africa. The overuse of vector control methods has resulted in a remarkable change in the behaviour of mosquito that feeds on human as well as on vector composition. The aim of this study was to identify Anopheles mosquito species in vivax malaria endemic regions and to investigate their role in P. vivax circumsporozoite protein (Pvcsp) allele diversity.
Transmission of malaria-causing parasites to and by the mosquito relies on active parasite migration and constitutes bottlenecks in the Plasmodium life cycle. Parasite adaption to the biochemically and physically different environments must hence be a key evolutionary driver for transmission efficiency. To probe how subtle but physiologically relevant changes in environmental elasticity impact parasite migration, we introduce 2D and 3D polyacrylamide gels to study ookinetes, the parasite forms emigrating from the mosquito blood meal and sporozoites, the forms transmitted to the vertebrate host.