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Natural Human Infections with Plasmodium cynomolgi, P. inui, and 4 other Simian Malaria Parasites, Malaysia

August 4, 2021 - 12:25 -- Open Access
Yap NJ, Hossain H, Nada-Raja T, Ngui R, Muslim A, Hoh BP, Khaw LT, Kadir KA, Simon Divis PC, Vythilingam I, Singh B, Lim YA
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Aug;27(8):2187-2191

We detected the simian malaria parasites Plasmodium knowlesi, P. cynomolgi, P. inui, P. coatneyi, P. inui-like, and P. simiovale among forest fringe-living indigenous communities from various locations in Malaysia. Our findings underscore the importance of using molecular tools to identify newly emergent malaria parasites in humans.

NOT Open Access | Highly sensitive droplet digital PCR-based diagnostics for the surveillance of malaria vector populations in low transmission and incipient resistance settings

August 4, 2021 - 12:11 -- NOT Open Access
Mavridis K, Michaelidou K, Vontas J
Expert Rev Mol Diagn. 2021 Jul 30

Sensitive monitoring of Plasmodium infective mosquitoes in low malaria transmission settings is of high priority for disease control. Early detection of insecticide resistance at low frequencies is also key for vector monitoring nowadays, when new insecticides are launched to control vector populations.

NOT Open Access | Illuminating Plasmodium invasion by lattice-light-sheet microscopy

August 4, 2021 - 12:05 -- NOT Open Access
Ganter M, Frischknecht F
Trends Parasitol. 2021 Jul 28:S1471-4922(21)00173-2

Plasmodium merozoites invade erythrocytes in a stepwise manner through ligand binding, calcium signaling, and membrane deformation. Using a recently developed light-sheet microscope, Geoghegan et al. investigated invasion with unprecedented temporal resolution.Their spectacular footage revealed roles for host cell cholesterol and pore formation at the parasite-host cell interface.

NOT Open Access | Proteomic identification of the contents of small extracellular vesicles from in vivo Plasmodium yoelii infection

August 4, 2021 - 11:51 -- NOT Open Access
De Sousa KP, Potriquet J, Mulvenna J, Sotillo J, Loukas A, Doolan DL
Int J Parasitol. 2021 Jul 30:S0020-7519(21)00235-6

Small extracellular vesicles (sEVs), including exosomes, are formed by the endocytic pathway and contain genetic and protein material which reflect the contents of their cells of origin. These contents have a role in vesicle-mediated information transfer, as well as physiological and pathological functions. Thus, these vesicles are of great interest as therapeutic targets, or as vehicles for immunomodulatory control.

A malaria parasite phospholipid flippase safeguards midgut traversal of ookinetes for mosquito transmission

July 28, 2021 - 12:51 -- Open Access
Yang Z, Shi Y, Cui H, Yang S, Gao H, Yuan J
Sci Adv. 2021 Jul 23;7(30):eabf6015

Mosquito midgut epithelium traversal is essential for malaria parasite transmission. Phospholipid flippases are eukaryotic type 4 P-type adenosine triphosphatases (P4-ATPases), which, in association with CDC50, translocate phospholipids across the membrane lipid bilayers. In this study, we investigated the function of a putative P4-ATPase, ATP7, from the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium yoelii Disruption of ATP7 blocks the parasite infection of mosquitoes.

NOT Open Access | Occurrence and Distribution of Non-falciparum Malaria Parasite Species among Adolescents and Adults in Malawi

July 14, 2021 - 10:39 -- NOT Open Access
Gumbo A, Topazian HM, Juliano JJ, et al.
J Infect Dis. 2021 Jul 9:jiab353

Plasmodium falciparum malaria dominates throughout sub-Saharan Africa, but the prevalence of P. malariae, P. ovale spp., and P. vivax increasingly contribute to infection in countries which control malaria using P. falciparum-specific diagnostic and treatment strategies.

Structural basis of LAIR1 targeting by polymorphic Plasmodium RIFINs

July 13, 2021 - 15:03 -- Open Access
Xu K, Wang Y, Kwong PD, et al.
Nat Commun. 2021 Jul 9;12(1):4226

RIFIN, a large family of Plasmodium variant surface antigens, plays a crucial role in malaria pathogenesis by mediating immune suppression through activation of inhibitory receptors such as LAIR1, and antibodies with LAIR1 inserts have been identified that bind infected erythrocytes through RIFIN. However, details of RIFIN-mediated LAIR1 recognition and receptor activation have been unclear.

Screening of viral-vectored P. falciparum pre-erythrocytic candidate vaccine antigens using chimeric rodent parasites

July 13, 2021 - 14:54 -- Open Access
Kolli SK, Salman AM, Janse CJ, et al.
PLoS One. 2021 Jul 12;16(7):e0254498

To screen for additional vaccine candidate antigens of Plasmodium pre-erythrocytic stages, fourteen P. falciparum proteins were selected based on expression in sporozoites or their role in establishment of hepatocyte infection. For preclinical evaluation of immunogenicity of these proteins in mice, chimeric P. berghei sporozoites were created that express the P. falciparum proteins in sporozoites as an additional copy gene under control of the uis4 gene promoter.

Pharmacokinetic evaluation of Chalcone derivatives with antimalarial activity in New Zealand White Rabbits

July 13, 2021 - 14:48 -- Open Access
Sinha S, Prakash A, Medhi B, Sehgal A, Batovska DI, Sehgal R
BMC Res Notes. 2021 Jul 8;14(1):264

Malaria is a major global health concern with the urgent need for new treatment alternatives due to the alarming increase of drug-resistant Plasmodium strains. Chalcones and its derivatives are important pharmacophores showing antimalarial activity. Determination of the pharmacokinetic variables at the preliminary step of drug development for any drug candidates is an essential component of in vivo antimalarial efficacy tests. Substandard pharmacokinetic variables are often responsible for insufficient therapeutic effect. Therefore, three chalcone derivatives, 1, 2, and 3, having antimalarial potency were studied further for potential therapeutic efficacy.

An Ecologically Framed Comparison of The Potential for Zoonotic Transmission of Non-Human and Human-Infecting Species of Malaria Parasite

July 7, 2021 - 15:02 -- Open Access
Clark NF, Taylor-Robinson AW
Yale J Biol Med. 2021 Jun 30;94(2):361-373

The threats, both real and perceived, surrounding the development of new and emerging infectious diseases of humans are of critical concern to public health and well-being. Among these risks is the potential for zoonotic transmission to humans of species of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium, that have been considered historically to infect exclusively non-human hosts.


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