We detected the simian malaria parasites Plasmodium knowlesi, P. cynomolgi, P. inui, P. coatneyi, P. inui-like, and P. simiovale among forest fringe-living indigenous communities from various locations in Malaysia. Our findings underscore the importance of using molecular tools to identify newly emergent malaria parasites in humans.
Sensitive monitoring of Plasmodium infective mosquitoes in low malaria transmission settings is of high priority for disease control. Early detection of insecticide resistance at low frequencies is also key for vector monitoring nowadays, when new insecticides are launched to control vector populations.
Plasmodium merozoites invade erythrocytes in a stepwise manner through ligand binding, calcium signaling, and membrane deformation. Using a recently developed light-sheet microscope, Geoghegan et al. investigated invasion with unprecedented temporal resolution.Their spectacular footage revealed roles for host cell cholesterol and pore formation at the parasite-host cell interface.
Small extracellular vesicles (sEVs), including exosomes, are formed by the endocytic pathway and contain genetic and protein material which reflect the contents of their cells of origin. These contents have a role in vesicle-mediated information transfer, as well as physiological and pathological functions. Thus, these vesicles are of great interest as therapeutic targets, or as vehicles for immunomodulatory control.
Mosquito midgut epithelium traversal is essential for malaria parasite transmission. Phospholipid flippases are eukaryotic type 4 P-type adenosine triphosphatases (P4-ATPases), which, in association with CDC50, translocate phospholipids across the membrane lipid bilayers. In this study, we investigated the function of a putative P4-ATPase, ATP7, from the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium yoelii Disruption of ATP7 blocks the parasite infection of mosquitoes.
Plasmodium falciparum malaria dominates throughout sub-Saharan Africa, but the prevalence of P. malariae, P. ovale spp., and P. vivax increasingly contribute to infection in countries which control malaria using P. falciparum-specific diagnostic and treatment strategies.
RIFIN, a large family of Plasmodium variant surface antigens, plays a crucial role in malaria pathogenesis by mediating immune suppression through activation of inhibitory receptors such as LAIR1, and antibodies with LAIR1 inserts have been identified that bind infected erythrocytes through RIFIN. However, details of RIFIN-mediated LAIR1 recognition and receptor activation have been unclear.
To screen for additional vaccine candidate antigens of Plasmodium pre-erythrocytic stages, fourteen P. falciparum proteins were selected based on expression in sporozoites or their role in establishment of hepatocyte infection. For preclinical evaluation of immunogenicity of these proteins in mice, chimeric P. berghei sporozoites were created that express the P. falciparum proteins in sporozoites as an additional copy gene under control of the uis4 gene promoter.
Malaria is a major global health concern with the urgent need for new treatment alternatives due to the alarming increase of drug-resistant Plasmodium strains. Chalcones and its derivatives are important pharmacophores showing antimalarial activity. Determination of the pharmacokinetic variables at the preliminary step of drug development for any drug candidates is an essential component of in vivo antimalarial efficacy tests. Substandard pharmacokinetic variables are often responsible for insufficient therapeutic effect. Therefore, three chalcone derivatives, 1, 2, and 3, having antimalarial potency were studied further for potential therapeutic efficacy.
The threats, both real and perceived, surrounding the development of new and emerging infectious diseases of humans are of critical concern to public health and well-being. Among these risks is the potential for zoonotic transmission to humans of species of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium, that have been considered historically to infect exclusively non-human hosts.