Macaca fascicularis (long-tailed macaque) is the most widespread species of macaque in Southeast Asia and the only species of monkey found naturally in the Philippines. The species is the natural host for the zoonotic malaria species, Plasmodium knowlesi and Plasmodium cynomolgi and for the potentially zoonotic species, Plasmodium inui. Moreover, other Plasmodium species such as Plasmodium coatneyi and Plasmodium fieldi are also natural parasites of M. fascicularis. The aims of this study were to identify and determine the prevalence of Plasmodium species infecting wild and captive long-tailed macaques from the Philippines.
Plasmodium falciparum parasite is the most deadly species of human malaria, and the development of an effective vaccine that prevents P. falciparum infection and transmission is a key target for malarial elimination and eradication programmes. P. falciparum cell-traversal protein for ookinetes and sporozoites (PfCelTOS) is an advanced vaccine candidate. A comparative study was performed to characterize the immune responses in BALB/c mouse immunized with Escherichia coli-expressed recombinant PfCelTOS (rPfCelTOS) in toll-like receptor (TLR)-based adjuvants, CpG and Poly I:C alone or in combination (CpG + Poly I:C), followed by the assessment of transmission-reducing activity (TRA) of anti-rPfCelTOS antibodies obtained from different vaccine groups in Anopheles stephensi.
Parasitic co‐infections are common in Rwandan schoolchildren, and are associated with a rather silent clinical manifestation that nevertheless may affect school performance and long‐term development.
Many human parasites and pathogens have closely related counterparts among non-human primates.
Plasmodium infection, both for IFN-γ-dependent effector mechanisms and providing B cell helper signals.
Innate immunity is an ancient and conserved defense system that provides an early effective response against invaders.
The putative Plasmodium translocon of exported proteins (PTEX) is essential for transport of malarial effector proteins across a parasite-encasing vacuolar membrane into host erythrocytes, but the mechanism of this process remains unknown.
Currently, there are very few studies of avian malaria that investigate relationships among the host-vector-parasite triad concomitantly.
Cell motility is essential for protozoan and metazoan organisms and typically relies on the dynamic turnover of actin filaments.
Currently, the most effective antimalarial is artemisinin, which is extracted from the leaves of medicinal herb Artemisia annua L. (A. annua).