Cerebral malaria (CM) is one of the most severe pathologies of malaria; it induces neuro-cognitive sequelae and has a high mortality rate. Although many factors involved in the development of CM have been discovered, its pathogenic mechanisms are still not completely understood. Most studies on CM have focused on the blood-brain barrier (BBB), despite the importance of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB), which protects the brain from peripheral inflammation.
Antimalarial candidates possessing novel mechanisms of action are needed to control drug resistant Plasmodium falciparum. We were drawn to Malaria Box compound 1 (MMV665831) by virtue of its excellent in vitro potency, and twelve analogs were prepared to probe its structure–activity relationship. Modulation of the diethyl amino group was fruitful, producing compound 25, which was twice as potent as 1 against cultured parasites.
Malaria is a major public health problem in tropical and subtropical countries of the World. During the year 1999, Visakhapatnam district of Andhra Pradesh, India experienced a major epidemic of malaria, and nearly 41,805 cases were reported. Hence, a retrospective malaria surveillance study was conducted from 2001 to 2016 and reported nearly a total of 149,317 malaria cases during the study period.
Malaria is one of most important parasitic disease, which is still much prevalent in India. The burden of malaria in India is complex and the proportions of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum vary across India, because of the highly variable malaria eco-epidemiological profiles, transmission factors, and the presence of multiple Plasmodium species and Anopheles vectors.
The use of molecular diagnostics has revealed an unexpectedly large number of asymptomatic low-density malaria infections in many malaria endemic areas. This study compared the gains in parasite prevalence obtained by the use of ultra-sensitive (us)-qPCR as compared to standard qPCR in cross-sectional surveys conducted in Thailand, Brazil and Papua New Guinea (PNG). The compared assays differed in the copy number of qPCR targets in the parasite genome.
The mosquito midgut is a critical barrier that Plasmodium parasites must overcome to complete their developmental cycle and be transmitted to a new vertebrate host. Previous confocal studies with fixed infected midguts showed that ookinetes traverse midgut epithelial cells and cause irreversible tissue damage. Here, we investigated the spatiotemporal dynamics of ookinete midgut traversal and the response of midgut cells to invasion.
Plasmodium malariae is a widely spread but neglected human malaria parasite, which causes chronic infections. Studies on genetic polymorphisms of anti-malarial drug target genes in P. malariae are limited. Previous reports have shown polymorphisms in the P. malariae dihydrofolate reductase gene associated with pyrimethamine resistance and linked to pyrimethamine drug pressure. This study investigated polymorphisms of the P. malariae homologous genes, chloroquine resistant transporter and multidrug resistant 1, associated with chloroquine and mefloquine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum.
Rhesus macaques are valuable pre-clinical models for malaria vaccine development. The Plasmodium knowlesi/rhesus and Plasmodium falciparum/rhesus models are two established platforms for malaria vaccine testing, and both have previously been used to assess live-attenuated sporozoite vaccines. However, there is evidence that the susceptibility of the rhesus liver to P. knowlesi versus P. falciparum sporozoites likely differs, potentially complicating comparisons between these two platforms.
The monkey parasite Plasmodium knowlesi is an emerging public health issue in Southeast Asia. In Sabah, Malaysia, P. knowlesi is now the dominant cause of human malaria. Molecular detection methods for P. knowlesi are essential for accurate diagnosis and in monitoring progress towards malaria elimination of other Plasmodium species. However, recent commercially available PCR malaria kits have unpublished P. knowlesi gene targets or have not been evaluated against clinical samples.
Malaria is still a heavy public health concern in Madagascar. Few studies combining parasitology and entomology have been conducted despite the need for accurate information to design effective vector control measures. In a Malagasy region of moderate to intense transmission of both Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax, parasitology and entomology have been combined to survey malaria transmission in two nearby villages.