Malaria caused by various types of Plasmodium has become a global health problem. One of the drugs used as the first line of malaria therapy is primaquine (PMQ). PMQ is generally administered through the oral route. However, the use of PMQ orally could potentially cause some side effects and undergo the first-pass metabolism in the liver, reducing its effectiveness. Therefore, it is necessary to develop another drug administration route to avoid this effect. In this study, for the first time, PMQ was formulated into a transdermal patch for transdermal delivery, combined with solid microneedles, Dermaroller®. Following several optimizations, HPMC and glycerin were used as the main polymer and plasticizer, respectively.
Plasmodium parasites that infect humans are highly polymorphic, and induce various infections ranging from asymptomatic state to life-threatening diseases. However, how the differences between the parasites affect host immune responses during blood-stage infection remains largely unknown. We investigated the CD4 + T-cell immune responses in mice infected with P. berghei ANKA (PbA) or P. chabaudi chabaudi AS (Pcc) using PbT-II cells, which recognize a common epitope of these parasites. In the acute phase of infection, CD4 + T-cell responses in PbA-infected mice showed a lower involvement of Th1 cells and a lower proportion of Ly6C lo effector CD4 + T cells than those in Pcc-infected mice.
The global burden of malaria is often reported as a single value that combines the malarias caused by the 5 species of plasmodia that naturally infect humans. The vast majority of this burden is attributable to Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malarias, which have only recently begun to be reported separately in the World Malaria Report .
Determining malaria transmission within regions of low, heterogenous prevalence is difficult. A variety of malaria tests exist and range from identification of diagnostic infection to testing for prior exposure. This study describes concordance of multiple malaria tests using data from a 2015 household survey conducted in Ethiopia.
Endemic malaria, which claimed 229 million new cases and 409,000 deaths in 2019 mainly in Africa, was eradicated from Europe by the mid-20th century. Historical descriptions of intermittent tertian and quartan fever reported in texts of Hippocrates in Greece and Celsus in Italy suggest malaria. A few paleomicrobiology investigations have confirmed the presence of malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum in 1st, 2nd, and 5th century infected individuals in diverse regions of Italy, and Plasmodium sp. later in Bavaria.
Plasmodium spp. sporozoite rates in mosquitoes are used to better understand malaria transmission intensity, the relative importance of vector species and the impact of interventions. These rates are typically estimated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) utilizing antibodies against the circumsporozoite protein of Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax VK210 (P. vivax210) or P. vivax VK247 (P. vivax247), employing assays that were developed over three decades ago. The ELISA method requires a separate assay plate for each analyte tested and can be time consuming as well as requiring sample volumes not always available. The bead-based multiplex platform allows simultaneous measurement of multiple analytes and may improve the lower limit of detection for sporozoites.
Ethiopia is one of the scarce rare African countries where Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum co-exist. There has been no attempt to derive a robust prevalence estimate of P. vivax in the country although a clear understanding of the epidemiology of this parasite is essential for informed decisions. This systematic review and meta-analysis, therefore, is aimed to synthesize the available evidences on the distribution of P. vivax infection by different locations/regions, study years, eco-epidemiological zones, and study settings in Ethiopia.
Malaria is considered one of the most important scourges that humanity has faced during its history, being responsible every year for numerous deaths worldwide. The disease is caused by protozoan parasites, among which two species are responsible of the majority of the burden, Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. For these two parasite species, the questions of their origin (how and when they appeared in humans), of their spread throughout the world, as well as how they have adapted to humans have long been of interest to the scientific community.
Anopheles aquasalis is an important malaria vector in coastal regions of South America and islands of the Caribbean. In its original description, the species was divided into two varieties, based on the scaling patterns of their hind-tarsomere 2. Specimens from our 25-year established colony, used for Plasmodium experimental infections, still exhibit both scaling tarsomere patterns.
Malaria, a parasitic disease caused by protozoa belonging to the genus Plasmodium, continues to represent a formidable public health challenge. Despite being a preventable disease, cases reported among travelers have continued to increase in recent decades.