Mosquito midgut epithelium traversal is essential for malaria parasite transmission. Phospholipid flippases are eukaryotic type 4 P-type adenosine triphosphatases (P4-ATPases), which, in association with CDC50, translocate phospholipids across the membrane lipid bilayers. In this study, we investigated the function of a putative P4-ATPase, ATP7, from the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium yoelii Disruption of ATP7 blocks the parasite infection of mosquitoes.
Plasmodium falciparum malaria dominates throughout sub-Saharan Africa, but the prevalence of P. malariae, P. ovale spp., and P. vivax increasingly contribute to infection in countries which control malaria using P. falciparum-specific diagnostic and treatment strategies.
RIFIN, a large family of Plasmodium variant surface antigens, plays a crucial role in malaria pathogenesis by mediating immune suppression through activation of inhibitory receptors such as LAIR1, and antibodies with LAIR1 inserts have been identified that bind infected erythrocytes through RIFIN. However, details of RIFIN-mediated LAIR1 recognition and receptor activation have been unclear.
To screen for additional vaccine candidate antigens of Plasmodium pre-erythrocytic stages, fourteen P. falciparum proteins were selected based on expression in sporozoites or their role in establishment of hepatocyte infection. For preclinical evaluation of immunogenicity of these proteins in mice, chimeric P. berghei sporozoites were created that express the P. falciparum proteins in sporozoites as an additional copy gene under control of the uis4 gene promoter.
Malaria is a major global health concern with the urgent need for new treatment alternatives due to the alarming increase of drug-resistant Plasmodium strains. Chalcones and its derivatives are important pharmacophores showing antimalarial activity. Determination of the pharmacokinetic variables at the preliminary step of drug development for any drug candidates is an essential component of in vivo antimalarial efficacy tests. Substandard pharmacokinetic variables are often responsible for insufficient therapeutic effect. Therefore, three chalcone derivatives, 1, 2, and 3, having antimalarial potency were studied further for potential therapeutic efficacy.
The threats, both real and perceived, surrounding the development of new and emerging infectious diseases of humans are of critical concern to public health and well-being. Among these risks is the potential for zoonotic transmission to humans of species of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium, that have been considered historically to infect exclusively non-human hosts.
The recent World Malaria report shows that progress in malaria elimination has stalled. Current data acquisition by NMCPs depend on passive case detection and clinical reports focused mainly on Plasmodium falciparum (Pf). In recent times, several countries in sub-Saharan Africa have reported cases of Plasmodium vivax (Pv) with a considerable number being Duffy negative.
The effect of primaquine in preventing P. vivax relapses from dormant stages is well established. For P. ovale, the relapse characteristics and the use primaquine is not as well studied. We set to evaluate the relapsing properties of these two species, in relation to primaquine use among imported malaria cases in a non-endemic setting.
Plasmodium vivax is responsible for the majority of malaria cases outside Africa. Unlike P. falciparum, the P. vivax life-cycle includes a dormant liver stage, the hypnozoite, which can cause infection in the absence of mosquito transmission. An effective vaccine against P. vivax blood stages would limit symptoms and pathology from such recurrent infections, and therefore could play a critical role in the control of this species. Vaccine development in P. vivax, however, lags considerably behind P. falciparum, which has many identified targets with several having transitioned to Phase II testing.
Ethiopia has achieved considerable progresses in the prevention and control of malaria in the past decades; hitherto it is a formidable health concern and socio-economic impediment. This study aimed at assessing the magnitude, knowledge, attitudes and practices towards malaria among febrile patients attending Chagni health center, northwest Ethiopia.