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plasmodium

Rapid Screening for Non-falciparum Malaria in Elimination Settings Using Multiplex Antigen and Antibody Detection: Post Hoc Identification of Plasmodium malariae in an Infant in Haiti

April 7, 2021 - 12:28 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
van den Hoogen LL, Herman C, Ashton RA, et al.
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 5:tpmd201450

Haiti is targeting malaria elimination by 2025. The Grand'Anse department in southwestern Haiti experiences one-third to half of all nationally reported Plasmodium falciparum cases. Although there are historical reports of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium malariae, today, non-falciparum infections would remain undetected because of extensive use of falciparum-specific histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2) rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) at health facilities. A recent case-control study was conducted in Grand'Anse to identify risk factors for P. falciparum infection using HRP2-based RDTs (n = 1,107).

Transport mechanisms at the malaria parasite-host cell interface

April 7, 2021 - 12:01 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Beck JR, Ho CM
Reference: 
PLoS Pathog. 2021 Apr 1;17(4):e1009394

Obligate intracellular malaria parasites reside within a vacuolar compartment generated during invasion which is the principal interface between pathogen and host. To subvert their host cell and support their metabolism, these parasites coordinate a range of transport activities at this membrane interface that are critically important to parasite survival and virulence, including nutrient import, waste efflux, effector protein export, and uptake of host cell cytosol.

NOT Open Access | Erythrocyte membrane proteins involved in the immune response to Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infection

April 7, 2021 - 11:58 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Castro-Salguedo C, Mendez-Cuadro D, Moneriz C
Reference: 
Parasitol Res. 2021 Apr 2

Invasion of Plasmodium into the red blood cell involves the interactions of a substantial number of proteins, with red cell membrane proteins as the most involved throughout the process from entry to exit. The objective of this work was to identify proteins of the human erythrocyte membrane capable of generating an antigenic response to P. falciparum and P. vivax infection, with the goal of searching for new molecular targets of interest with an immunological origin to prevent Plasmodium infection.

NOT Open Access | Exploring Heteroaromatic Rings as a Replacement for the Labile Amide of Antiplasmodial Pantothenamides

April 6, 2021 - 14:29 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Guan J, Spry C, Auclair K, et al.
Reference: 
J Med Chem. 2021 Apr 1

Malaria-causing Plasmodium parasites are developing resistance to antimalarial drugs, providing the impetus for new antiplasmodials. Although pantothenamides show potent antiplasmodial activity, hydrolysis by pantetheinases/vanins present in blood rapidly inactivates them. We herein report the facile synthesis and biological activity of a small library of pantothenamide analogues in which the labile amide group is replaced with a heteroaromatic ring.

NOT Open Access | Multi-omics approaches to improve malaria therapy

April 1, 2021 - 08:55 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Zhou M, Varol A, Efferth T
Reference: 
Pharmacol Res. 2021 Mar 22:105570

Malaria contributes to the most widespread infectious diseases worldwide. Even though current drugs are commercially available, the ever-increasing drug resistance problem by malaria parasites poses new challenges in malaria therapy. Hence, searching for efficient therapeutic strategies is of high priority in malaria control. In recent years, multi-omics technologies have been extensively applied to provide a more holistic view of functional principles and dynamics of biological mechanisms. We briefly review multi-omics technologies and focus on recent malaria progress conducted with the help of various omics methods.

NOT Open Access | Geographical spread and structural basis of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine drug-resistant malaria parasites

March 31, 2021 - 14:48 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Chaturvedi R, Chhibber-Goel J, Verma I, Gopinathan S, Parvez S, Sharma A
Reference: 
Int J Parasitol. 2021 Mar 25:S0020-7519(21)00113-2

The global spread of sulfadoxine (Sdx, S) and pyrimethamine (Pyr, P) resistance is attributed to increasing number of mutations in DHPS and DHFR enzymes encoded by malaria parasites. The association between drug resistance mutations and SP efficacy is complex. Here we provide an overview of the geographical spread of SP resistance mutations in Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) and Plasmodium vivax (Pv) encoded dhps and dhfr genes.

Asymptomatic Plasmodium infection and associated factors among pregnant women in the Merti district, Oromia, Ethiopia

March 31, 2021 - 14:41 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Subussa BW, Eshetu T, Degefa T, Ali MM
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2021 Mar 25;16(3):e0248074

Asymptomatic Plasmodium infection (API) that occurs during pregnancy increases the risk of stillbirths, abortion, premature delivery, and low birth weight. API also hinders the control and prevention of malaria as infected hosts serve as silent reservoirs for transmission of Plasmodium species in the community.

Objective

The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of API and associated factors among pregnant women. This community-based cross-sectional study was conducted at Merti district, Oromia, Ethiopia among 364 pregnant women from March to September 2018.

Diversity, distribution, and drivers of polychromophilus infection in Malagasy bats

March 24, 2021 - 14:29 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Mercia Rasoanoro, Steven M. Goodman, Milijaona Randrianarivelojosia, Mbola Rakotondratsimba, Koussay Dellagi, Pablo Tortosa and Beza Ramasindrazana
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:157, 20 March 2021

Numerous studies have been undertaken to advance knowledge of apicomplexan parasites infecting vertebrates, including humans. Of these parasites, the genus Plasmodium has been most extensively studied because of the socio-economic and public health impacts of malaria. In non-human vertebrates, studies on malaria or malaria-like parasite groups have been conducted but information is far from complete. In Madagascar, recent studies on bat blood parasites indicate that three chiropteran families (Miniopteridae, Rhinonycteridae, and Vespertilionidae) are infected by the genus Polychromophilus with pronounced host specificity: Miniopterus spp. (Miniopteridae) harbour Polychromophilus melanipherus and Myotis goudoti (Vespertilionidae) is infected by Polychromophilus murinus. However, most of the individuals analysed in previous studies were sampled on the western and central portions of the island. The aims of this study are (1) to add new information on bat blood parasites in eastern Madagascar, and (2) to highlight biotic and abiotic variables driving prevalence across the island.

NOT Open Access | Differential diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in mixed infection by colorimetric nanogold probes

March 24, 2021 - 14:18 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Wangmaung N, Chomean S, Ittarat W
Reference: 
Anal Biochem. 2021 Mar 20:114173

Malaria is an infectious disease reported mostly in the tropical region. The most severe human malaria is Plasmodium falciparum since it can cause cerebral malaria. Therefore, the presence of P.falciparum either in single or mixed infection needs accurate diagnosis. In some mixed infections, the presence of P.falciparum may be cryptic which cannot be detected by microscopic examination.

Comparison of Plasmodium ovale curtisi and Plasmodium ovale wallikeri infections by a meta-analysis approach

March 24, 2021 - 14:16 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Mahittikorn A, Masangkay FR, Kotepui KU, Milanez GJ, Kotepui M
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2021 Mar 19;11(1):6409

Malaria caused by Plasmodium ovale species is considered a neglected tropical disease with limited information about its characteristics. It also remains unclear whether the two distinct species P. ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri exhibit differences in their prevalence, geographic distribution, clinical characteristics, or laboratory parameters. Therefore, this study was conducted to clarify these differences to support global malaria control and eradication programs. Studies reporting the occurrence of P. ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri were explored in databases.

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