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plasmodium

Bisphosphoglycerate Mutase Deficiency Protects against Cerebral Malaria and Severe Malaria-Induced Anemia

September 24, 2020 - 08:15 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Xu G, van Bruggen R, Gros P, et al.
Reference: 
Cell Rep. 2020 Sep 22;32(12):108170

The replication cycle and pathogenesis of the Plasmodium malarial parasite involves rapid expansion in red blood cells (RBCs), and variants of certain RBC-specific proteins protect against malaria in humans. In RBCs, bisphosphoglycerate mutase (BPGM) acts as a key allosteric regulator of hemoglobin/oxyhemoglobin. We demonstrate here that a loss-of-function mutation in the murine Bpgm (BpgmL166P) gene confers protection against both Plasmodium-induced cerebral malaria and blood-stage malaria.

Prevalence of and risk factors for severe malaria caused by Plasmodium and dengue virus co-infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis

September 24, 2020 - 08:09 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kotepui M, Kotepui KU, Milanez GJ, Masangkay FR
Reference: 
Infect Dis Poverty. 2020 Sep 22;9(1):134.

Co-infection with both Plasmodium and dengue virus (DENV) infectious species could have serious and fatal outcomes if left undiagnosed and without timely treatment. The present study aimed to determine the pooled prevalence estimate of severe malaria among patients with co-infection, the risk of severe diseases due to co-infection, and to describe the complications of severe malaria and severe dengue among patients with co-infection.

Stratifying malaria receptivity in Bangladesh using archived rapid diagnostic tests

September 24, 2020 - 08:07 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
André Barembaye Sagna, Mohammad Golam Kibria, Shamsun Naher, Shayla Islam, M. M. Aktaruzzaman, Mohammad Shafiul Alam and Cristian Koepfli
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:345, 23 September 2020

Surveillance of low-density infections and of exposure to vectors is crucial to understand where malaria elimination might be feasible, and where the risk of outbreaks is high. Archived rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), used by national malaria control and elimination programs for clinical diagnosis, present a valuable, yet rarely used resource for in-depth studies on malaria epidemiology.

Placental Malaria

September 23, 2020 - 09:21 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Zakama AK, Ozarslan N, Gaw SL
Reference: 
Curr Trop Med Rep. 2020 Sep 16:1-10

Placental malaria is the primary mechanism through which malaria in pregnancy causes adverse perinatal outcomes. This review summarizes recent work on the significance, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and prevention of placental malaria.

From Circulation to Cultivation: Plasmodium In Vivo versus In Vitro

September 23, 2020 - 09:06 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Brown AC, Guler JL
Reference: 
Trends Parasitol. 2020 Sep 18:S1471-4922(20)30224-5

Research on Plasmodium parasites has driven breakthroughs in reducing malaria morbidity and mortality. Experimental analysis of in vivo/ex vivo versus in vitro samples serve unique roles in Plasmodium research. However, these distinctly different environments lead to discordant biology between parasites in host circulation and those under laboratory cultivation.

Mosquito midgut Enterobacter cloacae and Serratia marcescens affect the fitness of adult female Anopheles gambiae s.l.

September 22, 2020 - 10:36 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ezemuoka LC, Akorli EA, Aboagye-Antwi F, Akorli J
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2020 Sep 18;15(9):e0238931

Some bacteria species found in the mosquito midgut have demonstrated their role in interrupting the development of Plasmodium within the midgut of the Anopheles mosquito and have been identified as potential candidates for novel bacteria-mediated disease control. However, to use these bacteria successfully in biocontrol mechanisms their effect on the fitness of the vector into which they have been introduced has to be evaluated.

NOT Open Access | Plasmodium vivax strains use alternative pathways for invasion

September 22, 2020 - 10:16 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Kanjee U, Grüring C, Duraisingh MT, et al.
Reference: 
J Infect Dis. 2020 Sep 17:jiaa592

Plasmodium vivax has two invasion ligand/host receptor pathways (PvDBP/DARC and PvRBP2b/TfR1) that are promising targets for therapeutic intervention. We optimized invasion assays with isogenic cultured reticulocytes.

Distribution pattern of amino acid mutations in chloroquine and antifolate drug resistance associated genes in complicated and uncomplicated Plasmodium vivax isolates from Chandigarh, North India

September 16, 2020 - 13:09 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kaur H, Sehgal R, Kumar A, Bharti PK, Bansal D, Mohapatra PK, Mahanta J, Sultan AA
Reference: 
BMC Infect Dis. 2020 Sep 15;20(1):671

The increasing antimalarial drug resistance is a significant hindrance to malaria control and elimination programs. For the last six decades, chloroquine (CQ) plus pyrimethamine remains the first-line treatment for P. vivax malaria. Regions where both P. falciparum and P. vivax co-exist, P. vivax is exposed to antifolate drugs due to either misdiagnosis or improper treatment that causes selective drug pressure to evolve. Therefore, the present study aims to estimate antimalarial drug resistance among the complicated and uncomplicated P. vivax patients.

Caspase-8 mediates inflammation and disease in rodent malaria

September 16, 2020 - 13:03 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Pereira LMN, Assis PA, Gazzinelli RT, et al.
Reference: 
Nat Commun. 2020 Sep 14;11(1):4596

Earlier studies indicate that either the canonical or non-canonical pathways of inflammasome activation have a limited role on malaria pathogenesis. Here, we report that caspase-8 is a central mediator of systemic inflammation, septic shock in the Plasmodium chabaudi-infected mice and the P. berghei-induced experimental cerebral malaria (ECM).

A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis of optimizing treatment for malaria

September 12, 2020 - 14:56 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Zhang R, Dong X, Wang J, Guo Y, Dai Y
Reference: 
Medicine (Baltimore). 2020 Sep 4;99(36):e22044

Malaria remains a global health threat for centuries. In recent years, a rising resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to current standard artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) leads to increasing treatment failures and requires for optimized treatment. Here, we intend to make a systematic review and meta-analysis of optimizing treatment for malaria, so as to find a potential optimal treatment.

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