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plasmodium

A malaria parasite phospholipid flippase safeguards midgut traversal of ookinetes for mosquito transmission

July 28, 2021 - 12:51 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Yang Z, Shi Y, Cui H, Yang S, Gao H, Yuan J
Reference: 
Sci Adv. 2021 Jul 23;7(30):eabf6015

Mosquito midgut epithelium traversal is essential for malaria parasite transmission. Phospholipid flippases are eukaryotic type 4 P-type adenosine triphosphatases (P4-ATPases), which, in association with CDC50, translocate phospholipids across the membrane lipid bilayers. In this study, we investigated the function of a putative P4-ATPase, ATP7, from the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium yoelii Disruption of ATP7 blocks the parasite infection of mosquitoes.

NOT Open Access | Occurrence and Distribution of Non-falciparum Malaria Parasite Species among Adolescents and Adults in Malawi

July 14, 2021 - 10:39 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Gumbo A, Topazian HM, Juliano JJ, et al.
Reference: 
J Infect Dis. 2021 Jul 9:jiab353

Plasmodium falciparum malaria dominates throughout sub-Saharan Africa, but the prevalence of P. malariae, P. ovale spp., and P. vivax increasingly contribute to infection in countries which control malaria using P. falciparum-specific diagnostic and treatment strategies.

Structural basis of LAIR1 targeting by polymorphic Plasmodium RIFINs

July 13, 2021 - 15:03 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Xu K, Wang Y, Kwong PD, et al.
Reference: 
Nat Commun. 2021 Jul 9;12(1):4226

RIFIN, a large family of Plasmodium variant surface antigens, plays a crucial role in malaria pathogenesis by mediating immune suppression through activation of inhibitory receptors such as LAIR1, and antibodies with LAIR1 inserts have been identified that bind infected erythrocytes through RIFIN. However, details of RIFIN-mediated LAIR1 recognition and receptor activation have been unclear.

Screening of viral-vectored P. falciparum pre-erythrocytic candidate vaccine antigens using chimeric rodent parasites

July 13, 2021 - 14:54 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kolli SK, Salman AM, Janse CJ, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2021 Jul 12;16(7):e0254498

To screen for additional vaccine candidate antigens of Plasmodium pre-erythrocytic stages, fourteen P. falciparum proteins were selected based on expression in sporozoites or their role in establishment of hepatocyte infection. For preclinical evaluation of immunogenicity of these proteins in mice, chimeric P. berghei sporozoites were created that express the P. falciparum proteins in sporozoites as an additional copy gene under control of the uis4 gene promoter.

Pharmacokinetic evaluation of Chalcone derivatives with antimalarial activity in New Zealand White Rabbits

July 13, 2021 - 14:48 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sinha S, Prakash A, Medhi B, Sehgal A, Batovska DI, Sehgal R
Reference: 
BMC Res Notes. 2021 Jul 8;14(1):264

Malaria is a major global health concern with the urgent need for new treatment alternatives due to the alarming increase of drug-resistant Plasmodium strains. Chalcones and its derivatives are important pharmacophores showing antimalarial activity. Determination of the pharmacokinetic variables at the preliminary step of drug development for any drug candidates is an essential component of in vivo antimalarial efficacy tests. Substandard pharmacokinetic variables are often responsible for insufficient therapeutic effect. Therefore, three chalcone derivatives, 1, 2, and 3, having antimalarial potency were studied further for potential therapeutic efficacy.

An Ecologically Framed Comparison of The Potential for Zoonotic Transmission of Non-Human and Human-Infecting Species of Malaria Parasite

July 7, 2021 - 15:02 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Clark NF, Taylor-Robinson AW
Reference: 
Yale J Biol Med. 2021 Jun 30;94(2):361-373

The threats, both real and perceived, surrounding the development of new and emerging infectious diseases of humans are of critical concern to public health and well-being. Among these risks is the potential for zoonotic transmission to humans of species of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium, that have been considered historically to infect exclusively non-human hosts.

The Pan African Vivax and Ovale Network (PAVON): Refocusing on Plasmodium vivax, ovale and asymptomatic malaria in sub-Saharan Africa

July 6, 2021 - 14:51 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Quaye IK, Aleksenko L, Greco B, et al.
Reference: 
Parasitol Int. 2021 Jun 30:102415

The recent World Malaria report shows that progress in malaria elimination has stalled. Current data acquisition by NMCPs depend on passive case detection and clinical reports focused mainly on Plasmodium falciparum (Pf). In recent times, several countries in sub-Saharan Africa have reported cases of Plasmodium vivax (Pv) with a considerable number being Duffy negative.

Relapse of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale malaria with and without primaquine treatment in a non-endemic area

July 6, 2021 - 14:43 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Wångdahl A, Sondén K, Wyss K, Stenström C, Björklund D, Zhang J, Hervius Askling H, Carlander C, Hellgren U, Färnert A
Reference: 
Clin Infect Dis. 2021 Jul 3:ciab610

The effect of primaquine in preventing P. vivax relapses from dormant stages is well established. For P. ovale, the relapse characteristics and the use primaquine is not as well studied. We set to evaluate the relapsing properties of these two species, in relation to primaquine use among imported malaria cases in a non-endemic setting.

Using Plasmodium knowlesi as a model for screening Plasmodium vivax blood-stage malaria vaccine targets reveals new candidates

July 6, 2021 - 14:38 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ndegwa DN, Kundu P, Hostetler JB, Marin-Menendez A, Sanderson T, Mwikali K, Verzier LH, Coyle R, Adjalley S, Rayner JC
Reference: 
PLoS Pathog. 2021 Jul 1;17(7):e1008864

Plasmodium vivax is responsible for the majority of malaria cases outside Africa. Unlike P. falciparum, the P. vivax life-cycle includes a dormant liver stage, the hypnozoite, which can cause infection in the absence of mosquito transmission. An effective vaccine against P. vivax blood stages would limit symptoms and pathology from such recurrent infections, and therefore could play a critical role in the control of this species. Vaccine development in P. vivax, however, lags considerably behind P. falciparum, which has many identified targets with several having transitioned to Phase II testing.

Malaria prevalence, knowledge, attitude, and practice among febrile patients attending Chagni health center, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

July 6, 2021 - 14:32 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Belay B, Gelana T, Gebresilassie A
Reference: 
Trop Dis Travel Med Vaccines. 2021 Jul 5;7(1):20

Ethiopia has achieved considerable progresses in the prevention and control of malaria in the past decades; hitherto it is a formidable health concern and socio-economic impediment. This study aimed at assessing the magnitude, knowledge, attitudes and practices towards malaria among febrile patients attending Chagni health center, northwest Ethiopia.

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