MMV390048 is a novel antimalarial compound that inhibits Plasmodium phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase. The safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetic profile, and antimalarial activity of MMV390048 were determined in healthy volunteers in three separate studies. A first-in-human, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, single-ascending-dose study was performed. Additionally, a volunteer infection study investigated the antimalarial activity of MMV390048 using the Plasmodium falciparum induced blood-stage malaria (IBSM) model.
Targeting the transmissible stages of the Plasmodium parasite that develop in the human and mosquito host is a crucial strategy for malaria control and elimination. Medicinal plants offer a prolific source for the discovery of new antimalarial compounds. The recent identification of the gametocytocidal activity of lophirone E, obtained from the African plant Lophira lanceolata (Ochnaceae), inspired the evaluation of the plant also against early sporogonic stages of the parasite development.
With rising rates of antimalarial drug resistance, new compounds with novel targets and mechanisms of action are urgently needed. Screening a library of aspartic protease inhibitors has now identified compounds that target two essential proteases of Plasmodium falciparum: plasmepsin IX and X. Further in vitro and in vivo experiments revealed that the inhibitors block liver, blood and mosquito stages of Plasmodium spp.
One of the most important problems in controlling malaria is the limited access to effective and accurate diagnosis of malaria parasitemia. In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), malaria is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of anemia and the relationship with asymptomatic submicroscopic Plasmodium infection.
Laboratory detection of malaria antigens has proved valuable for research and epidemiological purposes. We recently developed a bead-based multiplex antigen assay for pan-Plasmodium and Plasmodium falciparum targets. Here, we report integration of a Plasmodium vivax–specific target to this multiplex panel: P. vivax lactate dehydrogenase (PvLDH).
Endothelial activation and microvascular dysfunction are key pathogenic processes in severe malaria. We evaluated the early role of these processes in experimentally induced P. falciparum and P. vivax infection.
Malaria is one of the most widespread human infectious diseases worldwide and a cause of mortality. It is difficult to induce immunological memory against malarial parasites, Plasmodium. The immunity to clinical malaria disease is acquired with multiple infection and treatment cycles, along with substantial reduction in parasite burden. However, the mechanism of the acquired immunity remains largely unclear. Conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) play a pivotal role in orchestration of immune responses. The purpose of this study is to analyze the characterization of cDCs after the infection and cure treatment cycles.
Malaria continues to affect over 200 million individuals every year, especially children in Africa. Rapid and sensitive detection and identification of Plasmodium parasites is crucial for treating patients and monitoring of control efforts. Compared to traditional diagnostic methods such as microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), DNA based methods, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) offer significantly higher sensitivity, definitive discrimination of Plasmodium species, and detection of mixed infections. While PCR is not currently optimized for routine diagnostics, its role in epidemiological studies is increasing as the world moves closer toward regional and eventually global malaria elimination. This study demonstrates the field use of a novel, ambient temperature-stabilized, multiplexed PCR assay in a small hospital setting in Sierra Leone.
In malaria, rosetting is described as a phenomenon where an infected erythrocyte (IRBC) is attached to uninfected erythrocytes (URBC). In some studies, rosetting has been associated with malaria pathogenesis. Here, we have identified a new type of rosetting. Using a step-by-step approach, we identified IGFBP7, a protein secreted by monocytes in response to parasite stimulation, as a rosette-stimulator for Plasmodium falciparum- and P. vivax-IRBC. IGFBP7-mediated rosette-stimulation was rapid yet reversible.
Malaria remains a worldwide health concern with an estimated quarter of a billion people infected and nearly half a million deaths annually. Malaria is caused by a parasite infection from Plasmodium strains which are transmitted from mosquitoes into the human host. Although several small molecule inhibitors have been found to target the early stages of transmission and prevent parasite proliferation, multiple drug resistant parasite strains have emerged and drug resistance remains a major hurdle.