In cluster randomized trials (CRTs) or stepped wedge cluster randomized trials (SWCRTs) of malaria interventions, mosquito movement leads to contamination between trial arms unless buffer zones separate the clusters. Contamination can be accounted for in the analysis, yielding an estimate of the contamination range, the distance over which contamination measurably biases the effectiveness.
Malarial protozoa commonly infect both wild and captive lizards but the effects on the general health of these animals are not fully understood. We describe four clinical cases of Plasmodium infection in captive black and white tegus (Salvator merianae).
Protein kinases of both the parasite and the host are crucial in parasite invasion and survival and might act as drug targets against drug-resistant malaria. STK35L1 was among the top five hits in kinome-wide screening, suggesting its role in malaria's liver stage. However, the role of host STK35L1 in malaria remains elusive. In this study, we found that STK35L1 was highly upregulated during the infection of Plasmodium berghei (P. berghei) in HepG2 cells and mice liver, and knockdown of STK35L1 remarkably suppressed the sporozoites' infection in HepG2 cells.
Our murine cancer model studies have demonstrated that Plasmodium infection activates the immune system that has been inhibited by cancer cells, counteracts tumor immunosuppressive microenvironment, inhibits tumor angiogenesis, inhibits tumor growth and metastasis, and prolongs the survival time of tumor-bearing mice. Based on these studies, three clinical trials of Plasmodium immunotherapy for advanced cancers have been approved and are ongoing in China.
Malaria infects millions of people every year, and despite recent advances in controlling disease spread, such as vaccination, it remains a global health concern. The circumsporozoite protein (CSP) has long been acknowledged as a key target in anti-malarial immunity. Leveraging the DNA vaccine platform against this formidable pathogen, five synthetic DNA vaccines encoding variations of CSP were designed and studied: 3D7, GPI1, ΔGPI, TM, and DD2. Among the single CSP antigen constructs a range of immunogenicity was observed with ΔGPI generating the most robust immunity.
Malaria vectors are supposedly uncommon in urban areas owing to the lack of suitable breeding sites for their development. However, the maintenance in urban areas of traditional rural practices along with humanitarian crisis can create favorable conditions for malaria transmission. This study aimed to provide relevant entomological data on the risk of malaria transmission in the city of Bouaké, after the military-political crisis from 2002 to 2011 in Côte d'Ivoire.
Pregnancy associated malaria is often associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Placental circulatory impairments are an intriguing and unsolved component of malaria pathophysiology. Here, we uncovered a TLR4-TRIF-endothelin axis that controls trophoblast motility and is linked to fetal protection during Plasmodium infection. In a cohort of 401 pregnancies from Northern Brazil we found that infection during pregnancy reduced expression of endothelin receptor B in syncytiotrophoblasts while endothelin expression was only affected during acute infection.
Malaria remains a heavy public health and socioeconomic burden in tropical and subtropical regions. Increasing resistance against front-line treatments implies that novel targets for antimalarial intervention are urgently required.
Malaria control and elimination strategies are based on levels of transmission that are usually determined by data collected from health facilities. In endemic areas, asymptomatic Plasmodium infection is thought to represent the majority of infections, though they are not diagnosed nor treated. Therefore, there might be an underestimation of the malaria reservoir, resulting in inadequate control strategies. In addition, these untreated asymptomatic Plasmodium infections maintain transmission, making it difficult or impossible to reach malaria elimination goals. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic Plasmodium infections in southeastern Senegal.
Gut microbiota educate the local and distal immune system in early life to imprint long-term immunological outcomes while maintaining the capacity to dynamically modulate the local mucosal immune system throughout life. It is unknown whether gut microbiota provide signals that dynamically regulate distal immune responses following an extra-gastrointestinal infection.