The devastating public health impact of malaria has prompted the need for effective interventions. Malaria control gained traction after the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). However, the emergence of artemisinin (ART) partial resistance in Southeast Asia and emerging reports of delayed parasite sensitivity to ACT in African parasites signal a gradual trend towards treatment failure. Monitoring the prevalence of mutations associated with artemisinin resistance in African populations is necessary to stop resistance in its tracks. Mutations in Plasmodium falciparum genes pfk13, pfcoronin and pfatpase6 have been linked with ART partial resistance.
Amino acid deprivation from reduced hemoglobin degradation in Pfkelch13 artemisinin-resistant parasites reduces fitness.
Intraerythrocytic malaria parasites proliferate bounded by a parasitophorous vacuolar membrane (PVM). The PVM contains nutrient permeable channels (NPCs) conductive to small molecules, but their relevance for parasite growth for individual metabolites is largely untested. Here we show that growth-relevant levels of major carbon and energy sources pass through the NPCs.
The occurrence of artemisinin resistance (ART)-associated polymorphism of Plasmodium falciparum K13-propeller (pfk13) gene before and after the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in two regions of Nigeria was investigated in this study. Regular surveillance is necessary to make a definite conclusion on the emergence and pattern of possible resistance to ART.
Mutation of Asp97Tyr in the C-terminal region of ferredoxin (PfFd) in the apicoplast of malaria parasites was recently reported to be strongly related to the parasite's resistance to the frontline antimalarial drug, artemisinin. We previously showed that the aromatic amino acid in the C-terminal region of PfFd is important for the interaction with its electron transfer partner, Fd-NADP+ reductase (PfFNR).
The first potential focus for artemisinin resistance in South America was recently confirmed with the presence of the C580Y mutation in the Plasmodium falciparum kelch 13 gene (pfk13) in Guyana. This study aimed to strengthen pfk13 monitoring in the Amazon basin countries, to compile the available data and to evaluate the risk of spreading of mutations.
The emergence of mutant K13-mediated artemisinin (ART) resistance in Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites has led to widespread treatment failure across Southeast Asia. In Africa, K13-propeller genotyping confirms the emergence of the R561H mutation in Rwanda and highlights the continuing dominance of wild-type K13 elsewhere.
Plasmodium falciparum malaria remains a disease of significant public health impact today. With the risk of emerging artemisinin resistance stalling malaria control efforts, the need to deepen our understanding of the parasite's biology is dire. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are vital to the biology of P. falciparum and play a role in the pathogenesis of malaria.
Plasmodium falciparum has evolved resistance to almost all front-line drugs including artemisinin, which threatens malaria control and elimination strategies. Oxidative stress and protein damage responses have emerged as key players in the generation of artemisinin resistance. In this study, we show that PfGCN5, a histone acetyltransferase, binds to the stress-responsive genes in a poised state and regulates their expression under stress conditions.
The recent emergence of Plasmodium falciparum parasite resistance to the first line antimalarial drug artemisinin is of particular concern. Artemisinin resistance is primarily driven by mutations in the P. falciparum K13 protein, which enhance survival of early ring-stage parasites treated with the artemisinin active metabolite dihydroartemisinin in vitro and associate with delayed parasite clearance in vivo However, association of K13 mutations with in vivo artemisinin resistance has been problematic due to the absence of a tractable model.