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Plasmodium vivax

Early transmission of sensitive strain slows down emergence of drug resistance in Plasmodium vivax

June 23, 2020 - 15:18 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ayala MJC, Villela DAM
Reference: 
PLoS Comput Biol 16(6): e1007945

The spread of drug resistance of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax parasites is a challenge towards malaria elimination. P. falciparum has shown an early and severe drug resistance in comparison to P. vivax in various countries. In fact, P. vivax differs in its life cycle and treatment in various factors: development and duration of sexual parasite forms differ, symptoms severity are unequal, relapses present only in P. vivax cases and the Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is only mandatory in P. falciparum cases.

Ex vivo susceptibilities of Plasmodium vivax isolates from the China-Myanmar border to antimalarial drugs and association with polymorphisms in Pvmdr1 and Pvcrt-o genes

June 15, 2020 - 15:37 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Li J, Zhang J, Cui L, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 14(6): e0008255

Vivax malaria is an important public health problem in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), including the China-Myanmar border. Previous studies have found that Plasmodium vivax has decreased sensitivity to antimalarial drugs in some area of GMS, but the sensitivity of P. vivax to antimalarial drugs is unclear in the China-Myanmar border. Here, we investigate the drug sensitivity profile and genetic variations for two drug resistance related genes, in P. vivax isolates to provide baseline information for future drug studies in the China-Myanmar border.

Comparison of real time and malachite-green based loop-mediated isothermal amplification assays for the detection of Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum

June 15, 2020 - 15:10 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Barazorda KA, Salas CJ, Bishop DK, Lucchi N, Valdivia HO
Reference: 
PLoS ONE 15(6): e0234263

The current context of malaria elimination requires urgent development and implementation of highly sensitive and specific methods for prompt detection and treatment of malaria parasites. Such methods should overcome current delays in diagnosis, allow the detection of low-density infections and address the difficulties in accessing remote endemic communities. In this study, we assessed the performance of the RealAmp and malachite-green loop mediated isothermal amplification (MG-LAMP) methodologies, using microscopy and conventional nested-PCR as reference techniques.

Efficacy and Safety of Pyronaridine-Artesunate for the Treatment of Uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax Malaria in Myanmar

June 15, 2020 - 15:07 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Han KT, Lin K, Han ZY, Myint MK, Aye KH, Thi A, Thapa B, Bustos MD, Borghini-Fuhrer I, Ringwald P, Duparc S
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Jun 8

Four single-arm, prospective, clinical studies of pyronaridine–artesunate efficacy in uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax malaria were conducted in Myanmar between 2017 and 2019. Eligible subjects were aged at least 6 years, with microscopically confirmed P. falciparum (n = 196) or P. vivax mono-infection (n = 206). Patients received pyronaridine–artesunate once daily for 3 days with follow-up until day 42 for P. falciparum or day 28 for P. vivax.

Estimating the Proportion of Plasmodium vivax Recurrences Caused by Relapse: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

June 15, 2020 - 15:06 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Commons RJ, Simpson JA, Watson J, White NJ, Price RN
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Jun 8

Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale form dormant liver hypnozoites that can reactivate weeks to months following initial infection. Malaria recurrences caused by relapses are an important cause of morbidity and source of transmission. To estimate the proportions of P. vivax malaria recurrences caused by relapses in different geographical locations, we systematically reviewed clinical efficacy studies of uncomplicated P. vivax malaria, in which patients were randomized to treatment with or without radical cure primaquine regimens and were followed up for 1 year.

NOT Open Access | Case report: recurrence of Plasmodium vivax malaria due to defective cytochrome P450 2D6 function in Pos Lenjang, Pahang, Malaysia

June 9, 2020 - 15:32 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Mat Salleh NH, Rahman MFA, Samsusah S, De Silva JR, Ng DC, Ghozali AH, Tan JH, Lai MY, Amir A, Liew JWK, Lau YL
Reference: 
Transactions of The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, traa042

Five children in Pos Lenjang, Pahang, Malaysia were PCR-positive for vivax malaria and were admitted to the hospital from 5 to 26 July 2019. One of the patients experienced three episodes of recurrence of vivax malaria. Microsatellite analysis showed that reinfection is unlikely.

The epidemiology of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in East Sepik Province, Papua New Guinea, pre- and post-implementation of national malaria control efforts

June 8, 2020 - 15:18 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Johanna H. Kattenberg, Dulcie L. Gumal, Leanne J. Robinson, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:198, 5 June 2020

In the past decade, national malaria control efforts in Papua New Guinea (PNG) have received renewed support, facilitating nationwide distribution of free long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs), as well as improvements in access to parasite-confirmed diagnosis and effective artemisinin-combination therapy in 2011–2012.

Plasma-derived extracellular vesicles from Plasmodium vivax patients signal spleen fibroblasts via NF-kB facilitating parasite cytoadherence

June 3, 2020 - 15:52 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Toda H, Diaz-Varela M, Del Portillo HA, et al.
Reference: 
Nat Commun. 2020 Jun 2; 11(1):2761

Plasmodium vivax is the most widely distributed human malaria parasite. Previous studies have shown that circulating microparticles during P. vivax acute attacks are indirectly associated with severity. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are therefore major components of circulating plasma holding insights into pathological processes. Here, we demonstrate that plasma-derived EVs from Plasmodium vivax patients (PvEVs) are preferentially uptaken by human spleen fibroblasts (hSFs) as compared to the uptake of EVs from healthy individuals.

NOT Open Access | DNA analysis reveals non-falciparum malaria in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

June 2, 2020 - 09:39 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Podgorski RM, Goff KA, Penney TP, Maness NJ, Keating J, Yukich JO, Marx PA
Reference: 
Acta Trop. 2020 May 29:105557

The World Health Organization (WHO) attributes the entirety of malaria infection and transmission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) to Plasmodium falciparum, one of the several species of malaria known to infect humans. Recent studies have put forth some evidence that transmission of Plasmodium vivax may also be occurring in the DRC. As interventions and treatments differ between malaria species, it is crucial to maintain the most accurate understanding of malaria species diversity in each region.

Antimalarial activity of artefenomel against asexual parasites and transmissible gametocytes during experimental blood-stage Plasmodium vivax infection

June 2, 2020 - 09:34 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Collins KA, Abd-Rahman AN, Marquart L, Ballard E, Gobeau N, Griffin P, Chalon S, Möhrle JJ, McCarthy JS
Reference: 
J Infect Dis. 2020 Jun 1:jiaa287

Interventions that effectively target Plasmodium vivax are critical for the future control and elimination of malaria. We conducted a P. vivax volunteer infection study to characterise the antimalarial activity of artefenomel, a new drug candidate.

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