The spread of drug resistance of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax parasites is a challenge towards malaria elimination. P. falciparum has shown an early and severe drug resistance in comparison to P. vivax in various countries. In fact, P. vivax differs in its life cycle and treatment in various factors: development and duration of sexual parasite forms differ, symptoms severity are unequal, relapses present only in P. vivax cases and the Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is only mandatory in P. falciparum cases.
Vivax malaria is an important public health problem in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), including the China-Myanmar border. Previous studies have found that Plasmodium vivax has decreased sensitivity to antimalarial drugs in some area of GMS, but the sensitivity of P. vivax to antimalarial drugs is unclear in the China-Myanmar border. Here, we investigate the drug sensitivity profile and genetic variations for two drug resistance related genes, in P. vivax isolates to provide baseline information for future drug studies in the China-Myanmar border.
The current context of malaria elimination requires urgent development and implementation of highly sensitive and specific methods for prompt detection and treatment of malaria parasites. Such methods should overcome current delays in diagnosis, allow the detection of low-density infections and address the difficulties in accessing remote endemic communities. In this study, we assessed the performance of the RealAmp and malachite-green loop mediated isothermal amplification (MG-LAMP) methodologies, using microscopy and conventional nested-PCR as reference techniques.
Four single-arm, prospective, clinical studies of pyronaridine–artesunate efficacy in uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax malaria were conducted in Myanmar between 2017 and 2019. Eligible subjects were aged at least 6 years, with microscopically confirmed P. falciparum (n = 196) or P. vivax mono-infection (n = 206). Patients received pyronaridine–artesunate once daily for 3 days with follow-up until day 42 for P. falciparum or day 28 for P. vivax.
Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale form dormant liver hypnozoites that can reactivate weeks to months following initial infection. Malaria recurrences caused by relapses are an important cause of morbidity and source of transmission. To estimate the proportions of P. vivax malaria recurrences caused by relapses in different geographical locations, we systematically reviewed clinical efficacy studies of uncomplicated P. vivax malaria, in which patients were randomized to treatment with or without radical cure primaquine regimens and were followed up for 1 year.
Five children in Pos Lenjang, Pahang, Malaysia were PCR-positive for vivax malaria and were admitted to the hospital from 5 to 26 July 2019. One of the patients experienced three episodes of recurrence of vivax malaria. Microsatellite analysis showed that reinfection is unlikely.
In the past decade, national malaria control efforts in Papua New Guinea (PNG) have received renewed support, facilitating nationwide distribution of free long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs), as well as improvements in access to parasite-confirmed diagnosis and effective artemisinin-combination therapy in 2011–2012.
Plasmodium vivax is the most widely distributed human malaria parasite. Previous studies have shown that circulating microparticles during P. vivax acute attacks are indirectly associated with severity. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are therefore major components of circulating plasma holding insights into pathological processes. Here, we demonstrate that plasma-derived EVs from Plasmodium vivax patients (PvEVs) are preferentially uptaken by human spleen fibroblasts (hSFs) as compared to the uptake of EVs from healthy individuals.
The World Health Organization (WHO) attributes the entirety of malaria infection and transmission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) to Plasmodium falciparum, one of the several species of malaria known to infect humans. Recent studies have put forth some evidence that transmission of Plasmodium vivax may also be occurring in the DRC. As interventions and treatments differ between malaria species, it is crucial to maintain the most accurate understanding of malaria species diversity in each region.
Interventions that effectively target Plasmodium vivax are critical for the future control and elimination of malaria. We conducted a P. vivax volunteer infection study to characterise the antimalarial activity of artefenomel, a new drug candidate.