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Plasmodium vivax

Molecular variation of Plasmodium vivax dehydrofolate reductase in Mexico and Nicaragua contrasts with that occurring in South America

July 8, 2020 - 15:32 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
González-Cerón L, Rodríguez MH, Montoya A, Santillán-Valenzuela F, Corzo-Gómez JC
Reference: 
Salud Publica Mex. 2020 Jul-Aug;62(4):364-371

To research mutations associated to pyrimethamine resistance in dihydrofolate reductase (pvdhfr) of Plasmodium vivax from Mexico and Nicaragua and compare it to that reported in the rest of America.

COVID-19: Possible Cause of Induction of Relapse of Plasmodium vivax Infection

July 7, 2020 - 13:11 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kishore R, Dhakad S, Arif N, Dar L, Mirdha BR, Aggarwal R, Kabra SK
Reference: 
Indian J Pediatr. 2020 Jul 3:1-2

To the Editor: In ongoing pandemic of novel corona virus disease (COVID-19), clinicians are observing atypical manifestations of the disease.

Insights into the molecular diversity of Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein-3γ (pvmsp3γ), a polymorphic member in the msp3 multi-gene family

July 7, 2020 - 13:07 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kuamsab N, Putaporntip C, Pattanawong U, Jongwutiwes S
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2020 Jul 3;10(1):10977

Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein 3 (PvMSP3) is encoded by a multi-gene family. Of these, PvMSP3α, PvMSP3β and PvMSP3γ, are considered to be vaccine targets. Despite comprehensive analyses of PvMSP3α and PvMSP3β, little is known about structural and sequence diversity in PvMSP3γ. Analysis of 118 complete pvmsp3γ sequences from diverse endemic areas of Thailand and 9 reported sequences has shown 86 distinct haplotypes.

NOT Open Access | The comparison of Real-time-PCR-HRM and Microscopy Methods for Detection of Mixed Plasmodium spp. Infections in Laghman Province, Afghanistan

July 6, 2020 - 16:44 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Dalimi A, Mosawi SH
Reference: 
Infect Disord Drug Targets. 2020 Jul 2

Laghman province, in the east of the Afghanistan, is one of the most malaria endemic regions with an eminence of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum. So far, no study has been conducted to investigate the extent of mixed infections in this area.

NOT Open Access | Prevalence of Glucose 6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Variants in Malaria-Endemic Areas of South Central Timor, Eastern Indonesia

July 1, 2020 - 16:33 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Sulistyaningrum N, Arlinda D, Chaijaroenkul W, et al.
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Jun 29

Primaquine is an effective anti-hypnozoite drug for Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale. However, it can trigger erythrocyte hemolysis in people with glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. In a previous report from South Central Timor (SCT), Indonesia, we described the prevalence of Vanua Lava, Chatham, and Viangchan variants; in this study, other G6PD variants (Kaiping, Coimbra, Gaohe, Canton, and Mahidol) were subsequently analyzed. For clarity, all of these results are described together.

Presence of additional Plasmodium vivax malaria in Duffy negative individuals from Southwestern Nigeria

June 30, 2020 - 14:18 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Mary Aigbiremo Oboh, Upasana Shyamsunder Singh, Daouda Ndiaye, Aida Sadikh Badiane, Nazia Anwar Ali, Praveen Kumar Bharti and Aparup Das
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:229, 26 June 2020

Malaria in sub-Saharan Africa (sSA) is thought to be mostly caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Recently, growing reports of cases due to Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium malariae, and Plasmodium vivax have been increasingly observed to play a role in malaria epidemiology in sSA. This in fact is due to the usage of very sensitive diagnostic tools (e.g. PCR), which have highlighted the underestimation of non-falciparum malaria in this sub-region. Plasmodium vivax was historically thought to be absent in sSA due to the high prevalence of the Duffy negativity in individuals residing in this sub-continent. Recent studies reporting detection of vivax malaria in Duffy-negative individuals from Mali, Mauritania, Cameroon challenge this notion.

Plasmodium vivax liver stage assay platforms using Indian clinical isolates

June 26, 2020 - 15:14 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Pradeep A. Subramani, Neha Vartak-Sharma, Varadharajan Sundaramurthy, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:214, 22 June 2020

Vivax malaria is associated with significant morbidity and economic loss, and constitutes the bulk of malaria cases in large parts of Asia and South America as well as recent case reports in Africa. The widespread prevalence of vivax is a challenge to global malaria elimination programmes. Vivax malaria control is particularly challenged by existence of dormant liver stage forms that are difficult to treat and are responsible for multiple relapses, growing drug resistance to the asexual blood stages and host-genetic factors that preclude use of specific drugs like primaquine capable of targeting Plasmodium vivax liver stages. Despite an obligatory liver-stage in the Plasmodium life cycle, both the difficulty in obtaining P. vivax sporozoites and the limited availability of robust host cell models permissive to P. vivax infection are responsible for the limited knowledge of hypnozoite formation biology and relapse mechanisms, as well as the limited capability to do drug screening. Although India accounts for about half of vivax malaria cases world-wide, very little is known about the vivax liver stage forms in the context of Indian clinical isolates.

A Multistage Formulation Based on Full-Length CSP and AMA-1 Ectodomain of Plasmodium vivax Induces High Antibody Titers and T-cells and Partially Protects Mice Challenged with a Transgenic Plasmodium berghei Parasite

June 23, 2020 - 15:39 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Lima LC, Marques RF, Gimenez AM, Françoso KS, Aliprandini E, Camargo TM, Aguiar ACC, Pereira DB, Renia L, Amino R, Soares IS
Reference: 
Microorganisms 2020, 8(6), 916

Infections with Plasmodium vivax are predominant in the Americas, representing 75% of malaria cases. Previously perceived as benign, malaria vivax is, in fact, a highly debilitating and economically important disease. Considering the high complexity of the malaria parasite life cycle, it has been hypothesized that an effective vaccine formulation against Plasmodium should contain multiple antigens expressed in different parasite stages.

Cross-species reactivity of antibodies against Plasmodium vivax blood-stage antigens to Plasmodium knowlesi

June 23, 2020 - 15:36 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Muh F, Kim N, Han ET, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 14(6): e0008323

Malaria is caused by multiple different species of protozoan parasites, and interventions in the pre-elimination phase can lead to drastic changes in the proportion of each species causing malaria. In endemic areas, cross-reactivity may play an important role in the protection and blocking transmission. Thus, successful control of one species could lead to an increase in other parasite species.

Morphological and Transcriptional Changes in Human Bone Marrow During Natural Plasmodium vivax Malaria Infections

June 23, 2020 - 15:19 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Brito MAM, Baro B, Lacerda MVG, et al.
Reference: 
J Infect Dis. 2020 Jun 18:jiaa177

The presence of Plasmodium vivax malaria parasites in the human bone marrow (BM) is still controversial. However, recent data from a clinical case and experimental infections in splenectomized nonhuman primates unequivocally demonstrated the presence of parasites in this tissue.

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