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Plasmodium vivax

NOT Open Access | Antibody Dynamics for Plasmodium vivax Malaria: A Mathematical Model

January 6, 2021 - 12:54 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Mehra S, McCaw JM, Flegg MB, Taylor PG, Flegg JA
Reference: 
Bull Math Biol. 2021 Jan 2;83(1):6

Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease that, despite intensive control and mitigation initiatives, continues to pose an enormous public health burden. Plasmodium vivax is one of the principal causes of malaria in humans. Antibodies, which play a fundamental role in the host response to P. vivax, are acquired through exposure to the parasite. Here, we introduce a stochastic, within-host model of antibody responses to P. vivax for an individual in a general transmission setting.

An Ultra-Sensitive Technique: Using Pv-mtCOX1 qPCR to Detect Early Recurrences of Plasmodium vivax in Patients in the Brazilian Amazon

January 5, 2021 - 15:31 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Barbosa LRA, da Silva EL, Melo GC, et al.
Reference: 
Pathogens. 2020 Dec 30;10(1):E19

Early recurrence of Plasmodium vivax is a challenge for malaria control in the field, particularly because this species is associated with lower parasitemia, which hinders diagnosis and monitoring through blood smear testing. Early recurrences, defined as the persistence of parasites in the peripheral blood despite adequate drug dosages, may arise from resistance to chloroquine. The objective of the study was to estimate early recurrence of P. vivax in the Brazilian Amazon by using a highly-sensitive detection method, in this case, PCR.

NOT Open Access | Liver-targeted polymeric prodrugs of 8-aminoquinolines for malaria radical cure

January 1, 2021 - 16:00 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Srinivasan S, Roy D, Stayton PS, et al.
Reference: 
J Control Release. 2020 Dec 27:S0168-3659(20)30770-7

Primaquine and tafenoquine are the two 8-aminoquinoline (8-AQ) antimalarial drugs approved for malarial radical cure - the elimination of liver stage hypnozoites after infection with Plasmodium vivax. A single oral dose of tafenoquine leads to high efficacy against intra-hepatocyte hypnozoiites after efficient first pass liver uptake and metabolism. Unfortunately, both drugs cause hemolytic anemia in G6PD-deficient humans. This toxicity prevents their mass administration without G6PD testing given the approximately 400 million G6PD deficient people across malarial endemic regions of the world.

Association of Anopheles sinensis average abundance and climate factors: Use of mosquito surveillance data in Goyang, Korea

December 30, 2020 - 13:50 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Jang JY, Chun BC
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2020 Dec 28;15(12):e0244479

Malaria is a vector-borne disease transmitted by Anopheline mosquitoes. In Korea, Plasmodium vivax malaria is an endemic disease and the main vector is Anopheles sinensis. Plasmodium vivax malaria is common in the northwestern part of South Korea, including in the city of Goyang in regions near the demilitarized zone. This study aimed to identify the best time-series model for predicting mosquito average abundance in Goyang, Korea. Mosquito data were obtained from the Mosquito Surveillance Program of the Goyang Ilsanseogu Public Health Center for the period 2008-2012.

NOT Open Access | Malaria among migrants in a university hospital in Colombia during 2018: A case series

December 30, 2020 - 13:47 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Carreño-Almánzar FR, Coronado-Galán A, Cala-Gómez SA, Vega-Vera A
Reference: 
Trop Doct. 2020 Dec 23:49475520981301

Imported malaria has increased in Colombia since 2015 and has been attributed to migrants coming from Venezuela. We present a series of malaria cases, nested in a retrospective cross-sectional study between 2017 and 2018, aimed at calculating the prevalence of medical diseases among immigrants in a University Hospital in Colombia.

Population genomics of Plasmodium vivax in Panama to assess the risk of case importation on malaria elimination

December 16, 2020 - 10:14 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Buyon LE, Santamaria AM, Early AM, Quijada M, Barahona I, Lasso J, Avila M, Volkman SK, Marti M, Neafsey DE, Obaldia Iii N
Reference: 
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2020 Dec 14;14(12):e0008962

Malaria incidence in Panama has plateaued in recent years in spite of elimination efforts, with almost all cases caused by Plasmodium vivax. Notwithstanding, overall malaria prevalence remains low (fewer than 1 case per 1000 persons). We used selective whole genome amplification to sequence 59 P. vivax samples from Panama. The P. vivax samples were collected from two periods (2007-2009 and 2017-2019) to study the population structure and transmission dynamics of the parasite.

Outbreak of autochthonous cases of malaria in coastal regions of Northeast Brazil: the diversity and spatial distribution of species of Anopheles

December 15, 2020 - 14:34 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Gomes ECS, Cruz DLD, Santos MAVM, Souza RMC, Oliveira CMF, Ayres CFJ, Domingos RM, Pedro MDGDS, Paiva MHS, Pimentel LMLM
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2020 Dec 14;13(1):621

Brazil has the fourth highest prevalence of malaria of all countries in the Americas, with an estimated 42 million people at risk of contracting this disease. Although most cases occur in the Amazon region, cases of an autochthonous nature have also been registered in the extra-Amazonian region where Anopheles aquasalis and An. albitarsis are the mosquito species of greatest epidemiological interest. In 2019, the municipality of Conde (state of Paraíba) experienced an epidemic of autochthonous cases of malaria. Here we present preliminary results of an entomological and case epidemiology investigation, in an attempt to correlate the diversity and spatial distribution of species of Anopheles with the autochthonous cases of this outbreak of malaria.

A comparison of non-magnetic and magnetic beads for measuring IgG antibodies against Plasmodium vivax antigens in a multiplexed bead-based assay using Luminex technology (Bio-Plex 200 or MAGPIX)

December 8, 2020 - 10:54 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Mazhari R, Brewster J, Fong R, Bourke C, Liu ZSJ, Takashima E, Tsuboi T, Tham WH, Harbers M, Chitnis C, Healer J, Ome-Kaius M, Sattabongkot J, Kazura J, Robinson LJ, King C, Mueller I, Longley RJ
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2020 Dec 4;15(12):e0238010

Multiplexed bead-based assays that use Luminex® xMAP® technology have become popular for measuring antibodies against proteins of interest in many fields, including malaria and more recently SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19. There are currently two formats that are widely used: non-magnetic beads or magnetic beads. Data are lacking regarding the comparability of results obtained using these two types of beads, and for assays run on different instruments.

Molecular surveillance of the Plasmodium vivax multidrug resistance 1 gene in Peru between 2006 and 2015

December 8, 2020 - 10:46 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Fredy E. Villena, Jorge L. Maguiña, Meddly L. Santolalla, Edwar Pozo, Carola J. Salas, Julia S. Ampuero, Andres G. Lescano, Danett K. Bishop and Hugo O. Valdivia
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:450, 4 December 2020

The high incidence of Plasmodium vivax infections associated with clinical severity and the emergence of chloroquine (CQ) resistance has posed a challenge to control efforts aimed at eliminating this disease. Despite conflicting evidence regarding the role of mutations of P. vivax multidrug resistance 1 gene (pvmdr1) in drug resistance, this gene can be a tool for molecular surveillance due to its variability and spatial patterns.

Assessing the in vitro sensitivity with associated drug resistance polymorphisms in Plasmodium vivax clinical isolates from Delhi, India

November 25, 2020 - 12:42 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Matlani M, Kumar A, Singh V
Reference: 
Exp Parasitol. 2020 Nov 19:108047

The drug resistance of Plasmodium vivax in clinical cases remains largely unknown till date because of the difficulty in diagnosing the resistant P. vivax strains. The present study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of mutant alleles in drug resistance genes viz P. vivax multi-drug resistance (pvmdr-1), chloroquine resistance transporter (pvcrt-o), dihydrofolate reductase (pvdhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (pvdhps) along with in vitro chloroquine (CQ) sensitivity in P. vivax clinical isolates.

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