Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease that, despite intensive control and mitigation initiatives, continues to pose an enormous public health burden. Plasmodium vivax is one of the principal causes of malaria in humans. Antibodies, which play a fundamental role in the host response to P. vivax, are acquired through exposure to the parasite. Here, we introduce a stochastic, within-host model of antibody responses to P. vivax for an individual in a general transmission setting.
Early recurrence of Plasmodium vivax is a challenge for malaria control in the field, particularly because this species is associated with lower parasitemia, which hinders diagnosis and monitoring through blood smear testing. Early recurrences, defined as the persistence of parasites in the peripheral blood despite adequate drug dosages, may arise from resistance to chloroquine. The objective of the study was to estimate early recurrence of P. vivax in the Brazilian Amazon by using a highly-sensitive detection method, in this case, PCR.
Primaquine and tafenoquine are the two 8-aminoquinoline (8-AQ) antimalarial drugs approved for malarial radical cure - the elimination of liver stage hypnozoites after infection with Plasmodium vivax. A single oral dose of tafenoquine leads to high efficacy against intra-hepatocyte hypnozoiites after efficient first pass liver uptake and metabolism. Unfortunately, both drugs cause hemolytic anemia in G6PD-deficient humans. This toxicity prevents their mass administration without G6PD testing given the approximately 400 million G6PD deficient people across malarial endemic regions of the world.
Malaria is a vector-borne disease transmitted by Anopheline mosquitoes. In Korea, Plasmodium vivax malaria is an endemic disease and the main vector is Anopheles sinensis. Plasmodium vivax malaria is common in the northwestern part of South Korea, including in the city of Goyang in regions near the demilitarized zone. This study aimed to identify the best time-series model for predicting mosquito average abundance in Goyang, Korea. Mosquito data were obtained from the Mosquito Surveillance Program of the Goyang Ilsanseogu Public Health Center for the period 2008-2012.
Imported malaria has increased in Colombia since 2015 and has been attributed to migrants coming from Venezuela. We present a series of malaria cases, nested in a retrospective cross-sectional study between 2017 and 2018, aimed at calculating the prevalence of medical diseases among immigrants in a University Hospital in Colombia.
Malaria incidence in Panama has plateaued in recent years in spite of elimination efforts, with almost all cases caused by Plasmodium vivax. Notwithstanding, overall malaria prevalence remains low (fewer than 1 case per 1000 persons). We used selective whole genome amplification to sequence 59 P. vivax samples from Panama. The P. vivax samples were collected from two periods (2007-2009 and 2017-2019) to study the population structure and transmission dynamics of the parasite.
Brazil has the fourth highest prevalence of malaria of all countries in the Americas, with an estimated 42 million people at risk of contracting this disease. Although most cases occur in the Amazon region, cases of an autochthonous nature have also been registered in the extra-Amazonian region where Anopheles aquasalis and An. albitarsis are the mosquito species of greatest epidemiological interest. In 2019, the municipality of Conde (state of Paraíba) experienced an epidemic of autochthonous cases of malaria. Here we present preliminary results of an entomological and case epidemiology investigation, in an attempt to correlate the diversity and spatial distribution of species of Anopheles with the autochthonous cases of this outbreak of malaria.
Multiplexed bead-based assays that use Luminex® xMAP® technology have become popular for measuring antibodies against proteins of interest in many fields, including malaria and more recently SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19. There are currently two formats that are widely used: non-magnetic beads or magnetic beads. Data are lacking regarding the comparability of results obtained using these two types of beads, and for assays run on different instruments.
The high incidence of Plasmodium vivax infections associated with clinical severity and the emergence of chloroquine (CQ) resistance has posed a challenge to control efforts aimed at eliminating this disease. Despite conflicting evidence regarding the role of mutations of P. vivax multidrug resistance 1 gene (pvmdr1) in drug resistance, this gene can be a tool for molecular surveillance due to its variability and spatial patterns.
The drug resistance of Plasmodium vivax in clinical cases remains largely unknown till date because of the difficulty in diagnosing the resistant P. vivax strains. The present study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of mutant alleles in drug resistance genes viz P. vivax multi-drug resistance (pvmdr-1), chloroquine resistance transporter (pvcrt-o), dihydrofolate reductase (pvdhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (pvdhps) along with in vitro chloroquine (CQ) sensitivity in P. vivax clinical isolates.