It has great importance to study the potential effects of climate change on Plasmodium vivax malaria in Greece because the country can be the origin of the spread of vivax malaria to the northern areas. The potential lengths of the transmission seasons of Plasmodium vivax malaria were forecasted for 2041–2060 and 2061–2080 and were combined.
Plasmodium vivax malaria is characterized by the presence of dormant liver-stage parasites, called hypnozoites, which can cause malaria relapses after an initial attack. Primaquine, which targets liver hypnozoites, must be used in combination with a schizonticidal agent to get the radical cure. However, relapses can sometimes occur in spite of correct treatment, due to different factors such as a diminished metabolization of primaquine.
Malaria continues to be one of the top infectious agents contributing to morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Annually, Botswana accounts only for a small proportion of cases (<<1%). Despite significantly reduced incidence rate, the country still experiences sporadic outbreaks that hamper the goal of malaria elimination. This review evaluated previous and current biological factors that impact malaria in Botswana, specifically focussing on the vectors, the parasite and the host. This was accomplished via a literature review evaluating these variables in Botswana.
Plasmodium vivax resistance to chloroquine (CQ) has been reported from many endemic regions in the world. Plasmodium vivax is responsible for 95% of malaria cases in Afghanistan and CQ is the first-line treatment given for vivax malaria. The pvmdr-1 and pvcrt-o (K10 insertion) genes are possible markers for CQ-resistance in P. vivax isolates. There have been no studies done on the presence or absence of molecular markers for CQ-resistance P. vivax in Afghanistan. The present work aimed to evaluate the frequency of mutations in the pvmdr-1 and K10 insertion in the pvcrt-o genes of P. vivax.
Plasmodium vivax is the predominant Plasmodium species in Afghanistan. National guidelines recommend the combination of chloroquine and primaquine (CQ-PQ) for radical treatment of P. vivax malaria. Artesunate in combination with the antifolates sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) has been first-line treatment for uncomplicated falciparum malaria until 2016. Although SP has been the recommended treatment for falciparum and not vivax malaria, exposure of the P. vivax parasite population to SP might still have been quite extensive because of community based management of malaria. The change in the P. vivax antifolate resistance markers between 2007 and 2017 were investigated.
Diagnosis is a challenging issue in the way to malaria elimination. LAMP could be an alternative to conventional methods. Then, it is of interest to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of LAMP for malaria compared to microscopy, PCR, and RDTs.
Plasmodium knowlesi and Plasmodium vivax are the predominant Plasmodium species that cause malaria in Malaysia and play a role in asymptomatic malaria disease transmission in Malaysia. The diagnostic tools available to diagnose malaria, such as microscopy and rapid diagnostic test (RDT), are less sensitive at detecting lower parasite density. Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR), which has been shown to have higher sensitivity at diagnosing malaria, allows direct quantification without the need for a standard curve. The aim of this study is to develop and use a duplex ddPCR assay for the detection of P. knowlesi and P. vivax, and compare this method to nested PCR and qPCR.
Plasmodium vivax is the most widespread and difficult to treat cause of human malaria. The development of vaccines against the blood stages of P. vivax remains a key objective for the control and elimination of vivax malaria. Erythrocyte binding-like (EBL) protein family members such as Duffy binding protein (PvDBP) are of critical importance to erythrocyte invasion and have been the major target for vivax malaria vaccine development.
In Brazil, Plasmodium vivax infection accounts for around 80% of malaria cases. This infection has a substantial impact on the productivity of the local population as the course of the disease is usually prolonged and the development of acquired immunity in endemic areas takes several years. The recent emergence of drug-resistant strains has intensified research on alternative control methods such as vaccines.
To evaluate the extent of chloroquine underdosing and to measure the concentrations of chloroquine and desethylchloroquine in adult patients with P. vivax malaria in the Brazilian Amazon basin.