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Plasmodium vivax

Diagnosis of Plasmodium vivax by Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification in Febrile Patient Samples from Loreto, Perú

August 5, 2020 - 16:06 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Nolasco O, Infante B, Contreras-Mancilla J, Incardona S, Ding XC, Gamboa D, Torres K.
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Aug 3

Plasmodium vivax is co-endemic with Plasmodium falciparum in Peru, and optimum management requires distinguishing these two species in the blood of patients. For the differential identification of P. vivax and other Plasmodium spp., the LoopampTM Malaria Pan Detection Kit in combination with the Loopamp Malaria Pv Detection Kit (Eiken Chemical Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) was used to evaluate 559 whole blood samples collected in 2017 from febrile patients with suspected malaria attending different health facilities in the Loreto region.

Population genomics identifies a distinct Plasmodium vivax population on the China-Myanmar border of Southeast Asia

August 5, 2020 - 14:17 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Brashear AM, Fan Q, Hu Y, Li Y, Zhao Y, Wang Z, Cao Y, Miao J, Barry A, Cui L.
Reference: 
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 14(8): e0008506

Plasmodium vivax has become the predominant malaria parasite and a major challenge for malaria elimination in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS). Yet, our knowledge about the evolution of P. vivax populations in the GMS is fragmental. We performed whole genome sequencing on 23 P. vivax samples from the China-Myanmar border (CMB) and used 21 high-coverage samples to compare to over 200 samples from the rest of the GMS.

On the survival of 48 h Plasmodium vivax Aotus monkey-derived ex vivo cultures: the role of leucocytes filtration and chemically defined lipid concentrate media supplementation

August 4, 2020 - 16:08 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Nicanor Obaldía III and Marlon Nuñez
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:278, 3 August 2020

Filtration of leukocytes (WBCs) is a standard practice of malaria ex vivo cultures. To date, few studies have considered the effect of filtration or the lack thereof on the survival of Plasmodium vivax ex vivo cultures through one cycle of maturation. This study investigates the effect of WBC filtration and culture media supplementation on the survival of 48–72 h ex vivo cultures.

Quantifying and preventing Plasmodium vivax recurrences in primaquine-untreated pregnant women: An observational and modeling study in Brazil

August 4, 2020 - 15:35 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Corder RM, de Lima ACP, Khoury DS, Docken SS, Davenport MP, Ferreira MU
Reference: 
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 14(7): e0008526

Each year, 4.3 million pregnant women are exposed to malaria risk in Latin America and the Caribbean. Plasmodium vivax causes 76% of the regional malaria burden and appears to be less affected than P. falciparum by current elimination efforts. This is in part due to the parasite's ability to stay dormant in the liver and originate relapses within months after a single mosquito inoculation. Primaquine (PQ) is routinely combined with chloroquine (CQ) or other schizontocidal drugs to supress P. vivax relapses and reduce the risk of late blood-stage recrudescences of parasites with low-grade CQ resistance.

Increasing Malaria Parasite Clearance Time after Chloroquine Therapy, South Korea, 2000-2016

August 4, 2020 - 15:29 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Park SY, Park YS, Park Y, Kwak YG, Song JE, Lee KS, Cho SH, Lee SE, Shin HI, Yeom JS
Reference: 
Emerg Infect Dis. 2020 Aug; 26(8):1852-1855

We reviewed the clinical efficacy of chloroquine for Plasmodium vivax malaria, the changing trend of parasite clearance time, and fever clearance time during 2000-2016 in South Korea.

Evaluation and modeling of direct membrane-feeding assay with Plasmodium vivax to support development of transmission blocking vaccines

July 30, 2020 - 13:29 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Miura K, Swihart BJ, Fay MP, Kumpitak C, Kiattibutr K, Sattabongkot J, Long CA
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2020 Jul 28;10(1):12569

Standard and direct membrane-feeding assays (SMFA and DMFA) are fundamental assays to evaluate efficacy of transmission-blocking intervention (TBI) candidates against Plasmodium falciparum and vivax. To compare different candidates precisely, it is crucial to understand the error range of measured activity, usually expressed as percent inhibition in either oocyst intensity (% transmission reducing activity, %TRA), or in prevalence of infected mosquitoes (% transmission blocking activity, %TBA).

NOT Open Access | Structural diversity, natural selection and intragenic recombination in the Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein 9 locus in Thailand

July 29, 2020 - 10:21 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Songsaigath S, Putaporntip C, Kuamsab N, Jongwutiwes S
Reference: 
Infect Genet Evol. 2020 Jul 22:104467

The merozoite surface protein 9 (MSP9) of malarial parasite forms co-ligand complex with the 19 kDa fragment of merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1) prior to erythrocyte invasion. Interruption of this process could hamper subsequent asexual erythrocytic development of malaria parasites; therefore, these proteins are considered potential vaccine candidates. In Plasmodium vivax, MSP9 (PvMSP9) contains both conserved and polymorphic repetitive domains that were immunogenic upon natural malaria exposure and conferred protection in vaccination studies in animal models.

NOT Open Access | Doses of primaquine administered to children with Plasmodium vivax according to an age-based dose regimen

July 27, 2020 - 12:33 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Vieira MVDF, Matos Lopes TR, Mello AGNC, de Sena LWP, Commons RJ, Vieira JLF.
Reference: 
Pathog Glob Health. 2020 Jul 24:1-5

Primaquine is still the first-line drug to eliminate hypnozoites of Plasmodium vivax. The therapeutic efficacy is related to the total dose administered. In several endemic areas, the drug is administered for children in an age-based regimen, which can lead to inadequate exposure, increasing the rates of recurrence of the infection. The present study aims to describe the mg/kg total dose of primaquine administered to children for treatment for vivax malaria when an age-based regimen is used and to measure the plasma concentrations of primaquine and carboxyprimaquine.

Platelet disturbances correlate with endothelial cell activation in uncomplicated Plasmodium vivax malaria

July 21, 2020 - 15:17 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Dos-Santos JCK, Silva-Filho JL, Costa FTM, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 14(7): e0007656

Platelets drive endothelial cell activation in many diseases. However, if this occurs in Plasmodium vivax malaria is unclear. As platelets have been reported to be activated and to play a role in inflammatory response during malaria, we hypothesized that this would correlate with endothelial alterations during acute illness. We performed platelet flow cytometry of PAC-1 and P-selectin.

Atypical memory B-cells and autoantibodies correlate with anemia during Plasmodium vivax complicated infections

July 21, 2020 - 15:15 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Rivera-Correa J, Yasnot-Acosta MF, Tovar NC, Velasco-Pareja MC, Easton A, Rodriguez A
Reference: 
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 14(7): e0008466

Malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax is a highly prevalent infection world-wide, that was previously considered mild, but complications such as anemia have been highly reported in the past years. In mice models of malaria, anti-phosphatidylserine (anti-PS) autoantibodies, produced by atypical B-cells, bind to uninfected erythrocytes and contribute to anemia. In human patients with P. falciparum malaria, the levels of anti-PS, atypical B-cells and anemia are strongly correlated to each other.

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