Plasmodium vivax is co-endemic with Plasmodium falciparum in Peru, and optimum management requires distinguishing these two species in the blood of patients. For the differential identification of P. vivax and other Plasmodium spp., the LoopampTM Malaria Pan Detection Kit in combination with the Loopamp Malaria Pv Detection Kit (Eiken Chemical Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) was used to evaluate 559 whole blood samples collected in 2017 from febrile patients with suspected malaria attending different health facilities in the Loreto region.
Plasmodium vivax has become the predominant malaria parasite and a major challenge for malaria elimination in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS). Yet, our knowledge about the evolution of P. vivax populations in the GMS is fragmental. We performed whole genome sequencing on 23 P. vivax samples from the China-Myanmar border (CMB) and used 21 high-coverage samples to compare to over 200 samples from the rest of the GMS.
Filtration of leukocytes (WBCs) is a standard practice of malaria ex vivo cultures. To date, few studies have considered the effect of filtration or the lack thereof on the survival of Plasmodium vivax ex vivo cultures through one cycle of maturation. This study investigates the effect of WBC filtration and culture media supplementation on the survival of 48–72 h ex vivo cultures.
Each year, 4.3 million pregnant women are exposed to malaria risk in Latin America and the Caribbean. Plasmodium vivax causes 76% of the regional malaria burden and appears to be less affected than P. falciparum by current elimination efforts. This is in part due to the parasite's ability to stay dormant in the liver and originate relapses within months after a single mosquito inoculation. Primaquine (PQ) is routinely combined with chloroquine (CQ) or other schizontocidal drugs to supress P. vivax relapses and reduce the risk of late blood-stage recrudescences of parasites with low-grade CQ resistance.
We reviewed the clinical efficacy of chloroquine for Plasmodium vivax malaria, the changing trend of parasite clearance time, and fever clearance time during 2000-2016 in South Korea.
Standard and direct membrane-feeding assays (SMFA and DMFA) are fundamental assays to evaluate efficacy of transmission-blocking intervention (TBI) candidates against Plasmodium falciparum and vivax. To compare different candidates precisely, it is crucial to understand the error range of measured activity, usually expressed as percent inhibition in either oocyst intensity (% transmission reducing activity, %TRA), or in prevalence of infected mosquitoes (% transmission blocking activity, %TBA).
The merozoite surface protein 9 (MSP9) of malarial parasite forms co-ligand complex with the 19 kDa fragment of merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1) prior to erythrocyte invasion. Interruption of this process could hamper subsequent asexual erythrocytic development of malaria parasites; therefore, these proteins are considered potential vaccine candidates. In Plasmodium vivax, MSP9 (PvMSP9) contains both conserved and polymorphic repetitive domains that were immunogenic upon natural malaria exposure and conferred protection in vaccination studies in animal models.
Primaquine is still the first-line drug to eliminate hypnozoites of Plasmodium vivax. The therapeutic efficacy is related to the total dose administered. In several endemic areas, the drug is administered for children in an age-based regimen, which can lead to inadequate exposure, increasing the rates of recurrence of the infection. The present study aims to describe the mg/kg total dose of primaquine administered to children for treatment for vivax malaria when an age-based regimen is used and to measure the plasma concentrations of primaquine and carboxyprimaquine.
Platelets drive endothelial cell activation in many diseases. However, if this occurs in Plasmodium vivax malaria is unclear. As platelets have been reported to be activated and to play a role in inflammatory response during malaria, we hypothesized that this would correlate with endothelial alterations during acute illness. We performed platelet flow cytometry of PAC-1 and P-selectin.
Malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax is a highly prevalent infection world-wide, that was previously considered mild, but complications such as anemia have been highly reported in the past years. In mice models of malaria, anti-phosphatidylserine (anti-PS) autoantibodies, produced by atypical B-cells, bind to uninfected erythrocytes and contribute to anemia. In human patients with P. falciparum malaria, the levels of anti-PS, atypical B-cells and anemia are strongly correlated to each other.