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Plasmodium vivax

Optimization of Plasmodium vivax sporozoite production from Anopheles stephensi in South West India

May 18, 2021 - 13:44 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ajeet Kumar Mohanty, Charles de Souza, Rapatbhorn Patrapuvich, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:221, 18 May 2021

Efforts to study the biology of Plasmodium vivax liver stages, particularly the latent hypnozoites, have been hampered by the limited availability of P. vivax sporozoites. Anopheles stephensi is a major urban malaria vector in Goa and elsewhere in South Asia. Using P. vivax patient blood samples, a series of standard membrane-feeding experiments were performed with An. stephensi under the US NIH International Center of Excellence for Malaria Research (ICEMR) for Malaria Evolution in South Asia (MESA). The goal was to understand the dynamics of parasite development in mosquitoes as well as the production of P. vivax sporozoites. To obtain a robust supply of P. vivax sporozoites, mosquito-rearing and mosquito membrane-feeding techniques were optimized, which are described here.

Implementing radical cure diagnostics for malaria: user perspectives on G6PD testing in Bangladesh

May 18, 2021 - 13:36 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Nora Engel, Cristian Ghergu, Mohammad Abdul Matin, Mohammad Golam Kibria, Kamala Thriemer, Ric N. Price, Xavier C. Ding, Rosalind E. Howes, Benedikt Ley, Sandra Incardona and Mohammad Shafiul Alam
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:217, 12 May 2021

The radical cure of Plasmodium vivax requires treatment with an 8-aminoquinoline drug, such as primaquine and tafenoquine, to eradicate liver hypnozoite stages, which can reactivate to cause relapsing infections. Safe treatment regimens require prior screening of patients for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency to avoid potential life-threatening drug induced haemolysis. Testing is rarely available in malaria endemic countries, but will be needed to support routine use of radical cure. This study investigates end-user perspectives in Bangladesh on the introduction of a quantitative G6PD test (SD Biosensor STANDARD™ G6PD analyser) to support malaria elimination.

Adverse pregnancy outcomes are associated with Plasmodium vivax malaria in a prospective cohort of women from the Brazilian Amazon

May 5, 2021 - 11:45 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Dombrowski JG, Barateiro A, Marinho CRF, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2021 Apr 29;15(4):e0009390

Malaria in Brazil represents one of the highest percentages of Latin America cases, where approximately 84% of infections are attributed to Plasmodium (P.) vivax. Despite the high incidence, many aspects of gestational malaria resulting from P. vivax infections remain poorly studied. As such, we aimed to evaluate the consequences of P. vivax infections during gestation on the health of mothers and their neonates in an endemic area of the Amazon.

NOT Open Access | Tafenoquine is a Promising Drug Candidate for the Treatment of Babesiosis

May 5, 2021 - 11:28 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Liu M, Ji S, Xuan X, et al.
Reference: 
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2021 May 3:AAC.00204-21

Due to drug resistance, commonly used anti-Babesia drugs have limited efficacy against babesiosis, and inflict severe side effects. Tafenoquine (TAF) was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 2018 for the radical cure of Plasmodium vivax infection and for malaria prophylaxis. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of TAF for the treatment of Babesia infection and elucidated the suspected mechanisms of TAF activity against Babesia parasites. Parasitemia and survival rates of B. rodhaini-infected BALB/c and SCID mice were used to explore the role of the immune response in Babesia infection after TAF treatment.

Integrating Parasitological and Entomological Observations to Understand Malaria Transmission in Riverine Villages in the Peruvian Amazon

April 29, 2021 - 08:49 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Rosas-Aguirre A, Moreno M, Gamboa D, et al.
Reference: 
J Infect Dis. 2021 Apr 27;223(Supplement_2):S99-S110

Remote rural riverine villages account for most of the reported malaria cases in the Peruvian Amazon. As transmission decreases due to intensive standard control efforts, malaria strategies in these villages will need to be more focused and adapted to local epidemiology.

Estimated impact of tafenoquine for Plasmodium vivax control and elimination in Brazil: A modelling study

April 29, 2021 - 08:00 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Nekkab N, Lana R, Lacerda M, Obadia T, Siqueira A, Monteiro W, Villela D, Mueller I, White M
Reference: 
PLoS Med. 2021 Apr 23;18(4):e1003535

Despite recent intensification of control measures, Plasmodium vivax poses a major challenge for malaria elimination efforts. Liver-stage hypnozoite parasites that cause relapsing infections can be cleared with primaquine; however, poor treatment adherence undermines drug effectiveness. Tafenoquine, a new single-dose treatment, offers an alternative option for preventing relapses and reducing transmission. In 2018, over 237,000 cases of malaria were reported to the Brazilian health system, of which 91.5% were due to P. vivax.

Towards the elimination of Plasmodium vivax malaria: Implementing the radical cure

April 28, 2021 - 14:13 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Thriemer K, Ley B, von Seidlein L
Reference: 
PLoS Med. 2021 Apr 23;18(4):e1003494

In this review for the Vivax malaria collection, Kamala Thriemer and colleagues explore efforts to eliminate P. vivax malaria.

The changing epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax: Insights from conventional and novel surveillance tools

April 28, 2021 - 14:12 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Auburn S, Cheng Q, Marfurt J, Price RN
Reference: 
PLoS Med. 2021 Apr 23;18(4):e1003560

Sarah Auburn and co-authors discuss the unique biology and epidemiology of P. vivax and current evidence on conventional and new approaches to surveillance.

NOT Open Access | Epidemiology and clinical outcomes of severe Plasmodium vivax malaria in India

April 14, 2021 - 16:56 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Foko LPK, Arya A, Sharma A, Singh V
Reference: 
J Infect. 2021 Apr 5:S0163-4453(21)00161-4

A systematic review and meta-analysis (SR-MA) of the available Indian literature on severe vivax malaria (SVM) was undertaken.

NOT Open Access | Assessment of Microscopic Detection of Malaria with Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction in War-Torn Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan

April 14, 2021 - 08:17 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Nadeem MF, Khattak AA, Zeeshan N, Awan UA, Yaqoob A
Reference: 
Acta Parasitol. 2021 Apr 11

Diagnostic accuracy of malaria is critical for early treatment, control, and elimination of malaria, especially in war-affected malaria-endemic areas. Microscopic detection of Plasmodium species has been the gold standard in remote malaria-endemic regions. However, the diagnostic accuracy is still questioned, especially in discriminating mixed and submicroscopic parasitic levels. This study was designed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of microscopic examination against nested PCR analysis in war-torn malaria-endemic Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) of Pakistan.

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