Efforts to study the biology of Plasmodium vivax liver stages, particularly the latent hypnozoites, have been hampered by the limited availability of P. vivax sporozoites. Anopheles stephensi is a major urban malaria vector in Goa and elsewhere in South Asia. Using P. vivax patient blood samples, a series of standard membrane-feeding experiments were performed with An. stephensi under the US NIH International Center of Excellence for Malaria Research (ICEMR) for Malaria Evolution in South Asia (MESA). The goal was to understand the dynamics of parasite development in mosquitoes as well as the production of P. vivax sporozoites. To obtain a robust supply of P. vivax sporozoites, mosquito-rearing and mosquito membrane-feeding techniques were optimized, which are described here.
The radical cure of Plasmodium vivax requires treatment with an 8-aminoquinoline drug, such as primaquine and tafenoquine, to eradicate liver hypnozoite stages, which can reactivate to cause relapsing infections. Safe treatment regimens require prior screening of patients for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency to avoid potential life-threatening drug induced haemolysis. Testing is rarely available in malaria endemic countries, but will be needed to support routine use of radical cure. This study investigates end-user perspectives in Bangladesh on the introduction of a quantitative G6PD test (SD Biosensor STANDARD™ G6PD analyser) to support malaria elimination.
Malaria in Brazil represents one of the highest percentages of Latin America cases, where approximately 84% of infections are attributed to Plasmodium (P.) vivax. Despite the high incidence, many aspects of gestational malaria resulting from P. vivax infections remain poorly studied. As such, we aimed to evaluate the consequences of P. vivax infections during gestation on the health of mothers and their neonates in an endemic area of the Amazon.
Due to drug resistance, commonly used anti-Babesia drugs have limited efficacy against babesiosis, and inflict severe side effects. Tafenoquine (TAF) was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 2018 for the radical cure of Plasmodium vivax infection and for malaria prophylaxis. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of TAF for the treatment of Babesia infection and elucidated the suspected mechanisms of TAF activity against Babesia parasites. Parasitemia and survival rates of B. rodhaini-infected BALB/c and SCID mice were used to explore the role of the immune response in Babesia infection after TAF treatment.
Remote rural riverine villages account for most of the reported malaria cases in the Peruvian Amazon. As transmission decreases due to intensive standard control efforts, malaria strategies in these villages will need to be more focused and adapted to local epidemiology.
Despite recent intensification of control measures, Plasmodium vivax poses a major challenge for malaria elimination efforts. Liver-stage hypnozoite parasites that cause relapsing infections can be cleared with primaquine; however, poor treatment adherence undermines drug effectiveness. Tafenoquine, a new single-dose treatment, offers an alternative option for preventing relapses and reducing transmission. In 2018, over 237,000 cases of malaria were reported to the Brazilian health system, of which 91.5% were due to P. vivax.
In this review for the Vivax malaria collection, Kamala Thriemer and colleagues explore efforts to eliminate P. vivax malaria.
Sarah Auburn and co-authors discuss the unique biology and epidemiology of P. vivax and current evidence on conventional and new approaches to surveillance.
A systematic review and meta-analysis (SR-MA) of the available Indian literature on severe vivax malaria (SVM) was undertaken.
Diagnostic accuracy of malaria is critical for early treatment, control, and elimination of malaria, especially in war-affected malaria-endemic areas. Microscopic detection of Plasmodium species has been the gold standard in remote malaria-endemic regions. However, the diagnostic accuracy is still questioned, especially in discriminating mixed and submicroscopic parasitic levels. This study was designed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of microscopic examination against nested PCR analysis in war-torn malaria-endemic Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) of Pakistan.