The role of the gut microbiota during coinfection with soil-transmitted helminths (STH) and Plasmodium spp. is poorly understood. We examined peripheral blood and fecal samples from 130 individuals who were either infected with Plasmodium vivax only, coinfected with P. vivax and STH, infected with STH alone, or not infected with either P. vivax or STH. In addition to a complete blood count (CBC) with differential, transcriptional profiling of peripheral blood samples was performed by transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq), fecal microbial communities were determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and circulating cytokine levels were measured by bead-based immunoassays.
Genomic surveillance of malaria parasite populations has the potential to inform control strategies and to monitor the impact of interventions. Barcodes comprising large numbers of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers are accurate and efficient genotyping tools, however may need to be tailored to specific malaria transmission settings, since ‘universal’ barcodes can lack resolution at the local scale. A SNP barcode was developed that captures the diversity and structure of Plasmodium vivax populations of Papua New Guinea (PNG) for research and surveillance.
Plasmodium vivax malaria is much less common in Africa than the rest of the world because the parasite relies primarily on the Duffy antigen/chemokine receptor (DARC) to invade human erythrocytes, and the majority of Africans are Duffy negative. Recently, there has been a dramatic increase in the reporting of P. vivax cases in Africa, with a high number of them being in Duffy negative individuals, potentially indicating P. vivax has evolved an alternative invasion mechanism that can overcome Duffy negativity.
Plasmodium vivax is the most prevalent cause of malaria outside of Africa. P. vivax biology and pathogenesis are still poorly understood. The role of one highly occurring phenotype in particular where infected reticulocytes cytoadhere to noninfected normocytes, forming rosettes, remains unknown. Here, using a range of ex vivo approaches, we showed that P. vivax rosetting rates were enhanced by plasma of infected patients and that total immunoglobulin M levels correlated with rosetting frequency.
Plasmodium vivax malaria represents a major public health problem. This study presents the quality assessment of clinical practice guidelines for the management of P. vivax malaria.
To investigate the impact of Plasmodium vivax malaria and chloroquine‐primaquine chemotherapy on CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 activity in patients from the Brazilian Amazon.
Following malaria elimination, Sri Lanka was free from indigenous transmission for six consecutive years, until the first introduced case was reported in December 2018. The source of transmission (index case) was a member of a group of 32 migrant workers from India and the location of transmission was their residence reporting a high prevalence of the primary vector for malaria. Despite extensive vector control the situation was highly susceptible to onward transmission if another of the group developed malaria. Therefore, Mass Radical Treatment (MRT) of the group of workers for Plasmodium vivax malaria was undertaken to mitigate this risk.
Sri Lanka was certified as a malaria-free nation in 2016; however, imported malaria cases continue to be reported. Evidence-based information on the genetic structure/diversity of the parasite populations is useful to understand the population history, assess the trends in transmission patterns, as well as to predict threatening phenotypes that may be introduced and spread in parasite populations disrupting elimination programmes. This study used a previously developed Plasmodium vivax single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) barcode to evaluate the population dynamics of P. vivax parasite isolates from Sri Lanka and to assess the ability of the SNP barcode for tracking the parasites to its origin.
Malaria is a global socio-economic burden of which Plasmodium vivax contributes for about 70-80 million cases on an annual basis worldwide and 60-65% cases in India. Diversity observed in highly polymorphic Merozoite Surface Protein-3α (msp-3α) encoded by MSP-3 gene family, has been used efficiently for genotyping of P. vivax infection. This study aims to correlate the severity of clinical symptoms with parasite load, genotype of P. vivax and multiplicity of infection.
Plasmodium vivax malaria has a persistent liver stage that causes relapse of the disease and continued P vivax transmission. Primaquine (PQ) is used to clear the liver stage of the parasite, but treatment is required for 14 days. Primaquine also causes haemolysis in people with glucose‐6‐phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. Tafenoquine (TQ) is a new alternative to PQ with a longer half‐life and can be used as a single‐dose treatment.