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Plasmodium vivax

Population genomics of Plasmodium vivax in Panama to assess the risk of case importation on malaria elimination

December 16, 2020 - 10:14 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Buyon LE, Santamaria AM, Early AM, Quijada M, Barahona I, Lasso J, Avila M, Volkman SK, Marti M, Neafsey DE, Obaldia Iii N
Reference: 
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2020 Dec 14;14(12):e0008962

Malaria incidence in Panama has plateaued in recent years in spite of elimination efforts, with almost all cases caused by Plasmodium vivax. Notwithstanding, overall malaria prevalence remains low (fewer than 1 case per 1000 persons). We used selective whole genome amplification to sequence 59 P. vivax samples from Panama. The P. vivax samples were collected from two periods (2007-2009 and 2017-2019) to study the population structure and transmission dynamics of the parasite.

Outbreak of autochthonous cases of malaria in coastal regions of Northeast Brazil: the diversity and spatial distribution of species of Anopheles

December 15, 2020 - 14:34 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Gomes ECS, Cruz DLD, Santos MAVM, Souza RMC, Oliveira CMF, Ayres CFJ, Domingos RM, Pedro MDGDS, Paiva MHS, Pimentel LMLM
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2020 Dec 14;13(1):621

Brazil has the fourth highest prevalence of malaria of all countries in the Americas, with an estimated 42 million people at risk of contracting this disease. Although most cases occur in the Amazon region, cases of an autochthonous nature have also been registered in the extra-Amazonian region where Anopheles aquasalis and An. albitarsis are the mosquito species of greatest epidemiological interest. In 2019, the municipality of Conde (state of Paraíba) experienced an epidemic of autochthonous cases of malaria. Here we present preliminary results of an entomological and case epidemiology investigation, in an attempt to correlate the diversity and spatial distribution of species of Anopheles with the autochthonous cases of this outbreak of malaria.

A comparison of non-magnetic and magnetic beads for measuring IgG antibodies against Plasmodium vivax antigens in a multiplexed bead-based assay using Luminex technology (Bio-Plex 200 or MAGPIX)

December 8, 2020 - 10:54 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Mazhari R, Brewster J, Fong R, Bourke C, Liu ZSJ, Takashima E, Tsuboi T, Tham WH, Harbers M, Chitnis C, Healer J, Ome-Kaius M, Sattabongkot J, Kazura J, Robinson LJ, King C, Mueller I, Longley RJ
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2020 Dec 4;15(12):e0238010

Multiplexed bead-based assays that use Luminex® xMAP® technology have become popular for measuring antibodies against proteins of interest in many fields, including malaria and more recently SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19. There are currently two formats that are widely used: non-magnetic beads or magnetic beads. Data are lacking regarding the comparability of results obtained using these two types of beads, and for assays run on different instruments.

Molecular surveillance of the Plasmodium vivax multidrug resistance 1 gene in Peru between 2006 and 2015

December 8, 2020 - 10:46 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Fredy E. Villena, Jorge L. Maguiña, Meddly L. Santolalla, Edwar Pozo, Carola J. Salas, Julia S. Ampuero, Andres G. Lescano, Danett K. Bishop and Hugo O. Valdivia
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:450, 4 December 2020

The high incidence of Plasmodium vivax infections associated with clinical severity and the emergence of chloroquine (CQ) resistance has posed a challenge to control efforts aimed at eliminating this disease. Despite conflicting evidence regarding the role of mutations of P. vivax multidrug resistance 1 gene (pvmdr1) in drug resistance, this gene can be a tool for molecular surveillance due to its variability and spatial patterns.

Assessing the in vitro sensitivity with associated drug resistance polymorphisms in Plasmodium vivax clinical isolates from Delhi, India

November 25, 2020 - 12:42 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Matlani M, Kumar A, Singh V
Reference: 
Exp Parasitol. 2020 Nov 19:108047

The drug resistance of Plasmodium vivax in clinical cases remains largely unknown till date because of the difficulty in diagnosing the resistant P. vivax strains. The present study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of mutant alleles in drug resistance genes viz P. vivax multi-drug resistance (pvmdr-1), chloroquine resistance transporter (pvcrt-o), dihydrofolate reductase (pvdhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (pvdhps) along with in vitro chloroquine (CQ) sensitivity in P. vivax clinical isolates.

From Plasmodium vivax outbreak to elimination: lessons learnt from a retrospective analysis of data from Guantang

November 24, 2020 - 15:00 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Guo-Jing Yang, Ying Liu, Le-Yuan Shang, Hong-Wei Zhang, Xiao-Nong Zhou, Melissa A. Penny and Thomas A. Smith
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:427, 23 November 2020

Malaria was once a serious public health problem in China, with Plasmodium vivax the major species responsible for more than 90% of local transmission. Following significant integrated malaria control and elimination programmes, malaria burden declined, and since 2017 China has not recorded any indigenous case. To understand the historical malaria transmission patterns and epidemic characteristics in China and insights useful to guide P. vivax malaria control and elimination elsewhere, a retrospective study was carried out.

Forest malaria in Cambodia: the occupational and spatial clustering of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum infection risk in a cross-sectional survey in Mondulkiri province, Cambodia

November 24, 2020 - 13:39 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Mirco Sandfort, Amélie Vantaux, Ivo Mueller, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:413, 19 November 2020

After a marked reduction in malaria burden in Cambodia over the last decades, case numbers increased again in 2017–2018. In light of the national goal of malaria elimination by 2025, remaining pockets of high risk need to be well defined and strategies well-tailored to identify and target the persisting burden cost-effectively. This study presents species-specific prevalence estimates and risk stratification for a remote area in Cambodia.

The risk of adverse clinical outcomes following treatment of Plasmodium vivax malaria with and without primaquine in Papua, Indonesia

November 12, 2020 - 15:44 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Thriemer K, Poespoprodjo JR, Kenangalem E, Douglas NM, Sugiarto P, Anstey NM, Simpson JA, Price RN
Reference: 
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2020 Nov 11;14(11):e0008838

The widespread use of primaquine (PQ) radical cure for P. vivax, is constrained by concerns over its safety. We used routinely collected patient data to compare the overall morbidity and mortality in patients treated with and without PQ without prior testing of Glucose-6-Phosphate-Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in Papua, Indonesia, where there is a low prevalence of G6PD deficiency. Records were collated from patients older than 1 year, with P. vivax infection, who were treated with an artemisinin combination therapy (ACT).

Genetic polymorphism of vir genes of Plasmodium vivax in Myanmar

November 4, 2020 - 15:18 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Na BK, Kim TS, Lin K, Baek MC, Chung DI, Hong Y, Goo YK
Reference: 
Parasitol Int. 2020 Oct 31:102233

The Plasmodium vivax variant proteins encoded by vir genes are highly polymorphic antigens and are considered as one of key proteins of P. vivax for host immune evasion via antigenic variations. Because genetic diversity of these antigens is a critical hurdle in the development of an effective vaccine, understanding the genetic nature of the vir genes in natural population is important.

Population genomics reveals the expansion of highly inbred Plasmodium vivax lineages in the main malaria hotspot of Brazil

October 31, 2020 - 09:50 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
de Oliveira TC, Corder RM, Early A, Rodrigues PT, Ladeia-Andrade S, Alves JMP, Neafsey DE, Ferreira MU
Reference: 
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2020 Oct 28;14(10):e0008808

Plasmodium vivax is a neglected human malaria parasite that causes significant morbidity in the Americas, the Middle East, Asia, and the Western Pacific. Population genomic approaches remain little explored to map local and regional transmission pathways of P. vivax across the main endemic sites in the Americas, where great progress has been made towards malaria elimination over the past decades.

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