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Plasmodium vivax

Molecular detection of antimalarial drug resistance in Plasmodium vivax from returned travellers to NSW, Australia during 2008-2018

February 16, 2020 - 09:23 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Noisang C, Meyer W, Sawangjaroen N, Ellis J, Lee R
Reference: 
Pathogens. 2020 Feb 5;9(2). pii: E101

To monitor drug resistance in Plasmodium vivax, a multidrug resistance 1 (Pvmdr1) gene and a putative transporter protein (Pvcrt-o) gene were used as molecular markers for chloroquine resistance. The biomarkers, the dihydrofolate reductase (Pvdhfr) gene and the dihydropteroate synthetase (Pvdhps) gene, were also used for the detection of resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP); this drug is often accidentally used to treat P. vivax infections. Clinical blood samples (n = 120) were collected from patients who had been to one of eight malaria-endemic countries and diagnosed with P. vivax infection.

Genetic diversity of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum lactate dehydrogenases in Myanmar isolates

February 10, 2020 - 16:15 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Jinyoung Lee, Tae Im Kim, Byoung-Kuk Na, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:60, 4 February 2020

Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) is a major target in diagnosing the erythrocytic stage of malaria parasites because it is highly expressed during blood-stage parasites and is distinguished from human LDH. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria use pLDH as a target antigen; however, genetic variations in pLDH within the natural population threaten the efficacy of pLDH-based RDTs.

NOT Open Access | The immunology of Plasmodium vivax malaria

January 20, 2020 - 14:37 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Antonelli LR, Junqueira C, Vinetz JM, Golenbock DT, Ferreira MU, Gazzinelli RT
Reference: 
Immunological Reviews, Volume293, Issue1, January 2020, Pages 163-189

Plasmodium vivax infection, the predominant cause of malaria in Asia and Latin America, affects ~14 million individuals annually, with considerable adverse effects on wellbeing and socioeconomic development. A clinical hallmark of Plasmodium infection, the paroxysm, is driven by pyrogenic cytokines produced during the immune response. Here, we review studies on the role of specific immune cell types, cognate innate immune receptors, and inflammatory cytokines on parasite control and disease symptoms.

Evaluation of antibody responses to the early transcribed membrane protein family in Plasmodium vivax

January 15, 2020 - 09:24 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Lee SK, Han JH, Park JH, Ha KS, Park WS, Hong SH, Na S, Cheng Y, Han ET
Reference: 
Parasites & Vectors volume, 2019 Dec 19; 12(1):594.

Malaria parasites form intracellular membranes that separate the parasite from the internal space of erythrocytes, and membrane proteins from the parasites are exported to the host via the membrane. In our previous study, Plasmodium vivax early transcribed membrane protein (PvETRAMP) 11.2, an intracellular membrane protein that is highly expressed in blood-stage parasites, was characterized as a highly immunogenic protein in P. vivax malaria patients. However, the other PvETRAMP family proteins have not yet been investigated. In this study, PvETRAMPs were expressed and evaluated to determine their immunological profiles.

Novel RNA viruses associated with Plasmodium vivax in human malaria and Leucocytozoon parasites in avian disease

January 14, 2020 - 17:05 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Charon J, Grigg MJ, Eden JS, Piera KA, Rana H, William T, Rose K, Davenport MP, Anstey NM, Holmes EC
Reference: 
PLoS Pathog 15(12): e1008216

Eukaryotes of the genus Plasmodium cause malaria, a parasitic disease responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality in humans. Yet, the nature and abundance of any viruses carried by these divergent eukaryotic parasites is unknown. We investigated the Plasmodium virome by performing a meta-transcriptomic analysis of blood samples taken from patients suffering from malaria and infected with P. vivax, P. falciparum or P. knowlesi.

The use of ultrasensitive quantitative-PCR to assess the impact of primaquine on asymptomatic relapse of Plasmodium vivax infections: a randomized, controlled trial in Lao PDR

January 7, 2020 - 14:55 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Koukeo Phommasone, Frank van Leth, Mayfong Mayxay, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:4, 3 January 2020

Trials to assess the efficacy of the radical cure of Plasmodium vivax malaria with 8-aminoquinolines require that most post-treatment relapses are identified, but there is no consensus on the optimal duration of follow-up in either symptomatic or asymptomatic vivax malaria. The efficacy of a 14-day course of primaquine on the cumulative incidence of recurrent asymptomatic P. vivax infections detected by ultrasensitive quantitative PCR (uPCR) as a primary endpoint was assessed.

Plasmodium vivax Reticulocyte Binding Proteins for invasion into reticulocytes

January 7, 2020 - 14:07 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Chan LJ, Dietrich MH, Nguitragool W, Tham WH
Reference: 
Cellular Microbiology, 2020; 22: e13110

Plasmodium vivax is responsible for most of the malaria infections outside Africa and is currently the predominant malaria parasite in countries under elimination programs. P. vivax preferentially enters young red cells called reticulocytes. Advances in understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms of entry are hampered by the inability to grow large numbers of P. vivax parasites in a long‐term in vitro culture.

Doses of chloroquine in the treatment of malaria by Plasmodium vivax in patients between 2 and 14 years of age from the Brazilian Amazon basin

December 30, 2019 - 14:46 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Luann Wendel Pereira de Sena, Amanda Gabryelle Nunes Cardoso Mello, Michelle Valéria Dias Ferreira, Marcieni Andrade de Ataide, Rosa Maria Dias and José Luiz Fernandes Vieira
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:439, 21 December 2019

A total dose of chloroquine of 25 mg/kg is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) to treat malaria by Plasmodium vivax. In several endemic areas, including the Brazilian Amazon basin, anti-malarial drugs are dispensed in small plastic bags at a dosing regimen based on age. This practice can lead to suboptimal dosing of the drug, which can impact treatment outcomes. The aim of the present study was to estimate the extent of sub-dosing of chloroquine in children and adolescents with vivax malaria using an age-based dose regimen, in addition to investigating the influence of age on the plasma concentrations of chloroquine and desethylchloroquine.

Antibody responses within two leading Plasmodium vivax vaccine candidate antigens in three geographically diverse malaria-endemic regions of India

December 17, 2019 - 16:49 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sonal Kale, Chander P. Yadav, Prashant K. Mallick, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:425, 16 December 2019

Identifying highly immunogenic blood stage antigens which can work as target for naturally acquired antibodies in different eco-epidemiological settings is an important step for designing malaria vaccine. Blood stage proteins of Plasmodium vivax, apical membrane antigen-1 (PvAMA-1) and 19 kDa fragment of merozoite surface protein (PvMSP-119) are such promising vaccine candidate antigens. This study determined the naturally-acquired antibody response to PvAMA-1 and PvMSP-119 antigens in individuals living in three geographically diverse malaria endemic regions of India.

Plasmodium vivax severe imported malaria in two migrants in France

December 17, 2019 - 16:42 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Arezki Izri, Sandrine Cojean, Claire Leblanc, Yves Cohen, Olivier Bouchaud and Rémy Durand
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:422, 16 December 2019

With less than one severe case per year in average, Plasmodium vivax is very rarely associated with severe imported malaria in France. Two cases of P. vivax severe malaria occurred in patients with no evident co-morbidity. Interestingly, both cases did not occur at the primary infection but during relapses.

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