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Plasmodium vivax

Primaquine at alternative dosing schedules for preventing relapse in people with Plasmodium vivax malaria

July 23, 2019 - 13:37 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Rachael Milligan, André Daher, Patricia M Graves
Reference: 
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2019, Issue 7. Art. No.: CD012656

This Cochrane Review evaluated whether more patient‐friendly alternative regimens are as efficacious as the standard regimen for radical cure ofP vivax malaria.

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Chronic hepatitis B virus infection drives changes in systemic immune activation profile in patients coinfected with Plasmodium vivax malaria

July 16, 2019 - 16:19 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Luís A. B. Cruz, Marina O. A. Moraes, Matheus R. Queiroga-Barros, Kiyoshi F. Fukutani, Manoel Barral-Netto, Bruno B. Andrade
Reference: 
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 13(6): e0007535

Plasmodium vivax and Hepatitis B virus (HBV) are globally outspread in similar geographic regions. The concurrence of both infections and its association with some degree of protection against symptomatic and/or severe vivax malaria has been already described. Nevertheless, data on how host response to both pathogens undermines the natural progression of the malarial infection are scarce. Here, a large cohort of vivax malaria and HBV patients is retrospectively analyzed in an attempt to depict how inflammatory characteristics could be potentially related to the protection to severe malaria in coinfection.

Identification of an Immunogenic Broadly Inhibitory Surface Epitope of the Plasmodium vivax Duffy Binding Protein Ligand Domain

July 16, 2019 - 16:16 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Miriam T. George, Jesse L. Schloegel, Francis B. Ntumngia, Samantha J. Barnes, Christopher L. King, Joanne L. Casey, Michael Foley and John H. Adams
Reference: 
mSphere May/June 2019 4:e00194-19

The Plasmodium vivax Duffy binding protein region II (DBPII) is a vital ligand for the parasite’s invasion of reticulocytes, thereby making this molecule an attractive vaccine candidate against vivax malaria.

Primaquine at alternative dosing schedules for preventing relapse in people with Plasmodium vivax malaria

July 16, 2019 - 16:06 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Rachael Milligan, André Daher, Patricia M Graves
Reference: 
Cochrane Systematic Review, 05 July 2019

Malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax requires treatment of the blood‐stage infection and treatment of the hypnozoites that develop in the liver. This is a challenge to effective case management of P vivax malaria, as well as being a more general substantial impediment to malaria control. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a 14‐day drug course with primaquine, an 8‐aminoquinoline, at 0.25 mg/kg/day in most of the world (standard course), or 0.5 mg/kg/day in East Asia and Oceania (high‐standard course). This long treatment course can be difficult to complete, and primaquine can cause dangerous haemolysis in individuals with glucose‐6‐phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, meaning that physicians may be reluctant to prescribe in areas where G6PD testing is not available. This Cochrane Review evaluated whether more patient‐friendly alternative regimens are as efficacious as the standard regimen for radical cure ofP vivax malaria.

Quality of fixed dose artemether/lumefantrine products in Jimma Zone, Ethiopia

July 15, 2019 - 16:14 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sileshi Belew, Sultan Suleman, Bart De Spiegeleer, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:236, 15 July 2019

Malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum is among the major public health problems in most endemic areas of the world. Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) has been recommended as a first-line treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria almost in all endemic regions. Since ineffectively regulated medicines in resource limited settings could favour infiltration of poor quality anti-malarial medicines into pharmaceutical supply chain and jeopardize a positive treatment outcome, regular monitoring of the quality of anti-malarial medicines is critical. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the quality of fixed dose combination (FDC) artemether (ART)/lumefantrine (LUM) tablets available in Jimma zone, Ethiopia.

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Structures of the cGMP-dependent protein kinase in malaria parasites reveal a unique structural relay mechanism for activation

July 15, 2019 - 16:10 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Majida El Bakkouri, Imène Kouidmi, Raymond Hui, et al.
Reference: 
PNAS July 9, 2019 116 (28) 14164-14173

The cyclic guanosine-3′,5′-monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKG) was identified >25 y ago; however, efforts to obtain a structure of the entire PKG enzyme or catalytic domain from any species have failed.

Analysis of serological data to investigate heterogeneity of malaria transmission: a community-based cross-sectional study in an area conducting elimination in Indonesia

July 8, 2019 - 17:11 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Henry Surendra, Mahardika A. Wijayanti, Supargiyono, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:227, 8 July 2019

Analysis of anti-malarial antibody responses has the potential to improve characterization of the variation in exposure to infection in low transmission settings, where conventional measures, such as entomological estimates and parasitaemia point prevalence become less sensitive and expensive to measure. This study evaluates the use of sero-epidemiological analysis to investigate heterogeneity of transmission in area conducting elimination in Indonesia.

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Transmission risk beyond the village: entomological and human factors contributing to residual malaria transmission in an area approaching malaria elimination on the Thailand–Myanmar border

July 8, 2019 - 16:49 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Hannah M. Edwards, Patchara Sriwichai, Kirakorn Kirabittir, Jetsumon Prachumsri, Irwin F. Chavez and Jeffrey Hii
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:221, 1 July 2019

A mixed methods study was conducted to look at the magnitude of residual malaria transmission (RMT) and factors contributing to low (< 1% prevalence), but sustained transmission in rural communities on the Thai–Myanmar border.

Clinical expression and antigenic profiles of a Plasmodium vivax vaccine candidate: merozoite surface protein 7 (PvMSP-7)

June 14, 2019 - 18:16 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Chew Weng Cheng, Somchai Jongwutiwes, Chaturong Putaporntip and Andrew P. Jackson
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:197, 13 June 2019

Vivax malaria is the predominant form of malaria outside Africa, affecting about 14 million people worldwide, with about 2.5 billion people exposed. Development of a Plasmodium vivax vaccine is a priority, and merozoite surface protein 7 (MSP-7) has been proposed as a plausible candidate. The P. vivax genome contains 12 MSP-7 genes, which contribute to erythrocyte invasion during blood-stage infection. Previous analysis of MSP-7 sequence diversity suggested that not all paralogs are functionally equivalent. To explore MSP-7 functional diversity, and to identify the best vaccine candidate within the family, MSP-7 expression and antigenicity during bloodstream infections were examined directly from clinical isolates.

Plasmodium knowlesi as a model system for characterising Plasmodium vivax drug resistance candidate genes

June 11, 2019 - 15:08 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Lisa H. Verzier, Rachael Coyle, Shivani Singh, Theo Sanderson, Julian C. Rayner
Reference: 
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 13(6): e0007470

Plasmodium vivax causes the majority of malaria outside Africa, but is poorly understood at a cellular level partly due to technical difficulties in maintaining it in in vitro culture conditions.

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