During April–June 2014 in a malaria-endemic rural community close to the city of Iquitos in Peru, we detected evidence of Guaroa virus (GROV) infection in 14 febrile persons, of whom 6 also had evidence of Plasmodium vivax malaria. Cases were discovered through a long-term febrile illness surveillance network at local participating health facilities.
Cambodia is the epicentre of the emergence of Plasmodium falciparum drug resistance. Much less is known regarding the drug susceptibility of the co-endemic Plasmodium vivax. Only in vitro drug assays can determine the parasite’s intrinsic susceptibility, but these are challenging to implement for P. vivax and rarely performed.
Transmission of Plasmodium vivax still persist in Malaysia despite the government's aim to eliminate malaria in 2020. High treatment failure rate of chloroquine monotherapy was reported recently. Hence, parasite drug susceptibility should be kept under close monitoring. Mutation analysis of the drug resistance markers is useful for reconnaissance of anti-malarial drug resistance. Hitherto, information on P. vivax drug resistance marker in Malaysia are limited.
Tafenoquine is an 8-aminoquinoline anti-malarial drug recently approved as a single-dose (300 mg) therapy for Plasmodium vivax relapse prevention, when co-administered with 3-days of chloroquine or other blood schizonticide. Tafenoquine 200 mg weekly after a loading dose is also approved as travellers’ prophylaxis. The development of tafenoquine has been conducted over many years, using various dosing regimens in diverse populations.
The overall malaria burden in the Americas has decreased dramatically over the past two decades, but residual transmission pockets persist across the Amazon Basin, where Plasmodium vivax is the predominant infecting species. Current elimination efforts require a better quantitative understanding of malaria transmission dynamics for planning, monitoring, and evaluating interventions at the community level.
More than 200 million malaria clinical cases are reported each year due to Plasmodium vivax, the most widespread Plasmodium species in the world. This species has been neglected and understudied for a long time, due to its lower mortality in comparison with Plasmodium falciparum. A renewed interest has emerged in the past decade with the discovery of antimalarial drug resistance and of severe and even fatal human cases.
Mosquito-feeding assays that assess transmission of Plasmodium from man-to-mosquito typically use laboratory mosquito colonies. The microbiome and genetic background of local mosquitoes may be different and influence Plasmodium transmission efficiency. In order to interpret transmission studies to the local epidemiology, it is therefore crucial to understand the relationship between infectivity in laboratory-adapted and local mosquitoes.
Plasmodium vivax relapse is one of the major causes of sustained global malaria transmission. Primaquine (PQ) is the only commercial drug available to prevent relapses, and its efficacy is dependent on metabolic activation by cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6). Impaired CYP2D6 function, caused by allelic polymorphisms, leads to the therapeutic failure of PQ as a radical cure for P. vivax malaria.
The protozoan Plasmodium vivax is responsible for 42% of all cases of malaria outside Africa. The parasite is currently largely restricted to tropical and subtropical latitudes in Asia, Oceania, and the Americas. Though, it was historically present in most of Europe before being finally eradicated during the second half of the 20th century.
Approximately one-third of the global population is at risk of Plasmodium vivax infection, and an estimated 7.51 million cases were reported in 2017. Although, P. vivax research is currently limited by the lack of a robust continuous in vitro culture system for this parasite, recent work optimizing short-term ex vivo culture of P. vivax from cryopreserved isolates has facilitated quantitative assays on synchronous parasites.