Plasmodium vivax infection is rising in sub-Saharan Africa, where Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for more than 90% of malaria cases. While P. vivax is identified as a major cause of severe and cerebral malaria in South east Asia, the Pacific and South America, most of the severe and cerebral cases in Africa were attributed to P. falciparum. Cases of severe malaria due to P. vivax are emerging in Africa. A few severe P. vivax cases were reported in Eastern Sudan and they were underestimated due to the lack of accurate diagnosis, low parasitaemia and seldom use of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs).
Malaria is one of the important vector-borne diseases with high fatality rates in tropical countries. The pattern of emergence and spread of novel antigenic variants, leading to escape of vaccine-induced immunity might be factors responsible for severe malaria. A high level of polymorphism has been reported among malarial antigens which are under selection pressure imposed by host immunity. There are limited reports available on comparative stage-specific genetic diversity among Plasmodium vivax candidate genes in complicated vivax malaria. The present study was planned to study genetic diversity (Pvcsp and Pvs25) among complicated and uncomplicated P. vivax isolates.
Plasmodium falciparum malaria is a threat to public health, but Plasmodium vivax malaria is most prevalent in Latin America, where the incidence rate has been increasing since 2016, particularly in Venezuela and Brazil. The Brazilian Amazon reported 193,000 cases in 2017, which were mostly confirmed as P. vivax (~ 90%). Herein, the relationships among malaria incidence rates and the proportion of accumulated deforestation were contrasted using data from the states of Acre and Rondônia in the south-western Brazilian Amazon. The main purpose is to test the hypothesis that the observed difference in incidence rates is associated with the proportion of accumulated deforestation.
The Plasmodium vivax Reticulocyte Binding Protein (PvRBP) family is involved in red blood cell recognition and members of this family are potential targets for antibodies that may block P. vivax invasion. To date, the acquisition of immunity against PvRBPs in low malaria transmission settings and in a broad age group of exposed individuals has not been investigated.
Malaria remains a very important public health problem in Ethiopia. Currently, only Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax are considered in the malaria diagnostic and treatment policies. However, the existence and prevalence of Plasmodium ovale spp. and Plasmodium malariae in Ethiopia have not been extensively investigated. The objective of this study was to use a multiplex IgG antibody detection assay to evaluate evidence for exposure to any of these four human malaria parasites among asymptomatic individuals.
The Duffy glycoprotein acts as the entry point for merozoites of Plasmodium vivax in the invasion of red blood cells. The host–parasite relationship has revealed new perspectives regarding the association between Duffy polymorphisms that can impact both the parasite density of this Plasmodium and the symptoms of this type of malaria. This study investigates the impact of Duffy polymorphisms on parasite density in patients infected with P. vivax in the Brazilian Amazon region.
Drug resistance within the major malaria parasites Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum threatens malaria control and elimination in Southeast Asia. Plasmodium vivax first-line treatment drug is chloroquine together with primaquine, and the first-line treatment for P. falciparum malaria is artemisinin in combination with a partner drug. Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum parasites resistant to their respective first-line therapies are now found within Southeast Asia. The resistance perimeters may include high transmission regions of Southern Thailand which are underrepresented in surveillance efforts.
This Cochrane Review evaluated whether more patient‐friendly alternative regimens are as efficacious as the standard regimen for radical cure ofP vivax malaria.
Plasmodium vivax and Hepatitis B virus (HBV) are globally outspread in similar geographic regions. The concurrence of both infections and its association with some degree of protection against symptomatic and/or severe vivax malaria has been already described. Nevertheless, data on how host response to both pathogens undermines the natural progression of the malarial infection are scarce. Here, a large cohort of vivax malaria and HBV patients is retrospectively analyzed in an attempt to depict how inflammatory characteristics could be potentially related to the protection to severe malaria in coinfection.
The Plasmodium vivax Duffy binding protein region II (DBPII) is a vital ligand for the parasite’s invasion of reticulocytes, thereby making this molecule an attractive vaccine candidate against vivax malaria.