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Plasmodium vivax

Anti‐malarial drug effects on parasite dynamics in vivax malaria

March 24, 2021 - 14:41 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Nicholas J. White
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:161, 21 March 2021

Relapses of Plasmodium vivax malaria are prevented by 8-aminoquinolines. If hypnozoites survive, then the subsequent blood stage infections in early relapses (< 2 months) are suppressed by the slowly eliminated anti-malarial drugs used to treat the blood stage infection (chloroquine, artemisinin combination treatments), but they are not usually eliminated.

Plasmodium vivax infection with exflagellated microgametes in peripheral blood smears

March 23, 2021 - 14:34 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Li THS, Lee ACH, Wong WS, Yip YL
Reference: 
Int J Infect Dis. 2021 Mar 18:S1201-9712(21)00267-8

A 42-year-old man with travel history to Qatar and India was admitted for feverish sensation, headache and epigastric discomfort. Peripheral blood smears showed intraerythrocytic parasites compatible with Plasmodium vivax [Fig. 1 (a) and (b)].

Plasmodium vivax infection compromises reticulocyte stability

March 17, 2021 - 17:15 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Clark MA, Kanjee U, Rangel GW, Chery L, Mascarenhas A, Gomes E, Rathod PK, Brugnara C, Ferreira MU, Duraisingh MT
Reference: 
Nat Commun. 2021 Mar 12;12(1):1629

The structural integrity of the host red blood cell (RBC) is crucial for propagation of Plasmodium spp. during the disease-causing blood stage of malaria infection. To assess the stability of Plasmodium vivax-infected reticulocytes, we developed a flow cytometry-based assay to measure osmotic stability within characteristically heterogeneous reticulocyte and P. vivax-infected samples. We find that erythroid osmotic stability decreases during erythropoiesis and reticulocyte maturation.

Genetic characterization of Plasmodium vivax isolates from Pakistan using circumsporozoite protein (pvcsp) and merozoite surface protein-1 (pvmsp-1) genes as genetic markers

March 3, 2021 - 15:26 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Zainab Bibi, Anam Fatima, Rehana Rani, Ayesha Maqbool, Samea Khan, Shumaila Naz and Shahid Waseem
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:112, 25 February 2021

Plasmodium vivax contributes to over 70% malaria burden in Pakistan, but limited data exists on various aspects including genetic diversity of the parasite as compared to other parts of the world. Since the information about the genetic diversity of P. vivax assists to understand the population dynamics of the parasite, the current study was designed to understand population divergence of P. vivax in Pakistan using circumsporozoite protein (pvcsp) and merozoite surface protein-1 (pvmsp-1) genes as molecular markers.

High frequency of the Duffy-negative genotype and absence of Plasmodium vivax infections in Ghana

February 20, 2021 - 08:35 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Charles A. Brown, Prince J. Pappoe-Ashong, Nancy Duah, Anita Ghansah, Harry Asmah, Edwin Afari and Kwadwo A. Koram
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:99, 17 February 2021

Recent studies from different malaria-endemic regions including western Africa have now shown that Plasmodium vivax can infect red blood cells (RBCs) and cause clinical disease in Duffy-negative people, though the Duffy-negative phenotype was thought to confer complete refractoriness against blood invasion with P. vivax. The actual prevalence of P. vivax in local populations in Ghana is unknown and little information is available about the distribution of Duffy genotypes. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of P. vivax in both asymptomatic and symptomatic outpatients and the distribution of Duffy genotypes in Ghana.

A mathematical model for zoonotic transmission of malaria in the Atlantic Forest: Exploring the effects of variations in vector abundance and acrodendrophily

February 17, 2021 - 09:23 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Medeiros-Sousa AR, Laporta GZ, Coutinho RM, Mucci LF, Marrelli MT
Reference: 
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2021 Feb 16;15(2):e0008736

Transmission foci of autochthonous malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax-like parasites have frequently been reported in the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern and Southern Brazil. Evidence suggests that malaria is a zoonosis in these areas as human infections by simian Plasmodium species have been detected, and the main vector of malaria in the Atlantic Forest, Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii, can blood feed on human and simian hosts.

Heterogeneity in response to serological exposure markers of recent Plasmodium vivax infections in contrasting epidemiological contexts

February 17, 2021 - 09:21 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Rosado J, White MT, Mueller I, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2021 Feb 16;15(2):e0009165

Antibody responses as serological markers of Plasmodium vivax infection have been shown to correlate with exposure, but little is known about the other factors that affect antibody responses in naturally infected people from endemic settings. To address this question, we studied IgG responses to novel serological exposure markers (SEMs) of P. vivax in three settings with different transmission intensity.

Malaria in migrant agricultural workers in western Ethiopia: entomological assessment of malaria transmission risk

February 17, 2021 - 09:09 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sisay Dugassa, Mathew Murphy, Sheleme Chibsa, Yehualashet Tadesse, Gedeon Yohannes, Lena M. Lorenz, Hiwot Solomon, Delenasaw Yewhalaw and Seth R. Irish
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:95, 16 February 2021

Ethiopia has made great strides in malaria control over the last two decades. However, this progress has not been uniform and one concern has been reported high rates of malaria transmission in large agricultural development areas in western Ethiopia. Improved vector control is one way this transmission might be addressed, but little is known about malaria vectors in this part of the country.

Two 20-Residue-Long Peptides Derived from Plasmodium vivax Merozoite Surface Protein 10 EGF-Like Domains Are Involved in Binding to Human Reticulocytes

February 11, 2021 - 09:25 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ricaurte-Contreras LA, Lovera A, Moreno-Pérez DA, Bohórquez MD, Suárez CF, Gutiérrez-Vásquez E, Cuy-Chaparro L, Garzón-Ospina D, Patarroyo MA
Reference: 
Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Feb 5;22(4):1609

Plasmodium parasites' invasion of their target cells is a complex, multi-step process involving many protein-protein interactions. Little is known about how complex the interaction with target cells is in Plasmodium vivax and few surface molecules related to reticulocytes' adhesion have been described to date. Natural selection, functional and structural analysis were carried out on the previously described vaccine candidate P. vivax merozoite surface protein 10 (PvMSP10) for evaluating its role during initial contact with target cells.

Protective effect of Mediterranean type glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency against Plasmodium vivax malaria

February 8, 2021 - 10:44 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Awab GR, Aaram F, Jamornthanyawat N, Suwannasin K, Pagornrat W, Watson JA, Woodrow CJ, Dondorp AM, Day NP, Imwong M, White NJ
Reference: 
Elife. 2021 Feb 5;10:e62448

X-linked glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common human enzymopathy. The severe Mediterranean variant (G6PD Med) found across Europe and Asia is thought to confer protection against malaria, but its effect is unclear. We fitted a Bayesian statistical model to observed G6PD Med allele frequencies in 999 Pashtun patients presenting with acute Plasmodium vivax malaria and 1408 population controls.

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