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Plasmodium vivax

Plasmodium vivax cerebral malaria in an adult patient in Sudan

September 23, 2019 - 14:18 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Maowia M. Mukhtar, Omer A. Eisawi, Seth A. Amanfo, Elwaleed M. Elamin, Zeinab S. Imam, Faiza M. Osman and Manasik E. Hamed
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:316, 18 September 2019

Plasmodium vivax infection is rising in sub-Saharan Africa, where Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for more than 90% of malaria cases. While P. vivax is identified as a major cause of severe and cerebral malaria in South east Asia, the Pacific and South America, most of the severe and cerebral cases in Africa were attributed to P. falciparum. Cases of severe malaria due to P. vivax are emerging in Africa. A few severe P. vivax cases were reported in Eastern Sudan and they were underestimated due to the lack of accurate diagnosis, low parasitaemia and seldom use of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs).

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Exploration of genetic diversity of Plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite protein (Pvcsp) and Plasmodium vivax sexual stage antigen (Pvs25) among North Indian isolates

September 13, 2019 - 06:57 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Hargobinder Kaur, Rakesh Sehgal, Archit Kumar, Alka Sehgal, Praveen K. Bharti, Devendra Bansal, Pradyumna K. Mohapatra, Jagadish Mahanta and Ali A. Sultan
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:308, 6 September 2019

Malaria is one of the important vector-borne diseases with high fatality rates in tropical countries. The pattern of emergence and spread of novel antigenic variants, leading to escape of vaccine-induced immunity might be factors responsible for severe malaria. A high level of polymorphism has been reported among malarial antigens which are under selection pressure imposed by host immunity. There are limited reports available on comparative stage-specific genetic diversity among Plasmodium vivax candidate genes in complicated vivax malaria. The present study was planned to study genetic diversity (Pvcsp and Pvs25) among complicated and uncomplicated P. vivax isolates.

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Comparison of malaria incidence rates and socioeconomic-environmental factors between the states of Acre and Rondônia: a spatio-temporal modelling study

September 13, 2019 - 06:50 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Meyrecler Aglair de Oliveira Padilha, Janille de Oliveira Melo, Guilherme Romano, Marcos Vinicius Malveira de Lima, Wladimir J. Alonso, Maria Anice Mureb Sallum and Gabriel Zorello Laporta
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:306, 4 September 2019

Plasmodium falciparum malaria is a threat to public health, but Plasmodium vivax malaria is most prevalent in Latin America, where the incidence rate has been increasing since 2016, particularly in Venezuela and Brazil. The Brazilian Amazon reported 193,000 cases in 2017, which were mostly confirmed as P. vivax (~ 90%). Herein, the relationships among malaria incidence rates and the proportion of accumulated deforestation were contrasted using data from the states of Acre and Rondônia in the south-western Brazilian Amazon. The main purpose is to test the hypothesis that the observed difference in incidence rates is associated with the proportion of accumulated deforestation.

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Antibodies to Plasmodium vivax reticulocyte binding protein 2b are associated with protection against P. vivax malaria in populations living in low malaria transmission regions of Brazil and Thailand

September 9, 2019 - 16:40 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Wen-Qiang He, Stephan Karl, Ivo Mueller, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 13(8): e0007596

The Plasmodium vivax Reticulocyte Binding Protein (PvRBP) family is involved in red blood cell recognition and members of this family are potential targets for antibodies that may block P. vivax invasion. To date, the acquisition of immunity against PvRBPs in low malaria transmission settings and in a broad age group of exposed individuals has not been investigated.

Sero-identification of the aetiologies of human malaria exposure (Plasmodium spp.) in the Limu Kossa District of Jimma Zone, South western Ethiopia

September 2, 2019 - 15:27 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sindew Mekasha Feleke, Bokretsion Gidey Brhane, Hassen Mamo, Ashenafi Assefa, Adugna Woyessa, Guilherme Maerschner Ogawa and Vitaliano Cama
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:292, 27 August 2019

Malaria remains a very important public health problem in Ethiopia. Currently, only Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax are considered in the malaria diagnostic and treatment policies. However, the existence and prevalence of Plasmodium ovale spp. and Plasmodium malariae in Ethiopia have not been extensively investigated. The objective of this study was to use a multiplex IgG antibody detection assay to evaluate evidence for exposure to any of these four human malaria parasites among asymptomatic individuals.

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Impact of Duffy polymorphisms on parasite density in Brazilian Amazonian patients infected by Plasmodium vivax

September 2, 2019 - 15:19 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Rechfy K. Abou-Ali, Anamika Dhyani, Sérgio R. L. Albuquerque, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:289, 27 August 2019

The Duffy glycoprotein acts as the entry point for merozoites of Plasmodium vivax in the invasion of red blood cells. The host–parasite relationship has revealed new perspectives regarding the association between Duffy polymorphisms that can impact both the parasite density of this Plasmodium and the symptoms of this type of malaria. This study investigates the impact of Duffy polymorphisms on parasite density in patients infected with P. vivax in the Brazilian Amazon region.

Molecular detection of drug resistant malaria in Southern Thailand

August 19, 2019 - 17:40 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Chaturong Noisang, Christiane Prosser, Wieland Meyer, Waenurama Chemoh, John Ellis, Nongyao Sawangjaroen and Rogan Lee
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:275, 15 August 2019

Drug resistance within the major malaria parasites Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum threatens malaria control and elimination in Southeast Asia. Plasmodium vivax first-line treatment drug is chloroquine together with primaquine, and the first-line treatment for P. falciparum malaria is artemisinin in combination with a partner drug. Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum parasites resistant to their respective first-line therapies are now found within Southeast Asia. The resistance perimeters may include high transmission regions of Southern Thailand which are underrepresented in surveillance efforts.

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Primaquine at alternative dosing schedules for preventing relapse in people with Plasmodium vivax malaria

July 23, 2019 - 13:37 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Rachael Milligan, André Daher, Patricia M Graves
Reference: 
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2019, Issue 7. Art. No.: CD012656

This Cochrane Review evaluated whether more patient‐friendly alternative regimens are as efficacious as the standard regimen for radical cure ofP vivax malaria.

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Chronic hepatitis B virus infection drives changes in systemic immune activation profile in patients coinfected with Plasmodium vivax malaria

July 16, 2019 - 16:19 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Luís A. B. Cruz, Marina O. A. Moraes, Matheus R. Queiroga-Barros, Kiyoshi F. Fukutani, Manoel Barral-Netto, Bruno B. Andrade
Reference: 
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 13(6): e0007535

Plasmodium vivax and Hepatitis B virus (HBV) are globally outspread in similar geographic regions. The concurrence of both infections and its association with some degree of protection against symptomatic and/or severe vivax malaria has been already described. Nevertheless, data on how host response to both pathogens undermines the natural progression of the malarial infection are scarce. Here, a large cohort of vivax malaria and HBV patients is retrospectively analyzed in an attempt to depict how inflammatory characteristics could be potentially related to the protection to severe malaria in coinfection.

Identification of an Immunogenic Broadly Inhibitory Surface Epitope of the Plasmodium vivax Duffy Binding Protein Ligand Domain

July 16, 2019 - 16:16 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Miriam T. George, Jesse L. Schloegel, Francis B. Ntumngia, Samantha J. Barnes, Christopher L. King, Joanne L. Casey, Michael Foley and John H. Adams
Reference: 
mSphere May/June 2019 4:e00194-19

The Plasmodium vivax Duffy binding protein region II (DBPII) is a vital ligand for the parasite’s invasion of reticulocytes, thereby making this molecule an attractive vaccine candidate against vivax malaria.

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