Monocytes play an important role in the host defense against Plasmodium vivax as the main source of inflammatory cytokines and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS). Here, we show that monocyte metabolism is altered during human P. vivax malaria, with mitochondria playing a major function in this switch. The process involves a reprograming in which the cells increase glucose uptake and produce ATP via glycolysis instead of oxidative phosphorylation.
More than one-third of the world's population is exposed to Plasmodium vivax malaria, mainly in Asia1. P. vivax preferentially invades reticulocytes (immature red blood cells)2-4. Previous work has identified 11 parasite proteins involved in reticulocyte invasion, including erythrocyte binding protein 2 (ref. 5) and the reticulocyte-binding proteins (PvRBPs)6-10.
Malaria causes significant morbidity and mortality in children under 5 years of age in sub-Saharan Africa and the Asia-Pacific region. Neonates and young infants remain relatively protected from clinical disease and the transplacental transfer of maternal antibodies is hypothesized as one of the protective factors. The adverse health effects of Plasmodium vivax malaria in early childhood–traditionally viewed as a benign infection–remain largely neglected in relatively low-endemicity settings across the Amazon.
Red blood cell invasion by the Plasmodium vivax merozoite requires interaction between the Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC) and the P. vivax Duffy-binding protein II (PvDBPII). Given that the disruption of this interaction prevents P. vivax blood-stage infection, a PvDBP-based vaccine development has been well recognized. However, the polymorphic nature of PvDBPII prevents a strain transcending immune response and complicates attempts to design a vaccine.
Yingjiang County, which is on the China-Myanmar border, is the main focus for malaria elimination in China. The epidemiological characteristics of malaria in Yingjiang County were analysed in a retrospective analysis. A total of 895 malaria cases were reported in Yingjiang County between 2013 and 2019. The majority of cases occurred in males (70.7%) and individuals aged 19-59 years (77.3%).
Reports of P. vivax infections among Duffy-negative hosts have accumulated throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Despite this growing body of evidence, no nationally representative epidemiological surveys of P. vivax in sub-Saharan Africa have been performed. To overcome this gap in knowledge, we screened over 17,000 adults in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) for P. vivax using samples from the 2013-2014 Demographic Health Survey.
Plasmodium vivax is the most widespread human malaria parasite, in part because it can form latent liver stages known as hypnozoites after transmission by female anopheline mosquitoes to human hosts. These persistent stages can activate weeks, months, or even years after the primary clinical infection; replicate; and initiate relapses of blood stage infection, which causes disease and recurring transmission.
Terminal and benign diseases alike in adults, children, pregnant women, and others are successfully treated by pharmacological inhibitors that target human enzymes. Despite extensive global efforts to fight malaria, the disease continues to be a massive worldwide health burden, and new interventional strategies are needed. Current drugs and vector control strategies have contributed to the reduction in malaria deaths over the past 10 years, but progress toward eradication has waned in recent years.
Plasmodium vivax proteins with variant interspersed repeats (VIR) are the key proteins used by the parasite to escape from the host immune system through the creation of antigenic variations. However, few studies have been done to elucidate their role as targets of immunity. Thus, this study evaluated the naturally-acquired immune response against VIR proteins in vivax malaria-infected individuals in the Republic of Korea (ROK).
A major challenge for malaria is the lack of tools for accurate and timely diagnosis in the field which are critical for case management and surveillance. Microscopy along with rapid diagnostic tests are the current mainstay for malaria diagnosis in most endemic regions. However, these methods present several limitations. This study assessed the accuracy of Gazelle, a novel rapid malaria diagnostic device, from samples collected from the Peruvian Amazon between 2019 and 2020.