Ethiopia is one of the few countries in Africa where Plasmodium vivax commonly co-exists with Plasmodium falciparum, and which accounts for ~ 40% of the total number of malaria infections in the country. Regardless of the growing evidence over many decades of decreasing sensitivity of this parasite to different anti-malarial drugs, there has been no comprehensive attempt made to systematically review and meta-analyse the efficacy of different anti-malarial drugs against P. vivax in the country. However, outlining the efficacy of available anti-malarial drugs against this parasite is essential to guide recommendations for the optimal therapeutic strategy to use in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to synthesize evidence on the efficacy of anti-malarial drugs against clinical P. vivax malaria in Ethiopia.
Plasmodium vivax blood-stage relapses originating from re-activating hypnozoites are a major barrier for control and elimination of this disease. Radical cure is a form of therapy capable of addressing this problem. Recent clinical trials of radical cure have yielded efficacy estimates ranging from 65 to 94%, with substantial variation across trial sites.
Development of an effective vaccine against blood-stage malaria requires the induction of long-term immune responses. Plasmodium vivax Reticulocyte Binding Protein 1a (PvRBP1a) is a blood-stage parasite antigen which is associated with invasion of red blood cells and induces antibody responses. Thus, PvRBP1a is considered as a target for design of a blood-stage vaccine against vivax malaria.
Circumsporozoite protein (CSP) has a central immune domain that includes short regions of repeating amino acid sequences. This immunodynamic region is an epitope of B cells that can elicit an immune response in human and laboratory animals. The aim of the present study was to express the recombinant PvCSP-VK210 antigen and evaluate it for assaying antibodies obtained during human P. vivax infection by Western blotting and indirect ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay).
Although considerable success in reducing the incidence of malaria has been achieved in Brazil in recent years, an increase in the proportion of cases caused by the harder-to-eliminate Plasmodium vivax parasite can be noted. Recurrences in P. vivax malaria cases are due to new mosquito-bite infections, drug resistance or especially from relapses arising from hypnozoites. As such, new innovative surveillance strategies are needed. The aim of this study was to develop an infographic visualization tool to improve individual-level malaria surveillance focused on malaria elimination in the Brazilian Amazon.
Malaria elimination means cessation of parasite transmission. At present, the declining malaria incidence in many countries has made elimination a feasible goal. Transmission control has thus been placed at the center of the national malaria control programs. The efficient transmission of Plasmodium vivax from humans to mosquitoes is a key factor that helps perpetuate malaria in endemic areas.
Plasmodium vivax is the most widespread causative agent of human malaria in the world. Despite the ongoing implementation of malaria control programs, the rate of case reduction has declined over the last 5 years. Hence, surveillance of malaria transmission should be in place to identify and monitor areas that require intensified malaria control interventions.
Individuals with asymptomatic infection due to Plasmodium vivax are posited to be important reservoirs of malaria transmission in endemic regions. Here we studied a cohort of P. vivax malaria patients in a suburban area in the Brazilian Amazon. Overall 1,120 individuals were screened for P. vivax infection and 108 (9.6%) had parasitemia detected by qPCR but not by microscopy. Asymptomatic individuals had higher levels of antibodies against P. vivax and similar hematological and biochemical parameters compared to uninfected controls.
Homeostatic perturbation caused by infection fosters two major defense strategies, resistance and tolerance, which promote the host's survival. Resistance relates to the ability of the host to restrict the pathogen load.
Plasmodium vivax has high morbidity, it is the Plasmodium species with the greatest worldwide distribution, and its ability to trigger severe symptoms is currently recognized. The present study aims to compare the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients with P. vivax malaria, with and without complication criteria, in an endemic area for malaria transmission in northwest Colombia.