Plasmodium vivax causes the majority of malaria outside Africa, but is poorly understood at a cellular level partly due to technical difficulties in maintaining it in in vitro culture conditions.
The ability of a malaria antigen to induce effective, long-lasting immune responses is important for the development of a protective malaria vaccine. Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein-8 (PvMSP8) has been shown to be immunogenic in natural P. vivax infections and produces both cell-mediated and antibody-mediated immunity. Thus, PvMSP8 has been proposed as a vaccine candidate following fusion with other merozoite antigens in blood stage vaccine design. Here, the long-term responses of antibodies and memory B cells (MBCs) specific to PvMSP8 in individuals were monitored in a longitudinal cohort study.
In Latin America, where Plasmodium vivax malaria is more prevalent, it is known that this species plays an important role in the sustainability of transmission, and can have an impact on morbidity in terms of anaemia, nutritional status, and cognitive development in children.
Emerging Plasmodium vivax resistance to chloroquine (CQ) may undermine malaria elimination efforts in South America. CQ-resistant P. vivax has been found in the major port city of Manaus but not in the main malaria hot spots across the Amazon Basin of Brazil, where CQ is routinely coadministered with primaquine (PQ) for radical cure of vivax malaria. Here we randomly assigned 204 uncomplicated vivax malaria patients from Juruá Valley, northwestern Brazil, to receive either sequential (arm 1) or concomitant (arm 2) CQ-PQ treatment.
The trend analysis of malaria data from health facilities is useful for understanding dynamics of malaria epidemiology and inform for future malaria control planning. Changes in clinical malaria characteristics, like gender and age distribution are good indicators of declining malaria transmission. This study was conducted to determine the malaria trend at Arjo-Didessa sugar development site and its vicinity, southwest Ethiopia, from 2008 to 2017.
Plasmodium vivax invasion of reticulocytes relies on distinct receptor-ligand interactions between the parasite and host erythrocytes.
The clinical malaria incidence and anaemia prevalence were similar in the four study groups.
CYP2D6 phenotype or activity score based on the allele classification was not a major contributor to P. vivax relapse in this ADF cohort.
Seroreactivity at a major hospital in Southwest India reveals antibody responses to P. falciparum and P. vivax in a low malaria transmission region with much migration.
Unlike the case in Asia and Latin America, Plasmodium vivax infections are rare in sub-Saharan Africa due to the absence of the Duffy blood group antigen (Duffy antigen), the only known erythrocyte receptor for the P. vivax merozoite invasion ligand, Duffy binding protein 1 (DBP1).