Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) provides a highly informative means to investigate host-pathogen interactions and enable in vivo proof-of-concept efficacy testing of new drugs and vaccines. However, unlike Plasmodium falciparum, well-characterized P. vivax parasites that are safe and suitable for use in modern CHMI models are limited. Here, two healthy malaria-naïve UK adults with universal donor blood group were safely infected with a clone of P. vivax from Thailand by mosquito-bite CHMI. Parasitemia developed in both volunteers and, prior to treatment, each volunteer donated blood to produce a cryopreserved stabilate of infected red blood cells.
Improved control of Plasmodium vivax malaria can be achieved with the discovery of new antimalarials with radical cure efficacy, including prevention of relapse caused by hypnozoites residing in the liver of patients. We screened several compound libraries against P. vivax liver stages, including 1565 compounds against mature hypnozoites, resulting in one drug-like and several probe-like hits useful for investigating hypnozoite biology. Primaquine and tafenoquine, administered in combination with chloroquine, are currently the only FDA-approved antimalarials for radical cure, yet their activity against mature P. vivax hypnozoites has not yet been demonstrated in vitro.
Plasmodium vivax is the major cause of human malaria in the Americas. How P. vivax infection can lead to poor clinical outcomes, despite low peripheral parasitaemia remains a matter of intense debate. Estimation of total P. vivax biomass based on circulating markers indicates existence of a predominant parasite population outside of circulation. In this study we investigate associations between both peripheral and total parasite biomass and host response in vivax malaria. We analysed parasite and host signatures in a cohort of uncomplicated vivax malaria patients from Manaus, Brazil, combining clinical and parasite parameters, multiplexed analysis of host responses and ex vivo assays. Patterns of clinical features, parasite burden and host signatures measured in plasma across the patient cohort were highly heterogenous.
The rotating-crystal magneto-optical detection (RMOD) method has been developed for the rapid and quantitative diagnosis of malaria and tested systematically on various malaria infection models. Very recently, an extended field trial in a high-transmission region of Papua New Guinea demonstrated its great potential for detecting malaria infections, in particular Plasmodium vivax.
In characterizing malaria epidemiology, measuring mosquito infectiousness informs the entomological inoculation rate, an important metric of malaria transmission. PCR-based methods have been touted as more sensitive than the current “gold-standard” circumsporozoite (CSP) ELISA. Wider application of PCR-based methods has been limited by lack of specificity for the infectious sporozoite stage. We compared a PCR method for detecting the parasite’s mitochondrial (mt) cytochrome oxidase I (COX-I) gene with ELISA for detecting circumsporozoite protein for identification of different life stages of the parasite during development within a mosquito.
Malaria is a highly prevalent parasitic disease in regions with tropical and subtropical climates worldwide. Among the species of Plasmodium causing human malaria, P. vivax is the second most prevalent and the most geographically widespread species. A major target of a pre-erythrocytic vaccine is the P. vivax circumsporozoite protein (PvCSP). In previous studies, we fused two recombinant proteins representing three allelic variants of PvCSP (VK210, VK247 and P. vivax-like) to the mumps virus nucleocapsid protein to enhance immune responses against PvCSP.
This article is inter alia a brief, first-stop guide to possible adverse events (AEs) associated with tafenoquine (TQ) intake. Safety and efficacy findings for TQ in Plasmodium vivax malaria prophylaxis and radical cure are summarized and some of the latest TQ-related studies (published in 2020 and 2021) are highlighted.
Acute Plasmodium vivax malaria is associated with haemolysis, bone marrow suppression, reticulocytopenia, and post-treatment reticulocytosis leading to haemoglobin recovery. Little is known how malaria affects glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity and whether changes in activity when patients present may lead qualitative tests, like the fluorescent spot test (FST), to misdiagnose G6PD deficient (G6PDd) patients as G6PD normal (G6PDn). Giving primaquine or tafenoquine to such patients could result in severe haemolysis.
Population genomics of bulk malaria infections is unable to examine intrahost evolution; therefore, most work has focused on the role of recombination in generating genetic variation. We used single-cell sequencing protocol for low-parasitaemia infections to generate 406 near-complete single Plasmodium vivax genomes from 11 patients sampled during sequential febrile episodes.
Plasmodium vivax is the most geographically widespread malaria parasite on the planet. This is largely because after mosquito transmission, P. vivax sporozoites can invade hepatocytes and form latent liver stages known as hypnozoites. These persistent liver stages can activate weeks, months or even years after an infected individual undergoes a primary clinical infection.