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Plasmodium vivax

Use of a Plasmodium vivax genetic barcode for genomic surveillance and parasite tracking in Sri Lanka

September 22, 2020 - 10:20 -- Open Access
Rajika L. Dewasurendra, Mary Lynn Baniecki, Nadira D. Karunaweera, et al.
Malaria Journal 2020 19:342, 21 September 2020

Sri Lanka was certified as a malaria-free nation in 2016; however, imported malaria cases continue to be reported. Evidence-based information on the genetic structure/diversity of the parasite populations is useful to understand the population history, assess the trends in transmission patterns, as well as to predict threatening phenotypes that may be introduced and spread in parasite populations disrupting elimination programmes. This study used a previously developed Plasmodium vivax single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) barcode to evaluate the population dynamics of P. vivax parasite isolates from Sri Lanka and to assess the ability of the SNP barcode for tracking the parasites to its origin.

NOT Open Access | Allelic variation of msp-3α gene in Plasmodium vivax isolates and its correlation with the severity of disease in vivax malaria

September 12, 2020 - 14:58 -- NOT Open Access
Upmanyu K, Matlani M, Yadav P, Rathi U, Mallick PK, Singh R
Infect Genet Evol. 2020 Sep 4:104530

Malaria is a global socio-economic burden of which Plasmodium vivax contributes for about 70-80 million cases on an annual basis worldwide and 60-65% cases in India. Diversity observed in highly polymorphic Merozoite Surface Protein-3α (msp-3α) encoded by MSP-3 gene family, has been used efficiently for genotyping of P. vivax infection. This study aims to correlate the severity of clinical symptoms with parasite load, genotype of P. vivax and multiplicity of infection.

Tafenoquine for preventing relapse in people with Plasmodium vivax malaria

September 8, 2020 - 12:36 -- Open Access
Rodrigo C, Rajapakse S, Fernando D
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Sep 6;9:CD010458

Plasmodium vivax malaria has a persistent liver stage that causes relapse of the disease and continued P vivax transmission. Primaquine (PQ) is used to clear the liver stage of the parasite, but treatment is required for 14 days. Primaquine also causes haemolysis in people with glucose‐6‐phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. Tafenoquine (TQ) is a new alternative to PQ with a longer half‐life and can be used as a single‐dose treatment.

Genetic polymorphism and natural selection of circumsporozoite protein in Myanmar Plasmodium vivax

September 8, 2020 - 11:46 -- Open Access
Tuấn Cường Võ, Hương Giang Lê, Jung-Mi Kang, Mya Moe, Haung Naw, Moe Kyaw Myint, Jinyoung Lee, Woon-Mok Sohn, Tong-Soo Kim and Byoung-Kuk Na
Malaria Journal 2020 19:303, 4 September 2020

Circumsporozoite surface protein (CSP) of malaria parasites has been recognized as one of the leading vaccine candidates. Clinical trials of vaccines for vivax malaria incorporating Plasmodium vivax CSP (PvCSP) have demonstrated their effectiveness in preventing malaria, at least in part. However, genetic diversity of pvcsp in the natural population remains a major concern.

Not Open Access | Measuring of IgG2c isotype instead of IgG2a in immunized C57BL/6 mice with Plasmodium vivax TRAP as a subunit vaccine candidate in order to correct interpretation of Th1 versus Th2 immune response

September 5, 2020 - 15:36 -- NOT Open Access
Nazeri S, Zakeri S, Mehrizi AA, Sardari S, Djadid ND
Exp Parasitol. 2020 Sep;216:107944

Evaluation of the murine isotype antibodies is essential in subunit vaccine development because inbred mouse strains with diverse genetic backgrounds respond different to recombinant proteins. In this regard, the main goal of this study was to measuring and comparing the profile of IgG isotype responses in C57BL/6 mice. For this purpose, the extracellular region of plasmodium vivax thrombospondin-related adhesive protein (PvTRAP) gene was expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3)-pET23a.

Investigation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency prevalence in a Plasmodium vivax-endemic area in the Republic of Korea (ROK)

September 2, 2020 - 11:47 -- Open Access
Wonsig Lee, Sang-Eun Lee, Min Jun Lee and Kyung Tae Noh
Malaria Journal 2020 19:317, 1 September 2020

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most prevalent inborn disorder. This X-chromosome-linked recessive disease affects more than 400 million people globally, and is associated with haemolytic anaemia after medication with the anti-latent malaria drug, primaquine. To prevent malaria, the Republic of Korea (ROK) Army administers malaria chemoprophylaxis. Due to the previously low G6PD deficiency prevalence in the ROK, prior to primaquine administration, testing for G6PD deficiency was not mandatory. In this study, to evaluate the risk from malaria chemoprophylaxis in the ROK, G6PD deficiency prevalence was investigated.

Not Open Access | Exposure to chloroquine in male adults and children aged 9-11 years with malaria due to Plasmodium vivax

August 25, 2020 - 15:26 -- NOT Open Access
Ferreira Vieira MVD, Vieira JLF
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Aug 24:traa079

Chloroquine is effective against the asexual blood stage of Plasmodium vivax. A high proportion of children are underdosed with the drug, but there are no studies comparing chloroquine exposure in adults and children aged 8–11 years old. The present study intends to compare these populations using the area under the curve (AUC) derived from the plasma concentration-time profile in patients with P. vivax.

Recombinant Plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite surface protein allelic variants: antibody recognition by individuals from three communities in the Brazilian Amazon

August 24, 2020 - 15:18 -- Open Access
Soares IF, López-Camacho C, Lima-Junior JDC, et al.
Sci Rep. 2020 Aug 20;10(1):14020

Circumsporozoite protein (CSP) variants of P. vivax, besides having variations in the protein repetitive portion, can differ from each other in aspects such as geographical distribution, intensity of transmission, vectorial competence and immune response. Such aspects must be considered to P. vivax vaccine development. Therefore, we evaluated the immunogenicity of novel recombinant proteins corresponding to each of the three P. vivax allelic variants (VK210, VK247 and P. vivax-like) and of the C-terminal region (shared by all PvCSP variants) in naturally malaria-exposed populations of Brazilian Amazon.

The biology of unconventional invasion of Duffy-negative reticulocytes by Plasmodium vivax and its implication in malaria epidemiology and public health

August 24, 2020 - 14:13 -- Open Access
Lemu Golassa, Lucas Amenga-Etego, Eugenia Lo and Alfred Amambua-Ngwa
Malaria Journal 2020 19:299, 24 August 2020

Plasmodium vivax has been largely neglected over the past century, despite a widespread recognition of its burden across region where it is endemic. The parasite invades reticulocytes, employing the interaction between Plasmodium vivax Duffy binding protein (PvDBP) and human Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC). However, P. vivax has now been observed in Duffy-negative individuals, presenting a potentially serious public health problem as the majority of African populations are Duffy-negative.

Primaquine alternative dosing schedules for preventing malaria relapse in people with Plasmodium vivax

August 22, 2020 - 16:04 -- Open Access
Rachael Milligan, André Daher, Gemma Villanueva, Hanna Bergman, Patricia M Graves
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2020, Issue 8. Art. No.: CD012656

Plasmodium vivax liver stages (hypnozoites) may cause relapses, prolonging morbidity, and impeding malaria control and elimination. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends three schedules for primaquine: 0.25 mg/kg/day (standard), or 0.5 mg/kg/day (high standard) for 14 days, or 0.75 mg/kg once weekly for eight weeks, all of which can be difficult to complete. Since primaquine can cause haemolysis in individuals with glucose‐6‐phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, clinicians may be reluctant to prescribe primaquine without G6PD testing, and recommendations when G6PD status is unknown must be based on an assessment of the risks and benefits of prescribing primaquine. Alternative safe and efficacious regimens are needed.


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