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Plasmodium vivax

Controlled human malaria infection with a clone of Plasmodium vivax with high quality genome assembly

October 16, 2021 - 12:54 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Minassian AM, Themistocleous Y, Draper SJ, et al.
Reference: 
JCI Insight. 2021 Oct 5:e152465

Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) provides a highly informative means to investigate host-pathogen interactions and enable in vivo proof-of-concept efficacy testing of new drugs and vaccines. However, unlike Plasmodium falciparum, well-characterized P. vivax parasites that are safe and suitable for use in modern CHMI models are limited. Here, two healthy malaria-naïve UK adults with universal donor blood group were safely infected with a clone of P. vivax from Thailand by mosquito-bite CHMI. Parasitemia developed in both volunteers and, prior to treatment, each volunteer donated blood to produce a cryopreserved stabilate of infected red blood cells.

Probing the distinct chemosensitivity of Plasmodium vivax liver stage parasites and demonstration of 8-aminoquinoline radical cure activity in vitro

October 13, 2021 - 12:50 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Maher SP, Vantaux A, Kyle DE, et al.
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2021 Oct 7;11(1):19905

Improved control of Plasmodium vivax malaria can be achieved with the discovery of new antimalarials with radical cure efficacy, including prevention of relapse caused by hypnozoites residing in the liver of patients. We screened several compound libraries against P. vivax liver stages, including 1565 compounds against mature hypnozoites, resulting in one drug-like and several probe-like hits useful for investigating hypnozoite biology. Primaquine and tafenoquine, administered in combination with chloroquine, are currently the only FDA-approved antimalarials for radical cure, yet their activity against mature P. vivax hypnozoites has not yet been demonstrated in vitro.

Total parasite biomass but not peripheral parasitaemia is associated with endothelial and haematological perturbations in Plasmodium vivax patients

October 2, 2021 - 13:10 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Silva-Filho JL, Dos-Santos JC, Judice CC, Beraldi D, Venugopal K, De Lima D, Nakaya H, Paula EE, Costa Pinto Lopes S, Lacerda MV, Marti M, Costa FT
Reference: 
Elife. 2021 Sep 29;10:e71351

Plasmodium vivax is the major cause of human malaria in the Americas. How P. vivax infection can lead to poor clinical outcomes, despite low peripheral parasitaemia remains a matter of intense debate. Estimation of total P. vivax biomass based on circulating markers indicates existence of a predominant parasite population outside of circulation. In this study we investigate associations between both peripheral and total parasite biomass and host response in vivax malaria. We analysed parasite and host signatures in a cohort of uncomplicated vivax malaria patients from Manaus, Brazil, combining clinical and parasite parameters, multiplexed analysis of host responses and ex vivo assays. Patterns of clinical features, parasite burden and host signatures measured in plasma across the patient cohort were highly heterogenous.

Sensitive detection of Plasmodium vivax malaria by the rotating-crystal magneto-optical method in Thailand

September 25, 2021 - 11:46 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Orbán Á, Longley RJ, Sripoorote P, Maneechai N, Nguitragool W, Butykai Á, Mueller I, Sattabongkot J, Karl S, Kézsmárki I
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2021 Sep 17;11(1):18547

The rotating-crystal magneto-optical detection (RMOD) method has been developed for the rapid and quantitative diagnosis of malaria and tested systematically on various malaria infection models. Very recently, an extended field trial in a high-transmission region of Papua New Guinea demonstrated its great potential for detecting malaria infections, in particular Plasmodium vivax.

A comparison of PCR and ELISA methods to detect different stages of Plasmodium vivax in Anopheles arabiensis

September 25, 2021 - 11:41 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Hendershot AL, Esayas E, Sutcliffe AC, Irish SR, Gadisa E, Tadesse FG, Lobo NF
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2021 Sep 15;14(1):473

In characterizing malaria epidemiology, measuring mosquito infectiousness informs the entomological inoculation rate, an important metric of malaria transmission. PCR-based methods have been touted as more sensitive than the current “gold-standard” circumsporozoite (CSP) ELISA. Wider application of PCR-based methods has been limited by lack of specificity for the infectious sporozoite stage. We compared a PCR method for detecting the parasite’s mitochondrial (mt) cytochrome oxidase I (COX-I) gene with ELISA for detecting circumsporozoite protein for identification of different life stages of the parasite during development within a mosquito.

A universal vaccine candidate against Plasmodium vivax malaria confers protective immunity against the three PvCSP alleles

September 15, 2021 - 11:48 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Gimenez AM, Salman AM, Marques RF, López-Camacho C, Harrison K, Kim YC, Janse CJ, Soares IS, Reyes-Sandoval A
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2021 Sep 9;11(1):17928

Malaria is a highly prevalent parasitic disease in regions with tropical and subtropical climates worldwide. Among the species of Plasmodium causing human malaria, P. vivax is the second most prevalent and the most geographically widespread species. A major target of a pre-erythrocytic vaccine is the P. vivax circumsporozoite protein (PvCSP). In previous studies, we fused two recombinant proteins representing three allelic variants of PvCSP (VK210, VK247 and P. vivax-like) to the mumps virus nucleocapsid protein to enhance immune responses against PvCSP.

Safety and Efficacy of Tafenoquine for Plasmodium vivax Malaria Prophylaxis and Radical Cure: Overview and Perspectives

September 14, 2021 - 14:17 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Markus MB
Reference: 
Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management,Volume 17

This article is inter alia a brief, first-stop guide to possible adverse events (AEs) associated with tafenoquine (TQ) intake. Safety and efficacy findings for TQ in Plasmodium vivax malaria prophylaxis and radical cure are summarized and some of the latest TQ-related studies (published in 2020 and 2021) are highlighted.

Dynamics of G6PD activity in patients receiving weekly primaquine for therapy of Plasmodium vivax malaria

September 14, 2021 - 14:07 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Taylor WRJ, Kim S, Kheng S, Muth S, Tor P, Christophel E, Mukaka M, Kerleguer A, Luzzatto L, Baird JK, Menard D
Reference: 
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2021 Sep 8;15(9):e0009690

Acute Plasmodium vivax malaria is associated with haemolysis, bone marrow suppression, reticulocytopenia, and post-treatment reticulocytosis leading to haemoglobin recovery. Little is known how malaria affects glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity and whether changes in activity when patients present may lead qualitative tests, like the fluorescent spot test (FST), to misdiagnose G6PD deficient (G6PDd) patients as G6PD normal (G6PDn). Giving primaquine or tafenoquine to such patients could result in severe haemolysis.

NOT Open Access | Single-genome sequencing reveals within-host evolution of human malaria parasites

September 8, 2021 - 17:05 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Dia A, Jett C, Trevino SG, Chu CS, Sriprawat K, Anderson TJC, Nosten F, Cheeseman IH
Reference: 
Cell Host Microbe. 2021 Sep 1:S1931-3128(21)00385-1

Population genomics of bulk malaria infections is unable to examine intrahost evolution; therefore, most work has focused on the role of recombination in generating genetic variation. We used single-cell sequencing protocol for low-parasitaemia infections to generate 406 near-complete single Plasmodium vivax genomes from 11 patients sampled during sequential febrile episodes.

NOT Open Access | Plasmodium vivax pre-erythrocytic stages and the latent hypnozoite

September 8, 2021 - 16:12 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Zanghi G, Vaughan AM
Reference: 
Parasitol Int. 2021 Aug 30:102447

Plasmodium vivax is the most geographically widespread malaria parasite on the planet. This is largely because after mosquito transmission, P. vivax sporozoites can invade hepatocytes and form latent liver stages known as hypnozoites. These persistent liver stages can activate weeks, months or even years after an infected individual undergoes a primary clinical infection.

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