Quinine was supplied by the first global pharmaceutical cartel which discouraged competition resulting in a near monopoly of cinchona plantations on the island of Java which were closed to Allied use when the Japanese Imperial Army captured Indonesia in 1942.
This review presents a background for recommending artesunate as the first-line treatment of severe malaria in children and adults, and interventions that are recommended to accelerate access to injectable artesunate.
This study was conducted to compare the distribution pattern of the pfcrt and pfmdr1 polymorphisms in the parasites from the lower southern provinces, Thai-Malaysia border and the upper southern provinces, Thai-Myanmar border.
The aim of this study was to develop a quinine suppository with adequate release properties that also meets the dual conditions of affordability and ease of administration. Cocoa butter and FattibaseTM were used in the preparation of suppositories containing 200 mg quinine bisulphate. Release profiles of formulations with varying concentrations of polysorbate 80 (0 – 5%) were evaluated by in vitro dissolution in pH 8 buffer medium. Formulations with the two bases released quinine in adequate quantities for the management of malaria.
This ELISA-based in vitro drug assay is easy to implement, fast, and avoids the use radioisotopes or expensive equipment.