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Clinical and In Vitro Resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to Artesunate-Amodiaquine in Cambodia

August 4, 2021 - 16:07 -- Open Access
Mairet-Khedim M, Leang R, Witkowski B, et al.
Clin Infect Dis. 2021 Aug 2;73(3):406-413

Artesunate-amodiaquine is a potential therapy for uncomplicated malaria in Cambodia.

Artesunate relieves acute kidney injury through inhibiting macrophagic Mincle-mediated necroptosis and inflammation to tubular epithelial cell

August 3, 2021 - 17:28 -- Open Access
Lei XY, Tan RZ, Jia J, Wu SL, Wen CL, Lin X, Wang H, Shi ZJ, Li B, Kang Y, Wang L
J Cell Mol Med. 2021 Aug 1

Artesunate is a widely used derivative of artemisinin for malaria. Recent researches have shown that artesunate has a significant anti-inflammatory effect on many diseases. However, its effect on acute kidney injury with a significant inflammatory response is not clear. In this study, we established a cisplatin-induced AKI mouse model and a co-culture system of BMDM and tubular epithelial cells (mTEC) to verify the renoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of artesunate on AKI, and explored the underlying mechanism.

NOT Open Access | Artesunate and Tetramethylpyrazine Exert Effects on Experimental Cerebral Malaria in a Mechanism of Protein S-Nitrosylation

July 14, 2021 - 09:51 -- NOT Open Access
Zheng Z, Liu H, Wang X, Zhang Y, Qu S, Yang Y, Deng S, Chen L, Zhu X, Li Y
ACS Infect Dis. 2021 Jul 13

Cerebral malaria (CM) is caused by Plasmodium falciparum, resulting in severe sequelae; one of its pathogenic factors is the low bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO). Our previous study suggested that the combination of artesunate (AS) and tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) exerts an adjuvant therapeutic effect on the symptoms of experimental CM (ECM) and that NO regulation plays an important role. In the present study, we further verified the effects of AS+TMP on cerebral blood flow (CBF) and detected NO-related indicators.

NOT Open Access | Safety assessment of MEFAS: an innovative hybrid salt of mefloquine and artesunate for malaria treatment

July 6, 2021 - 14:44 -- NOT Open Access
de Lima DA, Andreotti CEL, Antiquera Ferreira F, Pauli KB, da Silva GR, Ribeiro RCL, Dalsenter PR, Boechat N, Gasparotto Junior A, Lourenço ELB, Lívero FADR
Drug Chem Toxicol. 2021 Jul;44(4):380-385

Malaria is a global public health problem that causes approximately 445 000 deaths annually worldwide, especially in underdeveloped countries. Because of the high prevalence and mortality of the disease, new and less toxic therapeutic agents need to be developed, such as MEFAS, a low-cost hybrid salt that consists of artesunate and mefloquine.

A randomized controlled trial of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine, artesunate-mefloquine and extended artemether-lumefantrine treatments for malaria in pregnancy on the Thailand-Myanmar border

June 16, 2021 - 10:01 -- Open Access
Saito M, Carrara VI, McGready R, et al.
BMC Med. 2021 Jun 10;19(1):132

Artemisinin and artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) partner drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum have spread across the Greater Mekong Subregion compromising antimalarial treatment. The current 3-day artemether-lumefantrine regimen has been associated with high treatment failure rates in pregnant women. Although ACTs are recommended for treating Plasmodium vivax malaria, no clinical trials in pregnancy have been reported.

NOT Open Access | Suspected Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artesunate in Cameroon: A case report

June 16, 2021 - 09:57 -- NOT Open Access
Nkwabong E, Tseunwo C, Nkene Mawamba Y
Trop Doct. 2021 Jun 9:494755211011899

Malaria in pregnancy is associated with adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. The first-line treatment for severe malaria in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy is parenteral artesunate, according to WHO recommendations. Resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to artesunate has not yet been noted in our country. We report a case highly suspicious of such.

NOT Open Access | Intranasal artesunate-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers: A convenient alternative to parenteral formulations for the treatment of severe and cerebral malaria

June 15, 2021 - 15:09 -- NOT Open Access
Agbo CP, Ugwuanyi TC, Ugwuoke WI, McConville C, Attama AA, Ofokansi KC
J Control Release. 2021 Jun 10;334:224-236

Early treatment with parenteral antimalarials is key in preventing deaths and complications associated with severe and cerebral malaria. This can be challenging in 'hard-to-reach' areas in Africa where transit time to hospitals with facilities to administer drugs parenterally can be more than 6 h. Consequently, the World Health Organization has recommended the use of artesunate (ATS) suppositories for emergency treatment of patients, however, this treatment is only for children under 6 years. The intranasal route (INR) can provide a safe and effective alternative to parenteral and rectal routes for patients of all ages; thus, reducing delays to the initiation of treatment.

Systematic analysis of direct antiglobulin test results in post-artesunate delayed haemolysis

May 6, 2021 - 07:12 -- Open Access
Tommaso Ascoli Bartoli, Luciana Lepore, Emanuele Nicastri, et al.
Malaria Journal 2021 20:206, 29 April 2021

Post-artesunate delayed haemolysis (PADH) is common after severe malaria episodes. PADH is related to the “pitting” phenomenon and the synchronous delayed clearance of once-infected erythrocytes, initially spared during treatment. However, direct antiglobulin test (DAT) positivity has been reported in several PADH cases, suggesting a contribution of immune-mediated erythrocyte clearance. The aim of the present study was to compare clinical features of cases presenting a positive or negative DAT.

NOT Open Access | Association between ABCB1 Polymorphisms and Artesunate-Mefloquine Treatment Responses of Patients with Falciparum Malaria on the Thailand-Myanmar Border

May 5, 2021 - 08:45 -- NOT Open Access
Boonprasert K, Kosa N, Muhamad P, Cheoymang A, Na-Bangchang K
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 May 3:tpmd210047

A decrease in the clinical efficacy of a 3-day artesunate-mefloquine combination treatment was reported in the areas of multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum along the Thailand-Myanmar border. The current study investigated the possible contribution of genetic polymorphisms of the three major genes encoding drug efflux transporters, ABCB1, ABCG2, and ABCC1, to responses to the aforementioned treatment in 91 patients with acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria residing along the Thailand-Myanmar border. Patients carrying homozygous mutant genotype ABCB1 c.1236C>T (TT) were found to have a three-times higher chance of successful treatment with this combination compared with other genotypes (CC and CT).

Not Open Access | Artesunate-induced ATG5-related autophagy enhances the cytotoxicity of NK92 cells on endometrial cancer cells via interactions between CD155 and CD226/TIGIT

May 5, 2021 - 08:29 -- NOT Open Access
Zhang J, Zhou L, Xiang JD, Jin CS, Li MQ, He YY
Int Immunopharmacol. 2021 Apr 29;97:107705

Uterine corpus endometrial carcinoma (UCEC) is the most prevalent gynecologic cancer in developed countries and lacks efficient therapeutic strategies. Artesunate (ART), a well-modified derivate of artemisinin, exerts potent anti-cancer effects apart from its classical anti-malaria feature. Autophagy is a universal double-edged process in cell survival, and CD155 is a novel immune checkpoint highly expressed in numerous cancers.


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