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artesunate

NOT Open Access | The preclinical discovery and development of rectal artesunate for the treatment of malaria in young children; review of evidence

September 15, 2020 - 14:35 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
de Carvalho LP, Kreidenweiss A, Held J
Reference: 
Expert Opin Drug Discov. 2020 Sep 14:1-10

Plasmodium falciparum, the deadliest malaria parasite, kills hundreds of thousands of people per year, mainly young children in Sub-Saharan Africa. Artesunate suppositories are recommended as pre-referral malaria treatment in remote endemic areas for severely ill children to prevent progression of the disease and to provide extra time for patients until the definitive severe malaria treatment can be administered.

NOT Open Access | The anti-malaria agent artesunate exhibits cytotoxic effects in primary effusion lymphoma

September 12, 2020 - 15:04 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Ishikawa C, Mori N
Reference: 
Invest New Drugs. 2020 Sep 3

Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), caused by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), presents as a lymphomatous effusion in body cavities and has a poor prognosis. The anti-malaria drug, artesunate, possesses anti-neoplastic potential. Therefore, we aimed to investigate its effect on KSHV-infected PEL cell lines. Artesunate inhibited cell growth and viability of PEL cells, but its effect on peripheral blood mononuclear cells was less pronounced.

NOT Open Access | Retinal involvement in severe noncerebral malaria

August 25, 2020 - 08:21 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Lando L, Borooah S, Maude RJ
Reference: 
Can J Ophthalmol. 2020 Aug 20:S0008-4182(20)30675-X

A 20-year-old male patient complained of reduced vision after being admitted to a hospital in Bangladesh with 5 days of fever associated with convulsions and anemia (hematocrit 11%). Uncorrected visual acuity was 20/80 OD and 20/64 OS.

Stable high frequencies of sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine resistance associated mutations and absence of K13 mutations in Plasmodium falciparum 3 and 4 years after the introduction of artesunate plus sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine in Ujjain, Madhya Pradesh, India

August 17, 2020 - 13:32 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ashish Pathak, Andreas Mårtensson, Sudhir Gawariker, Ashish Sharma, Vishal Diwan, Manju Purohit and Johan Ursing
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:290, 14 August 2020

Artesunate plus sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine (ASP) is first-line treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in most of India, except for six North-eastern provinces where treatment failure rates were high. In Ujjain, central India, the frequency of mutations associated with increased drug tolerance, but not overt resistance to sulfadoxine and pyrimethamine were 9% and > 80%, respectively, in 2009 and 2010, just prior to the introduction of ASP. The frequency of drug resistance associated mutations in Ujjain in 2015–2016 after 3–4 years of ASP use, are reported.

NOT Open Access | Synergistic effect of combined artesunate and tetramethylpyrazine in experimental cerebral malaria

August 17, 2020 - 13:11 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Jiang X, Chen L, Zheng Z, Chen Y, Weng X, Guo Y, Li K, Yang T, Qu S, Liu H, Li Y, Zhu X
Reference: 
ACS Infect Dis. 2020 Aug 12

Intravenous artesunate is effective against cerebral malaria (CM), but high mortality and neurological sequelae in survivors are inevitable. We investigated the effect of combined artesunate and tetramethylpyrazine using mouse models of cerebral malaria (ECM). Artesunate+tetramethylpyrazine reduced microvascular blockage and improved neurological function, including the rapid murine coma and behavior scale (RMCBS), leading to improved survival and reduced pathology in ECM.

Increased Sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum to Artesunate/Amodiaquine Despite 14 Years as First-Line Malaria Treatment, Zanzibar

August 4, 2020 - 15:31 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Msellem M, Morris U, Soe A, Abbas FB, Ali AW, Barnes R, Frumento P, Ali AS, Mårtensson A, Björkman A
Reference: 
Emerg Infect Dis. 2020 Aug;26(8):1767-1777

Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are first-line treatments for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. ACT resistance is spreading in Asia but not yet in Africa. Reduced effects of ACT partner drugs have been reported but with little information regarding widely used artesunate/amodiaquine (ASAQ).

NOT Open Access | Increase hemoglobin level in severe malarial anemia while controlling parasitemia: A mathematical model

August 3, 2020 - 16:21 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Siewe N, Friedman A
Reference: 
Mathematical Biosciences Volume 326, August 2020, 108374

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pleiotropic cytokine produced by immune cells; it can play a protective or deleterious role in response to pathogens. The intracellular malaria parasite secretes a similar protein, PMIF. The present paper is concerned with severe malarial anemia (SMA), where MIF suppresses the recruitment of red blood cells (RBCs) from the spleen and the bone marrow.

Predictors of health workers’ knowledge about artesunate-based severe malaria treatment recommendations in government and faith-based hospitals in Kenya

July 29, 2020 - 10:11 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Beatrice Machini, Dejan Zurovac, Beatrice Amboko, Lucas Malla, Robert W. Snow, Hillary Kipruto & Thomas N. O. Achia
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:267, 23 July 2020

Health workers’ knowledge deficiencies about artesunate-based severe malaria treatment recommendations have been reported. However, predictors of the treatment knowledge have not been examined. In this paper, predictors of artesunate-based treatment knowledge among inpatient health workers in two hospital sectors in Kenya are reported.

Predictors of health workers’ knowledge about artesunate-based severe malaria treatment recommendations in government and faith-based hospitals in Kenya

July 27, 2020 - 12:08 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Beatrice Machini, Dejan Zurovac, Beatrice Amboko, Lucas Malla, Robert W. Snow, Hillary Kipruto and Thomas N. O. Achia
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:267, 23 July 2020

Health workers’ knowledge deficiencies about artesunate-based severe malaria treatment recommendations have been reported. However, predictors of the treatment knowledge have not been examined. In this paper, predictors of artesunate-based treatment knowledge among inpatient health workers in two hospital sectors in Kenya are reported.

Enhancing the antimalarial activity of artesunate

July 8, 2020 - 15:55 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Adebayo JO, Tijjani H, Adegunloye AP, Ishola AA, Balogun EA, Malomo SO
Reference: 
Parasitol Res. 2020 Jul 7

The global challenge to the treatment of malaria is mainly the occurrence of resistance of malaria parasites to conventionally used antimalarials. Artesunate, a semisynthetic artemisinin compound, and other artemisinin derivatives are currently used in combination with selected active antimalarial drugs in order to prevent or delay the emergence of resistance to artemisinin derivatives.

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