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Quality of care for adult in-patients with malaria in a tertiary hospital in Uganda

April 14, 2021 - 07:52 -- Open Access
Ronald Kiguba, Charles Karamagi and Sheila M. Bird
Malaria Journal 2021 20:178, 9 April 2021

Prompt detection and appropriate treatment of malaria prevents severe disease and death. The quality of care for adult malaria in-patients is not well documented in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in Uganda. The study sought to describe the patterns of malaria diagnosis and treatment among adult in-patients admitted to the medical and gynaecological wards of Uganda’s 1790-bed Mulago National Referral Hospital from December 2013 to April 2014.

NOT Open Access | Development and validation of an in silico decision-tool to guide optimisation of intravenous artesunate dosing regimens for severe falciparum malaria patients

March 10, 2021 - 13:55 -- NOT Open Access
Zaloumis SG, Whyte JM, Simpson JA, et al.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2021 Mar 8:AAC.02346-20

Most deaths from severe falciparum malaria occur within 24 hours of presentation to hospital. Intravenous (i.v.) artesunate is the first-line treatment for severe falciparum malaria, but its efficacy may be compromised by delayed parasitological responses. In patients with severe malaria the life-saving benefit of the artemisinin derivatives is their ability to clear circulating parasites rapidly, before they can sequester and obstruct the microcirculation.

Artesunate and Dihydroartemisinin Inhibit Rabies Virus Replication

March 10, 2021 - 13:29 -- Open Access
Luo J, Zhang Y, Wang Y, Liu Q, Li J, He H, Luo Y, Huang S, Guo X
Virol Sin. 2021 Mar 4:1-9

Rabies is caused by infection of rabies virus (RABV) and remains a serious threat to the global public health. Except for the requirement for cold chain and high cost of human rabies immune globulin, no small molecule drugs are currently available for clinical treatment of rabies. So, it is of great importance to identify novel compounds that can effectively inhibit RABV infection. Artesunate (ART) and dihydroartemisinin (DHA), two derivatives of artemisinin, are widely used for treatment of malaria in adults and children, showing high safety. In this study, we found that both ART and DHA were able to inhibit RABV replication in host cells at a low concentration (0.1 μmol/L).

NOT Open Access | In Vitro Assessment of Cytoprotective Effects of CANOVA against Cell Death Induced by the Anti-malarial Artesunate - A Preliminary Experiment

March 9, 2021 - 15:31 -- NOT Open Access
Bonfim LT, Bahia MO
Homeopathy. 2021 Mar 4

Artesunate (ATS) is a semi-synthetic compound derived from artemisinin, which is widely accepted in the treatment of malaria. However, there is evidence that ATS, under certain in vitro conditions, induces several impairments to normal cell functions. Canova (CA) is a Brazilian homeopathic formulation indicated for patients with depressed immune system. CA shows both in vitro and in vivo protective effects against mutagenic/carcinogenic compounds. Therefore, we aimed to assess in vitro the cytoprotective effects of CA against the cytotoxicity of ATS in Vero cells.

Xylopic acid-amodiaquine and xylopic acid-artesunate combinations are effective in managing malaria in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice

March 3, 2021 - 15:27 -- Open Access
Silas Acheampong Osei, Robert Peter Biney, Ernest Obese, Mary Atta-Panyi Agbenyeku, Isaac Yaw Attah, Elvis Ofori Ameyaw and Johnson Nyarko Boampong
Malaria Journal 2021 20:113, 25 February 2021

Evidence of Plasmodium resistance to some of the current anti-malarial agents makes it imperative to search for newer and effective drugs to combat malaria. Therefore, this study evaluated whether the co-administrations of xylopic acid-amodiaquine and xylopic acid-artesunate combinations will produce a synergistic anti-malarial effect.

Artesunate Provides Neuroprotection against Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury via the TLR-4/NF-κB Pathway in Rats

March 2, 2021 - 15:39 -- Open Access
Chen Y, Wu J, Zhu J, Yang G, Tian J, Zhao Y, Wang Y
Biol Pharm Bull. 2021 Mar 1;44(3):350-356

Inflammation has an important role in ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Artesunate (ART) has anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory pharmacological activities, and it is used for various types of serious malaria, including cerebral malaria. ART maintains a high concentration in the brain but little is known about the neuroprotective effect of ART against brain I/R injury. We studied the neuroprotection of ART against brain I/R injury and its underlying mechanism.

NOT Open Access | Artesunate inhibits melanoma progression in vitro via suppressing STAT3 signaling pathway

February 23, 2021 - 13:10 -- NOT Open Access
Berköz M, Özkan-Yılmaz F, Özlüer-Hunt A, Krośniak M, Türkmen Ö, Korkmaz D, Keskin S
Pharmacol Rep. 2021 Feb 20

Melanoma is a life-threatening cancer characterized with a potentially metastatic tumor of melanocytic origin. Improved methods or novel therapies are urgently needed to eliminate the development of metastases. Artesunate is a semi-synthetic derivative of artemisinin used for trarment of malaria and cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-cancer effect of artesunate and the role on STAT3 signaling in A375 human melanoma cell line.

Effect of Body Weight and Age on the Pharmacokinetics of Dihydroartemisinin: FDA Basis for Dose Determination of Artesunate for Injection in Pediatric Patients with Severe Malaria

February 23, 2021 - 12:48 -- Open Access
Kitabi E, Bensman TJ, Earp JC, Chilukuri DM, Smith H, Ball L, O'Shaughnessy E, Yasinskaya Y, Colangelo PM, Reynolds KS
Clin Infect Dis. 2021 Feb 19:ciab149

For treatment of severe malaria, the WHO recommends 3 mg/kg intravenous artesunate in pediatric patients weighing less than 20 kg.

NOT Open Access | Intravenous artesunate for the treatment of severe imported malaria: implementation, efficacy and safety in 1391 patients

February 15, 2021 - 15:17 -- NOT Open Access
Roussel C, Ndour PA, Buffet P, et al.
Clin Infect Dis. 2021 Feb 13:ciab133

Intravenous artesunate is the WHO-recommended first-line treatment for severe malaria worldwide, but it is still not fully licensed in Europe. Observational studies documenting its safety and efficacy in imported malaria are thus essential.

Not Open Access | Dolutegravir pharmacokinetics during co-administration with either artemether/lumefantrine or artesunate/amodiaquine

February 9, 2021 - 10:05 -- NOT Open Access
Kawuma AN, Walimbwa SI, Pillai GC, Khoo S, Lamorde M, Wasmann RE, Denti P
J Antimicrob Chemother. 2021 Feb 7:dkab022

In sub-Saharan Africa, artemisinin-containing therapies for malaria treatment are regularly co-administered with ART. Currently, dolutegravir-based regimens are recommended as first-line therapy for HIV across most of Africa.


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