Malaria vaccine candidates based on live, attenuated sporozoites have led to high levels of protection. However, their efficacy critically depends on the sporozoites' ability to reach and infect the host liver. Administration via mosquito inoculation is by far the most potent method for inducing immunity but highly impractical. Here, we observed that intradermal syringe-injected Plasmodium berghei sporozoites (syrSPZ) were 3-fold less efficient in migrating to and infecting mouse liver than mosquito-inoculated sporozoites (msqSPZ).
Increasing reports of multidrug-resistant malaria parasites urge the discovery of new effective drugs with different chemical scaffolds. Protein kinases play a key role in many cellular processes such as signal transduction and cell division, making them interesting targets in many diseases. Protein kinase 7 (PK7) is an orphan kinase from the Plasmodium genus, essential for the sporogonic cycle of these parasites.
The ultrastructural features of axoneme organization within the cytoplasm and exflagellation were investigated in detail in microgametes of a malaria parasite, Plasmodium berghei, by electron and fluorescence microscopy. The kinetosomes (basal bodies) of the microgamete were characterized by an electron dense mass in which singlet microtubules (MTs) were embedded.
The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of malaria is gaining global attention due to their efficacy and cost effectiveness. This study evaluated the bioactivity-guided antiplasmodial efficacy and immunomodulatory effects of solvent fractions of Diospyros mespiliformis in mice infected with a susceptible strain of Plasmodium berghei (NK 65). The crude methanol extract of the stem of D. mespiliformis (DM) was partitioned between n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol. Male Swiss mice (20 ± 2 g) infected with P. berghei were grouped and treated with vehicle (10 mL/kg, control), Artemether lumefantrine (10 mg/kg), 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol fractions of D. mespiliformis for seven days. Blood was obtained for heme and hemozoin contents while serum was obtained for inflammatory cytokines and immunoglobulins G and M assessments.
Calcium signaling regulated by the cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) controls key life cycle transitions in the malaria parasite. However, how calcium is mobilized from intracellular stores in the absence of canonical calcium channels in Plasmodium is unknown. Here, we identify a multipass membrane protein, ICM1, with homology to transporters and calcium channels that is tightly associated with PKG in both asexual blood stages and transmission stages.
The ancient people of Iwo communities consisting of Ile-Ogbo, Olupona, Iwo and Ogbagba continue to engage in the traditional use of medicinal plants for the treatment and management of common diseases especially malaria.
Sophora exigua Craib. is commonly used in Thailand to reduce fever and increase postpartum breast milk production in women who have hypogalactia. However, there has been no report on the antioxidant and antimalarial properties of this plant. This study aimed to investigate the antioxidant and antimalarial activities of S. exigua root extract and to evaluate its acute toxicity in mice to confirm its safety.
The apical complex is the instrument of invasion used by apicomplexan parasites, and the conoid is a conspicuous feature of this apparatus found throughout this phylum. The conoid, however, is believed to be heavily reduced or missing from Plasmodium species and other members of the class Aconoidasida. Relatively few conoid proteins have previously been identified, making it difficult to address how conserved this feature is throughout the phylum, and whether it is genuinely missing from some major groups.
Immunogenicity is considered one important criterion for progression of candidate vaccines to further clinical evaluation. We tested this assumption in an infection and vaccination model for malaria pre-erythrocytic stages. We engineered Plasmodium berghei parasites that harbour a well-characterised epitope for stimulation of CD8+ T cells, either as an antigen in the sporozoite surface-expressed circumsporozoite protein or the parasitophorous vacuole membrane associated protein upregulated in sporozoites 4 (UIS4) expressed in exo-erythrocytic forms (EEFs).
Despite the critical role of Plasmodium sporozoites in malaria transmission, we still know little about the mechanisms underlying their development in mosquitoes. Here, we use single-cell RNA sequencing to characterize the gene expression profiles of 16,038 Plasmodium berghei sporozoites isolated throughout their development from midgut oocysts to salivary glands, and from forced salivation experiments.