A fungal metabolite, diatretol, has shown to be a promising antimalarial agent.
Malaria is among the most devastating and widespread tropical parasitic diseases which is more prevalent in developing countries. Acanthus polystachyus (Acanthaceae) leaves are traditionally used for the treatment of malaria in Ethiopia. This study aimed to investigate the in vivo antimalarial and in vitro antioxidant activity of the leaves extract of Acanthus polystachyus.
The meiotic recombination 11 protein (MRE11) plays a key role in DNA damage response and maintenance of genome stability. However, little is known about its function during development of the malaria parasite Plasmodium.
Plasmodium sporozoites express circumsporozoite protein (CSP) on their surface, an essential protein that contains central repeating motifs. Antibodies targeting this region can neutralize infection, and the partial efficacy of RTS,S/AS01 - the leading malaria vaccine against P. falciparum (Pf) - has been associated with the humoral response against the repeats.
Diospyros mespiliformis Hochst. ex A. DC. and Mondia whitei (Hook.f.) Skeels are traditionally used in Africa for the treatment of malaria. However, scientific evidence to substantiate this folkloric claim and their effects on liver mitochondria during malaria treatment have not been reported.
Aim of the study
This study investigated the efficacy of D. mespiliformis and M. whitei against chloroquine-sensitive and resistant strains of malarial parasites in mice. It also investigated the toxicity and protection against cellular organelles like mitochondria.
The recent emergence of Plasmodium falciparum parasite resistance to the first line antimalarial drug artemisinin is of particular concern. Artemisinin resistance is primarily driven by mutations in the P. falciparum K13 protein, which enhance survival of early ring-stage parasites treated with the artemisinin active metabolite dihydroartemisinin in vitro and associate with delayed parasite clearance in vivo However, association of K13 mutations with in vivo artemisinin resistance has been problematic due to the absence of a tractable model.
Broad spectrum antimalarial drugs without deleterious effects on mitochondria are scarce. It is in this regard that we investigated the potency of methanol extract and solvent fractions of Phyllanthus amarus on chloroquine-susceptible and resistant strains of Plasmodium berghei, toxicity and its consequential effects on mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) pore opening.
The heat shock protein family 70 (Hsp70) comprises chaperone proteins that play major multiple roles in Plasmodium asexual and sexual development. In this study, we analyzed the expression of Hsp70-1 in gametocytes, gametes, zygotes, and its participation in ookinete formation and their transition into oocysts. A monoclonal antibody against recombinant Hsp70-1 revealed its presence in zygotes and micronemes of ookinetes.
Cells use fatty acids (FAs) for membrane biosynthesis, energy storage, and the generation of signaling molecules. 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydratase-DEH-is a key component of very long chain fatty acid synthesis. Here, we further characterized in-depth the location and function of DEH, applying in silico analysis, live cell imaging, reverse genetics, and ultrastructure analysis using the mouse malaria model Plasmodium berghei DEH is evolutionarily conserved across eukaryotes, with a single DEH in Plasmodium spp. and up to three orthologs in the other eukaryotes studied.
The arthropod melanization immune response is activated by extracellular protease cascades predominantly comprised of CLIP-domain serine proteases (CLIP-SPs) and serine protease homologs (CLIP-SPHs). In the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae, the CLIP-SPHs SPCLIP1, CLIPA8, and CLIPA28 form the core of a hierarchical cascade downstream of mosquito complement that is required for microbial melanization. However, our understanding of the regulatory relationship of the CLIP-SPH cascade with the catalytic CLIP-SPs driving melanization is incomplete.