Milk production, processing and consumption are integral part of traditional practices in Fulani tribe of Cameroon. It has been observed that Fulani are resistant to malaria. Dairy products traditionally processed by Fulani are intensively used in the ritual treatment of malarial, inflammations and behavioural disorders. Many studies have demonstrated that fermented milk is a rich source of probiotic bacteria. However, the antimalarial activity of probiotics isolated from this natural source has not been experimentally tested.
Plasmodium sp., which causes malaria, must first develop in mosquitoes before being transmitted. Upon ingesting infected blood, gametes form in the mosquito lumen, followed by fertilization and differentiation of the resulting zygotes into motile ookinetes. Within 24 h of blood ingestion, these ookinetes traverse mosquito epithelial cells and lodge below the midgut basal lamina, where they differentiate into sessile oocysts that are protected by a capsule.
The immune system plays a role in the maintenance of healthy neurocognitive function. Different patterns of immune response triggered by distinct stimuli may affect nervous functions through regulatory or deregulatory signals, depending on the properties of the exogenous immunogens. Here, we investigate the effect of immune stimulation on cognitive-behavioural parameters in healthy mice and its impact on cognitive sequelae resulting from non-severe experimental malaria.
In the attempt of searching for potential plant derived antimalarial medicines, the aim of the present study was to examine In vivo antimalarial efficacy of crude ethanol extracts of the leaves of Croton macrostachyus, Ruta chalepensis and Vernonia amygdalina using chloroquine (CQ) sensitive strains of Plasmodium berghei in Swiss albino mice.
Genetic changes conferring drug resistance are generally believed to impose fitness costs to pathogens in the absence of the drug. However, the fitness of resistant parasites against sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine has been inconclusive in Plasmodium falciparum. This is because resistance is conferred by the complex combination of mutations in dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) and dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr), which makes it difficult to separately assess the extent and magnitude of the costs imposed by mutations in dhps and dhfr.
Ascariasis and malaria are highly prevalent parasitic diseases in tropical regions and often have overlapping endemic areas, contributing to high morbidity and mortality rates in areas with poor sanitary conditions. Several studies have previously aimed to correlate the effects of Ascaris-Plasmodium coinfections but have obtained contradictory and inconclusive results. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate parasitological and immunopathological aspects of the lung during murine experimental concomitant coinfection by Plasmodium berghei and Ascaris suum during larvae ascariasis.
Iron and copper chelation restricts Plasmodium growth in vitro and in mammalian hosts. The parasite alters metal homeostasis in red blood cells to its favor, for example metabolizing hemoglobin to hemozoin. Metal interactions with the mosquito have not, however, been studied. Here, we describe the metallomes of Anopheles albimanus and Aedes aegypti throughout their life cycle and following a blood meal. Consistent with previous reports, we found evidence of maternal iron deposition in embryos of Ae. aegypti, but less so in An. albimanus.
Malaria remains a dire health challenge, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. In Uganda, it is a most ordinary condition in hospital admission and outpatient care. The country's meager health services compel malaria patients to use herbal remedies such as Schkuhria pinnata (Lam.) Kuntze ex Thell (Asteraceae). Although in vivo studies tested the antimalarial activity of S. pinnata extracts, plant developmental stages and their effect at different doses remain unknown.
The transcription factor (TF) AP2-G is essential for gametocytogenesis in the malaria parasite; however, it remains unclear if AP2-G determines commitment to sexual stage development fate in the schizont stage, or whether AP2-G directly initiates sexual stage differentiation and development beginning in the late-trophozoite stage. In this study, we addressed this issue by investigating the expression profile of AP2-G and determining genome-wide target genes in Plasmodium berghei. Fluorescence microscopy showed that AP2-G expression was first observed in the parasite 12 h after erythrocyte invasion and peaked at 18 h when sexual features were first manifested in early gametocytes.
Pathological features observed in both human and experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) are endothelial dysfunction and changes in blood components. Blood transfusion has been routinely used in patients with severe malarial anemia and can also benefit comatose and acidotic malaria patients. In the present study Plasmodium berghei-infected mice were transfused intraperitoneally with 200 μL of whole blood along with 20 mg/kg of artemether.