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plasmodium berghei

Clustering and Erratic Movement Patterns of Syringe-Injected versus Mosquito-Inoculated Malaria Sporozoites Underlie Decreased Infectivity

April 14, 2021 - 16:29 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
de Korne CM, Winkel BMF, Roestenberg M, et al.
Reference: 
mSphere. 2021 Apr 7;6(2):e00218-21

Malaria vaccine candidates based on live, attenuated sporozoites have led to high levels of protection. However, their efficacy critically depends on the sporozoites' ability to reach and infect the host liver. Administration via mosquito inoculation is by far the most potent method for inducing immunity but highly impractical. Here, we observed that intradermal syringe-injected Plasmodium berghei sporozoites (syrSPZ) were 3-fold less efficient in migrating to and infecting mouse liver than mosquito-inoculated sporozoites (msqSPZ).

NOT Open Access | Artificial Intelligence Applied to the Rapid Identification of New Antimalarial Candidates with Dual-Stage Activity

April 14, 2021 - 08:19 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Lima MNN, Borba JVB, Andrade CH, et al.
Reference: 
ChemMedChem. 2021 Apr 8;16(7):1093-1103

Increasing reports of multidrug-resistant malaria parasites urge the discovery of new effective drugs with different chemical scaffolds. Protein kinases play a key role in many cellular processes such as signal transduction and cell division, making them interesting targets in many diseases. Protein kinase 7 (PK7) is an orphan kinase from the Plasmodium genus, essential for the sporogonic cycle of these parasites.

NOT Open Access | Postulated Process of Axoneme Organization in the Male Gametogenesis of Malaria Parasite Plasmodium berghei

April 6, 2021 - 14:25 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Kubo-Irie M, Hirai M, Irie M, Mohri H
Reference: 
Zoolog Sci. 2021 Apr;38(2):187-192

The ultrastructural features of axoneme organization within the cytoplasm and exflagellation were investigated in detail in microgametes of a malaria parasite, Plasmodium berghei, by electron and fluorescence microscopy. The kinetosomes (basal bodies) of the microgamete were characterized by an electron dense mass in which singlet microtubules (MTs) were embedded.

Studies on the mitochondrial, immunological and inflammatory effects of solvent fractions of Diospyros mespiliformis Hochst in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice

March 30, 2021 - 14:28 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
David OM, Olanlokun JO, Owoniyi BE, Ayeni M, Ebenezer O, Koorbanally NA
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2021 Mar 25;11(1):6941

The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of malaria is gaining global attention due to their efficacy and cost effectiveness. This study evaluated the bioactivity-guided antiplasmodial efficacy and immunomodulatory effects of solvent fractions of Diospyros mespiliformis in mice infected with a susceptible strain of Plasmodium berghei (NK 65). The crude methanol extract of the stem of D. mespiliformis (DM) was partitioned between n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol. Male Swiss mice (20 ± 2 g) infected with P. berghei were grouped and treated with vehicle (10 mL/kg, control), Artemether lumefantrine (10 mg/kg), 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol fractions of D. mespiliformis for seven days. Blood was obtained for heme and hemozoin contents while serum was obtained for inflammatory cytokines and immunoglobulins G and M assessments.

Ca(2+) signals critical for egress and gametogenesis in malaria parasites depend on a multipass membrane protein that interacts with PKG

March 26, 2021 - 16:04 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Balestra AC, Koussis K, Brochet M, et al.
Reference: 
Sci Adv. 2021 Mar 24;7(13):eabe5396

Calcium signaling regulated by the cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) controls key life cycle transitions in the malaria parasite. However, how calcium is mobilized from intracellular stores in the absence of canonical calcium channels in Plasmodium is unknown. Here, we identify a multipass membrane protein, ICM1, with homology to transporters and calcium channels that is tightly associated with PKG in both asexual blood stages and transmission stages.

NOT Open Access | Bioactivity-directed evaluation of fruit of Kigelia africana (Lam.) benth. Used in treatment of malaria in Iwo, Nigeria

March 26, 2021 - 15:56 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Imran IZ, Elusiyan CA, Agbedahunsi JM, Omisore NO
Reference: 
J Ethnopharmacol. 2021 Mar 25;268:113680

The ancient people of Iwo communities consisting of Ile-Ogbo, Olupona, Iwo and Ogbagba continue to engage in the traditional use of medicinal plants for the treatment and management of common diseases especially malaria.

Antioxidant and antimalarial properties of Sophora exigua Craib. root extract in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice

March 24, 2021 - 14:11 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kaewdana K, Chaniad P, Jariyapong P, Phuwajaroanpong A, Punsawad C
Reference: 
Trop Med Health. 2021 Mar 19;49(1):24

Sophora exigua Craib. is commonly used in Thailand to reduce fever and increase postpartum breast milk production in women who have hypogalactia. However, there has been no report on the antioxidant and antimalarial properties of this plant. This study aimed to investigate the antioxidant and antimalarial activities of S. exigua root extract and to evaluate its acute toxicity in mice to confirm its safety.

Molecular characterization of the conoid complex in Toxoplasma reveals its conservation in all apicomplexans, including Plasmodium species

March 17, 2021 - 17:07 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Koreny L, Zeeshan M, Waller RF, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS Biol. 2021 Mar 11;19(3):e3001081

The apical complex is the instrument of invasion used by apicomplexan parasites, and the conoid is a conspicuous feature of this apparatus found throughout this phylum. The conoid, however, is believed to be heavily reduced or missing from Plasmodium species and other members of the class Aconoidasida. Relatively few conoid proteins have previously been identified, making it difficult to address how conserved this feature is throughout the phylum, and whether it is genuinely missing from some major groups.

Low immunogenicity of malaria pre-erythrocytic stages can be overcome by vaccination

March 17, 2021 - 09:26 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Müller K, Gibbins MP, Roberts M, Reyes-Sandoval A, Hill AVS, Draper SJ, Matuschewski K, Silvie O, Hafalla JCR
Reference: 
EMBO Mol Med. 2021 Mar 11:e13390

Immunogenicity is considered one important criterion for progression of candidate vaccines to further clinical evaluation. We tested this assumption in an infection and vaccination model for malaria pre-erythrocytic stages. We engineered Plasmodium berghei parasites that harbour a well-characterised epitope for stimulation of CD8+ T cells, either as an antigen in the sporozoite surface-expressed circumsporozoite protein or the parasitophorous vacuole membrane associated protein upregulated in sporozoites 4 (UIS4) expressed in exo-erythrocytic forms (EEFs).

Transcriptional heterogeneity and tightly regulated changes in gene expression during Plasmodium berghei sporozoite development

March 10, 2021 - 13:20 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Bogale HN, Pascini TV, Kanatani S, Sá JM, Wellems TE, Sinnis P, Vega-Rodríguez J, Serre D
Reference: 
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2021 Mar 9;118(10):e2023438118

Despite the critical role of Plasmodium sporozoites in malaria transmission, we still know little about the mechanisms underlying their development in mosquitoes. Here, we use single-cell RNA sequencing to characterize the gene expression profiles of 16,038 Plasmodium berghei sporozoites isolated throughout their development from midgut oocysts to salivary glands, and from forced salivation experiments.

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