Based on the results, the reported resistance to pyrethroid and organophosphate insecticides, and tolerance to bendiocarb in the Kunar and Nangarhar populations of An. stephensi from Afghanistan are likely to be caused by a range of metabolic mechanisms, including esterases, P450s and GSTs combined with target site insensitivity in AChE.
Knowledge of larval ecology of vector mosquitoes is a key factor in risk assessment and for implementing appropriate and sustainable vector control operations.
The findings that OHTs showed fairly high and consistent immature density of An. stephensi irrespective of seasons indicates the potentiality of the breeding habitat in contributing to vector density.
While the operationalizing of excreta/feces testing may require the development of new strategies for sample collection, the high-throughput nature of this new methodology has the potential to greatly reduce MX costs.
Hemocytes are tiny circulating blood cells of insects known to play multiple roles in physiological as well as cellular immune responses.
The interaction of mosquito immune system with Plasmodium is critical in determining the vector competence.
Human host feeding was confirmed in Anopheles stephensi (30 %), Anopheles subpictus (27 %), Anopheles jamesii (22 %), Anopheles annularis (26 %), and Anopheles nigerrimus (16 %).
Potential targets of Plasmodium ookinetes at the mosquito midgut walls were investigated in relation to interfering malarial transmission.
Genetic engineering technologies can be used both to create transgenic mosquitoes carrying antipathogen effector genes targeting human malaria parasites and to generate gene-drive systems capable of introgressing the genes throughout wild vector populations.
These analyses confirmed morphological features previously described using electron microscopy and uncovered a high degree of individual variation in SG structure. Our studies provide evidence for two alternative models for the origin of the salivary duct, the structure facilitating parasite transport out of SGs.