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anopheles stephensi

Transient knockdown of Anopheles stephensi LRIM1 using RNAi increases Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite salivary gland infections

June 30, 2021 - 12:23 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Peter F. Billingsley, Kasim I. George, Abraham G. Eappen, Robert A. Harrell II, Robert Alford, Tao Li, Sumana Chakravarty, B. Kim Lee Sim, Stephen L. Hoffman and David A. O’Brochta
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:284, 26 June 2021

Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) sporozoites (PfSPZ) can be administered as a highly protective vaccine conferring the highest protection seen to date. Sanaria® PfSPZ vaccines are produced using aseptically reared Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. The bionomics of sporogonic development of P. falciparum in A. stephensi to fully mature salivary gland PfSPZ is thought to be modulated by several components of the mosquito innate immune system. In order to increase salivary gland PfSPZ infections in A. stephensi and thereby increase vaccine production efficiency, a gene knock down approach was used to investigate the activity of the immune deficiency (IMD) signaling pathway downstream effector leucine-rich repeat immune molecule 1 (LRIM1), an antagonist to Plasmodium development.

NOT Open Access | Are Dawn Collections of Anopheles stephensi a Better Method To Estimate the Resting Vector Density? A Study from Chennai, India

June 29, 2021 - 13:13 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Ravishankaran S, Asokan A, Justin NJA, Thomas S, Mathai MT, Eapen A
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Jun 28:tpmd200822

The study was an attempt to capture Anopheles stephensi from cattle sheds during dawn to understand the realistic density of the resting mosquitoes. A 2-year longitudinal study was carried out in cattle sheds in close proximity to the human dwellings to collect the resting vector mosquitoes. The man-hour density of A. stephensi ranged from 24.7 to 206.5.

An update on the distribution, bionomics, and insecticide susceptibility of Anopheles stephensi in Ethiopia, 2018–2020

June 16, 2021 - 12:55 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Meshesha Balkew, Peter Mumba, Seth Irish, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:263, 9 June 2021

Anopheles stephensi, an invasive malaria vector, was first detected in Africa nearly 10 years ago. After the initial finding in Djibouti, it has subsequently been found in Ethiopia, Sudan and Somalia. To better inform policies and vector control decisions, it is important to understand the distribution, bionomics, insecticide susceptibility, and transmission potential of An. stephensi. These aspects were studied as part of routine entomological monitoring in Ethiopia between 2018 and 2020.

Intragenomic sequence variations in the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) ribosomal DNA of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi

June 15, 2021 - 15:10 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Mishra S, Sharma G, Das MK, Pande V, Singh OP
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2021 Jun 14;16(6):e0253173

Second Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS2) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence is a widely used molecular marker for species-identification or -delimitation due to observed concerted evolution which is believed to homogenize rDNA copies in an interbreeding population. However, intra-specific differences in ITS2 of Anopheles stephensi have been reported.

Optimization of Plasmodium vivax sporozoite production from Anopheles stephensi in South West India

May 18, 2021 - 13:44 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ajeet Kumar Mohanty, Charles de Souza, Rapatbhorn Patrapuvich, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:221, 18 May 2021

Efforts to study the biology of Plasmodium vivax liver stages, particularly the latent hypnozoites, have been hampered by the limited availability of P. vivax sporozoites. Anopheles stephensi is a major urban malaria vector in Goa and elsewhere in South Asia. Using P. vivax patient blood samples, a series of standard membrane-feeding experiments were performed with An. stephensi under the US NIH International Center of Excellence for Malaria Research (ICEMR) for Malaria Evolution in South Asia (MESA). The goal was to understand the dynamics of parasite development in mosquitoes as well as the production of P. vivax sporozoites. To obtain a robust supply of P. vivax sporozoites, mosquito-rearing and mosquito membrane-feeding techniques were optimized, which are described here.

NOT Open Access | Anopheles stephensi (Asian Malaria Mosquito)

April 20, 2021 - 15:01 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Ishtiaq F, Swain S, Kumar SS
Reference: 
Trends Parasitol. 2021 Apr 14:S1471-4922(21)00061-1

Anopheles stephensi originated in Southeast Asia and the Arabian Peninsula. It has recently emerged as an efficient and invasive urban malaria vector. There are three known forms, 'type', 'intermediate', and 'mysorensis', of which the type and intermediate forms are efficient vectors in both rural and urban environments.

Single-cell RNA sequencing reveals developmental heterogeneity among Plasmodium berghei sporozoites

February 25, 2021 - 09:49 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ruberto AA, Bourke C, Merienne N, Obadia T, Amino R, Mueller I
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2021 Feb 22;11(1):4127

In the malaria-causing parasite's life cycle, Plasmodium sporozoites must travel from the midgut of a mosquito to the salivary glands before they can infect a mammalian host. However, only a fraction of sporozoites complete the journey. Since salivary gland invasion is required for transmission of sporozoites, insights at the molecular level can contribute to strategies for malaria prevention.

Bioactivities of rose-scented geranium nanoemulsions against the larvae of Anopheles stephensi and their gut bacteria

February 10, 2021 - 09:38 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Dehghankar M, Maleki-Ravasan N, Tahghighi A, Karimian F, Karami M
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2021 Feb 8;16(2):e0246470

Anopheles stephensi with three different biotypes is a major vector of malaria in Asia. It breeds in a wide range of habitats. Therefore, safer and more sustainable methods are needed to control its immature stages rather than chemical pesticides. The larvicidal and antibacterial properties of the Pelargonium roseum essential oil (PREO) formulations were investigated against mysorensis and intermediate forms of An. stephensi in laboratory conditions. A series of nanoemulsions containing different amounts of PREO, equivalent to the calculated LC50 values for each An. stephensi form, and various quantities of surfactants and co-surfactants were developed. The physical and morphological properties of the most lethal formulations were also determined. PREO and its major components, i.e. citronellol (21.34%), L-menthone (6.41%), linalool (4.214%), and geraniol (2.19%), showed potent larvicidal activity against the studied mosquitoes.

Anopheles stephensi Mosquitoes as Vectors of Plasmodium vivax and falciparum, Horn of Africa, 2019

February 3, 2021 - 14:04 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Tadesse FG, Ashine T, Bousema T, et al.
Reference: 
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Feb;27(2):603-607

Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes, efficient vectors in parts of Asia and Africa, were found in 75.3% of water sources surveyed and contributed to 80.9% of wild-caught Anopheles mosquitoes in Awash Sebat Kilo, Ethiopia.

Enhancing malaria control using Lagenaria siceraria and its mediated zinc oxide nanoparticles against the vector Anopheles stephensi and its parasite Plasmodium falciparum

December 15, 2020 - 15:59 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kalpana VN, Alarjani KM, Rajeswari VD
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2020 Dec 9;10(1):21568

In many developing countries, there are certain health problems faced by the public, one among them is Malaria. This tropical disease is mainly caused by Plasmodium falciparum. It is categorized as a disaster to public health, which increases both mortality and morbidity. Numerous drugs are in practice to control this disease and their vectors. Eco-friendly control tools are required to battle against vector of this significant disease.

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