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anopheles stephensi

A new malaria vector in Africa: Predicting the expansion range of Anopheles stephensi and identifying the urban populations at risk

September 16, 2020 - 13:01 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sinka ME, Pironon S, Massey NC, Longbottom J, Hemingway J, Moyes CL, Willis KJ
Reference: 
Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2020 Sep 14:202003976.

In 2012, an unusual outbreak of urban malaria was reported from Djibouti City in the Horn of Africa and increasingly severe outbreaks have been reported annually ever since. Subsequent investigations discovered the presence of an Asian mosquito species; Anopheles stephensi, a species known to thrive in urban environments. Since that first report, An. stephensi has been identified in Ethiopia and Sudan, and this worrying development has prompted the World Health Organization (WHO) to publish a vector alert calling for active mosquito surveillance in the region.

A mosquito feeding assay to examine Plasmodium transmission to mosquitoes using small blood volumes in 3D printed nano-feeders

August 10, 2020 - 16:07 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Graumans W, Heutink R, van Gemert GJ, van de Vegte-Bolmer M, Bousema T, Collins KA
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2020 Aug 8;13(1):401

To understand the dynamics of malaria transmission, membrane feeding assays with glass feeders are used to assess the transmission potential of malaria infected individuals to mosquitoes. However, in some circumstances, use of these assays is hindered by both the blood volume requirement and the availability of fragile, specially crafted glass feeders. 3D printed plastic feeders that require very small volumes of blood would thus expand the utility of membrane feeding assays.

Age influences the thermal suitability of Plasmodium falciparum transmission in the Asian malaria vector Anopheles stephensi

July 22, 2020 - 15:44 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Miazgowicz KL, Shocket MS, Ryan SJ, Villena OC, Hall RJ, Owen J, Adanlawo T, Balaji K, Johnson LR, Mordecai EA, Murdock CC
Reference: 
Proc Biol Sci. 2020 Jul 29;287(1931):20201093

Models predicting disease transmission are vital tools for long-term planning of malaria reduction efforts, particularly for mitigating impacts of climate change. We compared temperature-dependent malaria transmission models when mosquito life-history traits were estimated from a truncated portion of the lifespan (a common practice) versus traits measured across the full lifespan.

Evolution of insecticide resistance and its mechanisms in Anopheles stephensi in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region

July 20, 2020 - 15:25 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ahmadali Enayati, Ahmad Ali Hanafi-Bojd, Mohammad Mehdi Sedaghat, Morteza Zaim and Janet Hemingway
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:258, 17 July 2020

While Iran is on the path to eliminating malaria, the disease with 4.9 million estimated cases and 9300 estimated deaths in 2018 remains a serious health problem in the World Health Organization (WHO) Eastern Mediterranean Region. Anopheles stephensi is the main malaria vector in Iran and its range extends from Iraq to western China. Recently, the vector invaded new territories in Sri Lanka and countries in the Horn of Africa. Insecticide resistance in An. stephensi is a potential issue in controlling the spread of this vector.

NOT Open Access | Hemocyte-specific FREP13 abrogates the exogenous bacterial population in the hemolymph and promotes midgut endosymbionts in Anopheles stephensi

July 7, 2020 - 13:18 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Chauhan C, De TD, Kumari S, Rani J, Sharma P, Tevatiya S, Pandey KC, Pande V, Dixit R
Reference: 
Immunol Cell Biol. 2020 Jul 5

The mosquito's immune blood cells, 'hemocytes' imparts a highly selective immune response against various micro-organisms/pathogens. Among several immune effectors, FREPs (Fibrinogen related proteins) have been recognized as key modulator of cellular immune responses; however, their physiological relevance has not been investigated in detail. Our ongoing comparative RNA-Seq analysis identified a total of 13 FREPs originating from naïve sugar-fed, blood-fed, bacterial challenged, and Plasmodium vivax-infected hemocytes in the mosquito Anopheles stephensi hemocytes.

Glucose transporter GLUT1 influences Plasmodium berghei infection in Anopheles stephensi

June 8, 2020 - 15:30 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Wang M, Wang J
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2020 Jun 5; 13(1):285

Sugar-feeding provides energy for mosquitoes. Facilitated glucose transporters (GLUTs) are responsible for the uptake of glucose in animals. However, knowledge of GLUTs function in Anopheles spp. is limited.

Insecticide resistance in Anopheles stephensi in Somali Region, eastern Ethiopia

May 12, 2020 - 16:42 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Solomon Yared, Araya Gebressielasie, Lambodhar Damodaran, Victoria Bonnell, Karen Lopez, Daniel Janies and Tamar E. Carter
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:180, 12 May 2020

The movement of malaria vectors into new areas is a growing concern in the efforts to control malaria. The recent report of Anopheles stephensi in eastern Ethiopia has raised the necessity to understand the insecticide resistance status of the vector in the region to better inform vector-based interventions. The aim of this study was to evaluate insecticide resistance in An. stephensi in eastern Ethiopia using two approaches: (1) World Health Organization (WHO) bioassay tests in An. stephensi; and (2) genetic analysis of insecticide resistance genes in An. stephensi in eastern Ethiopia.

Cas9-Mediated Gene-Editing in the Malaria Mosquito Anopheles stephensi by ReMOT Control

March 9, 2020 - 14:26 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Macias VM, McKeand S, Chaverra-Rodriguez D, Hughes GL, Fazekas A, Pujhari S, Jasinskiene N, James AA, Rasgon JL
Reference: 
G3 (Bethesda). 2020 Mar 2. pii: g3.401133.2020

Innovative tools are essential for advancing malaria control and depend on an understanding of molecular mechanisms governing transmission of malaria parasites by Anopheles mosquitoes. CRISPR/Cas9-based gene disruption is a powerful method to uncover underlying biology of vector-pathogen interactions and can itself form the basis of mosquito control strategies. However, embryo injection methods used to genetically manipulate mosquitoes (especially Anopheles) are difficult and inefficient, particularly for non-specialist laboratories.

Identification, molecular characterization and expression of aminopeptidase N-1 (APN-1) from Anopheles stephensi in SF9 cell line as a candidate molecule for developing a vaccine that interrupt malaria transmission

February 24, 2020 - 14:27 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Javad Dadgar Pakdel, Sedigheh Zakeri, Abbasali Raz and Navid Dinparast Djadid
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:79, 19 February 2020

According to the World Health Organization reports, billions of people around the world are at risk for malaria disease and it is important to consider the preventive strategies for protecting the people that are living in high risk areas. One of the main reasons of disease survival is diversity of vectors and parasites in different malaria regions that have their specific features, behaviour and biology. Therefore, specific regional strategies are necessary for successful control of malaria. One of the tools that needs to be developed for elimination and prevention of reintroduction of malaria is a vaccine that interrupt malaria transmission (VIMTs). VIMT is a broad concept that should be adjusted to the biological characteristics of the disease in each region. One type of VIMT is a vector-based vaccine that affects the sexual stage of Plasmodium life cycle. According to recent studies, the aminopeptidase N-1 of Anopheles gambiae (AgAPN-1) is as a potent vector-based VIMT with considerable inhibition activity against the sexual stage of Plasmodium parasite.

Digital droplet PCR and IDAA for the detection of CRISPR indel edits in the malaria species Anopheles stephensi

February 17, 2020 - 14:35 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Carballar-Lejarazú R, Kelsey A, Pham TB, Bennett EP, James AA
Reference: 
Biotechniques. 2020 Feb 10

CRISPR/Cas9 technology is a powerful tool for the design of gene-drive systems to control and/or modify mosquito vector populations; however, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated nonhomologous end joining mutations can have an important impact on generating alleles resistant to the drive and thus on drive efficiency. We demonstrate and compare the insertions or deletions (indels) detection capabilities of two techniques in the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles stephensi:

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