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anopheles stephensi

Enhancing malaria control using Lagenaria siceraria and its mediated zinc oxide nanoparticles against the vector Anopheles stephensi and its parasite Plasmodium falciparum

December 15, 2020 - 15:59 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kalpana VN, Alarjani KM, Rajeswari VD
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2020 Dec 9;10(1):21568

In many developing countries, there are certain health problems faced by the public, one among them is Malaria. This tropical disease is mainly caused by Plasmodium falciparum. It is categorized as a disaster to public health, which increases both mortality and morbidity. Numerous drugs are in practice to control this disease and their vectors. Eco-friendly control tools are required to battle against vector of this significant disease.

Efficient population modification gene-drive rescue system in the malaria mosquito Anopheles stephensi

November 4, 2020 - 15:20 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Adolfi A, Gantz VM, James AA, et al.
Reference: 
Nat Commun. 2020 Nov 3;11(1):5553

Cas9/gRNA-mediated gene-drive systems have advanced development of genetic technologies for controlling vector-borne pathogen transmission. These technologies include population suppression approaches, genetic analogs of insecticidal techniques that reduce the number of insect vectors, and population modification (replacement/alteration) approaches, which interfere with competence to transmit pathogens.

Regulatory gene function handoff allows essential gene loss in mosquitoes

October 1, 2020 - 16:02 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Cheatle Jarvela AM, Trelstad CS, Pick L
Reference: 
Commun Biol. 2020 Sep 30;3(1):540

Regulatory genes are often multifunctional and constrained, which results in evolutionary conservation. It is difficult to understand how a regulatory gene could be lost from one species' genome when it is essential for viability in closely related species. The gene paired is a classic Drosophila pair-rule gene, required for formation of alternate body segments in diverse insect species.

A new malaria vector in Africa: Predicting the expansion range of Anopheles stephensi and identifying the urban populations at risk

September 16, 2020 - 13:01 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sinka ME, Pironon S, Massey NC, Longbottom J, Hemingway J, Moyes CL, Willis KJ
Reference: 
Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2020 Sep 14:202003976.

In 2012, an unusual outbreak of urban malaria was reported from Djibouti City in the Horn of Africa and increasingly severe outbreaks have been reported annually ever since. Subsequent investigations discovered the presence of an Asian mosquito species; Anopheles stephensi, a species known to thrive in urban environments. Since that first report, An. stephensi has been identified in Ethiopia and Sudan, and this worrying development has prompted the World Health Organization (WHO) to publish a vector alert calling for active mosquito surveillance in the region.

A mosquito feeding assay to examine Plasmodium transmission to mosquitoes using small blood volumes in 3D printed nano-feeders

August 10, 2020 - 16:07 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Graumans W, Heutink R, van Gemert GJ, van de Vegte-Bolmer M, Bousema T, Collins KA
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2020 Aug 8;13(1):401

To understand the dynamics of malaria transmission, membrane feeding assays with glass feeders are used to assess the transmission potential of malaria infected individuals to mosquitoes. However, in some circumstances, use of these assays is hindered by both the blood volume requirement and the availability of fragile, specially crafted glass feeders. 3D printed plastic feeders that require very small volumes of blood would thus expand the utility of membrane feeding assays.

Age influences the thermal suitability of Plasmodium falciparum transmission in the Asian malaria vector Anopheles stephensi

July 22, 2020 - 15:44 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Miazgowicz KL, Shocket MS, Ryan SJ, Villena OC, Hall RJ, Owen J, Adanlawo T, Balaji K, Johnson LR, Mordecai EA, Murdock CC
Reference: 
Proc Biol Sci. 2020 Jul 29;287(1931):20201093

Models predicting disease transmission are vital tools for long-term planning of malaria reduction efforts, particularly for mitigating impacts of climate change. We compared temperature-dependent malaria transmission models when mosquito life-history traits were estimated from a truncated portion of the lifespan (a common practice) versus traits measured across the full lifespan.

Evolution of insecticide resistance and its mechanisms in Anopheles stephensi in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region

July 20, 2020 - 15:25 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ahmadali Enayati, Ahmad Ali Hanafi-Bojd, Mohammad Mehdi Sedaghat, Morteza Zaim and Janet Hemingway
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:258, 17 July 2020

While Iran is on the path to eliminating malaria, the disease with 4.9 million estimated cases and 9300 estimated deaths in 2018 remains a serious health problem in the World Health Organization (WHO) Eastern Mediterranean Region. Anopheles stephensi is the main malaria vector in Iran and its range extends from Iraq to western China. Recently, the vector invaded new territories in Sri Lanka and countries in the Horn of Africa. Insecticide resistance in An. stephensi is a potential issue in controlling the spread of this vector.

NOT Open Access | Hemocyte-specific FREP13 abrogates the exogenous bacterial population in the hemolymph and promotes midgut endosymbionts in Anopheles stephensi

July 7, 2020 - 13:18 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Chauhan C, De TD, Kumari S, Rani J, Sharma P, Tevatiya S, Pandey KC, Pande V, Dixit R
Reference: 
Immunol Cell Biol. 2020 Jul 5

The mosquito's immune blood cells, 'hemocytes' imparts a highly selective immune response against various micro-organisms/pathogens. Among several immune effectors, FREPs (Fibrinogen related proteins) have been recognized as key modulator of cellular immune responses; however, their physiological relevance has not been investigated in detail. Our ongoing comparative RNA-Seq analysis identified a total of 13 FREPs originating from naïve sugar-fed, blood-fed, bacterial challenged, and Plasmodium vivax-infected hemocytes in the mosquito Anopheles stephensi hemocytes.

Glucose transporter GLUT1 influences Plasmodium berghei infection in Anopheles stephensi

June 8, 2020 - 15:30 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Wang M, Wang J
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2020 Jun 5; 13(1):285

Sugar-feeding provides energy for mosquitoes. Facilitated glucose transporters (GLUTs) are responsible for the uptake of glucose in animals. However, knowledge of GLUTs function in Anopheles spp. is limited.

Insecticide resistance in Anopheles stephensi in Somali Region, eastern Ethiopia

May 12, 2020 - 16:42 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Solomon Yared, Araya Gebressielasie, Lambodhar Damodaran, Victoria Bonnell, Karen Lopez, Daniel Janies and Tamar E. Carter
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:180, 12 May 2020

The movement of malaria vectors into new areas is a growing concern in the efforts to control malaria. The recent report of Anopheles stephensi in eastern Ethiopia has raised the necessity to understand the insecticide resistance status of the vector in the region to better inform vector-based interventions. The aim of this study was to evaluate insecticide resistance in An. stephensi in eastern Ethiopia using two approaches: (1) World Health Organization (WHO) bioassay tests in An. stephensi; and (2) genetic analysis of insecticide resistance genes in An. stephensi in eastern Ethiopia.

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