In the malaria-causing parasite's life cycle, Plasmodium sporozoites must travel from the midgut of a mosquito to the salivary glands before they can infect a mammalian host. However, only a fraction of sporozoites complete the journey. Since salivary gland invasion is required for transmission of sporozoites, insights at the molecular level can contribute to strategies for malaria prevention.
Anopheles stephensi with three different biotypes is a major vector of malaria in Asia. It breeds in a wide range of habitats. Therefore, safer and more sustainable methods are needed to control its immature stages rather than chemical pesticides. The larvicidal and antibacterial properties of the Pelargonium roseum essential oil (PREO) formulations were investigated against mysorensis and intermediate forms of An. stephensi in laboratory conditions. A series of nanoemulsions containing different amounts of PREO, equivalent to the calculated LC50 values for each An. stephensi form, and various quantities of surfactants and co-surfactants were developed. The physical and morphological properties of the most lethal formulations were also determined. PREO and its major components, i.e. citronellol (21.34%), L-menthone (6.41%), linalool (4.214%), and geraniol (2.19%), showed potent larvicidal activity against the studied mosquitoes.
Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes, efficient vectors in parts of Asia and Africa, were found in 75.3% of water sources surveyed and contributed to 80.9% of wild-caught Anopheles mosquitoes in Awash Sebat Kilo, Ethiopia.
In many developing countries, there are certain health problems faced by the public, one among them is Malaria. This tropical disease is mainly caused by Plasmodium falciparum. It is categorized as a disaster to public health, which increases both mortality and morbidity. Numerous drugs are in practice to control this disease and their vectors. Eco-friendly control tools are required to battle against vector of this significant disease.
Cas9/gRNA-mediated gene-drive systems have advanced development of genetic technologies for controlling vector-borne pathogen transmission. These technologies include population suppression approaches, genetic analogs of insecticidal techniques that reduce the number of insect vectors, and population modification (replacement/alteration) approaches, which interfere with competence to transmit pathogens.
Regulatory genes are often multifunctional and constrained, which results in evolutionary conservation. It is difficult to understand how a regulatory gene could be lost from one species' genome when it is essential for viability in closely related species. The gene paired is a classic Drosophila pair-rule gene, required for formation of alternate body segments in diverse insect species.
In 2012, an unusual outbreak of urban malaria was reported from Djibouti City in the Horn of Africa and increasingly severe outbreaks have been reported annually ever since. Subsequent investigations discovered the presence of an Asian mosquito species; Anopheles stephensi, a species known to thrive in urban environments. Since that first report, An. stephensi has been identified in Ethiopia and Sudan, and this worrying development has prompted the World Health Organization (WHO) to publish a vector alert calling for active mosquito surveillance in the region.
To understand the dynamics of malaria transmission, membrane feeding assays with glass feeders are used to assess the transmission potential of malaria infected individuals to mosquitoes. However, in some circumstances, use of these assays is hindered by both the blood volume requirement and the availability of fragile, specially crafted glass feeders. 3D printed plastic feeders that require very small volumes of blood would thus expand the utility of membrane feeding assays.
Models predicting disease transmission are vital tools for long-term planning of malaria reduction efforts, particularly for mitigating impacts of climate change. We compared temperature-dependent malaria transmission models when mosquito life-history traits were estimated from a truncated portion of the lifespan (a common practice) versus traits measured across the full lifespan.
While Iran is on the path to eliminating malaria, the disease with 4.9 million estimated cases and 9300 estimated deaths in 2018 remains a serious health problem in the World Health Organization (WHO) Eastern Mediterranean Region. Anopheles stephensi is the main malaria vector in Iran and its range extends from Iraq to western China. Recently, the vector invaded new territories in Sri Lanka and countries in the Horn of Africa. Insecticide resistance in An. stephensi is a potential issue in controlling the spread of this vector.