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plasmodium spp.

Extracellular vesicles in malaria: an agglomeration of two decades of research

November 23, 2021 - 10:00 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Tosin Opadokun and Petra Rohrbach
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:442, 20 November 2021

Malaria is a complex parasitic disease, caused by Plasmodium spp. More than a century after the discovery of malaria parasites, this disease continues to pose a global public health problem and the pathogenesis of the severe forms of malaria remains incompletely understood. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and microvesicles, have been increasingly researched in the field of malaria in a bid to fill these knowledge gaps.

A meta-analysis on the prevalence and characteristics of severe malaria in patients with Plasmodium spp. and HIV co-infection

August 18, 2021 - 16:45 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Mahittikorn A, Kotepui KU, De Jesus Milanez G, Masangkay FR, Kotepui M
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2021 Aug 17;11(1):16655

Co-infection with malaria and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) increases the severity and mortality rates of both diseases. A better understanding of the effects of co-infections could help in the diagnosis, prompt treatment, prevention, and control of malarial parasites among HIV-infected patients. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we estimated the prevalence and characteristics of severe malaria (SM) caused by co-infection with HIV.

Characterization of the Plasmodium and Haemoproteus parasite community in temperate-tropical birds during spring migration

August 4, 2021 - 15:31 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
DeBrock S, Cohen E, Balasubramanian S, Marra PP, Hamer SA
Reference: 
Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl. 2021 Apr 1;15:12-21

Animal movements, especially avian migration, can be a mechanism for the large-scale dispersal and geographic range expansion of parasites. The host-parasite relationships among birds during migration have yet to be fully explored. We characterized the haemosporidian parasite lineages in passerines during spring migration on the Texas coast of the Gulf of Mexico, and identified associations among wintering origin (US, Central America, South America) and foraging height (canopy, understory, ground) and infection status.

Factors influencing phagocytosis of malaria parasites: the story so far

July 21, 2021 - 17:55 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Caroline Lin Lin Chua, Ida May Jen Ng, Bryan Ju Min Yap and Andrew Teo
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:319, 16 July 2021

There are seven known species of Plasmodium spp. that can infect humans. The human host can mount a complex network of immunological responses to fight infection and one of these immune functions is phagocytosis. Effective and timely phagocytosis of parasites, accompanied by the activation of a regulated inflammatory response, is beneficial for parasite clearance.

NOT Open Access | Identification of novel antiplasmodial compound by hierarquical virtual screening and in vitro assays

June 5, 2021 - 07:17 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Costa Júnior DB, Araújo JSC, de Mattos Oliveira L, Neri FSM, Moreira POL, Taranto AG, Fonseca AL, de Pilla Varotti F, Leite FHA
Reference: 
J Biomol Struct Dyn. 2021 Jun;39(9):3378-3386

Malaria is an infectious disease caused by protozoa of the genus Plasmodium spp. with approximately 219 million cases in 2017. P. falciparum is main responsible for the most severe form of the disease, cerebral malaria. Despite of public health impacts, chemotherapy against malaria is still limited due to the emergence of drug resistance cases used in monotherapy and combination therapies.

Not Open Access | Laboratory Detection of Malaria Antigens: a Strong Tool for Malaria Research, Diagnosis, and Epidemiology

June 1, 2021 - 15:30 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Plucinski M, Aidoo M, Rogier E
Reference: 
Clin Microbiol Rev. 2021 May 26:e0025020

The identification and characterization of proteins produced during human infection with Plasmodium spp. have guided the malaria community in research, diagnosis, epidemiology, and other efforts. Recently developed methods for the detection of these proteins (antigens) in the laboratory have provided new types of data that can inform the evaluation of malaria diagnostics, epidemiological investigations, and overall malaria control strategies.

Epidemiological and entomological studies of malaria transmission in Tibati, Adamawa region of Cameroon 6 years following the introduction of long-lasting insecticide nets

May 12, 2021 - 09:41 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Feufack-Donfack LB, Sarah-Matio EM, Nsango SE, et al.
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2021 May 8;14(1):247

Malaria remains a serious public health problem in Cameroon. Implementation of control interventions requires prior knowledge of the local epidemiological situation. Here we report the results of epidemiological and entomological surveys carried out in Tibati, Adamawa Region, Cameroon, an area where malaria transmission is seasonal, 6 years after the introduction of long-lasting insecticidal bed nets.

Methods

Cross-sectional studies were carried out in July 2015 and 2017 in Tibati. Thick blood smears and dried blood spots were collected from asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals in the community and at health centers, respectively, and used for the molecular diagnosis of Plasmodium species. Adult mosquitoes were collected by indoor residual spraying and identified morphologically and molecularly. The infection status of Plasmodium spp. was determined by quantitative PCR, and positivity of PCR-positive samples was confirmed by Sanger sequencing.

NOT Open Access | Plasmodium Ape1 is a multifunctional enzyme in mitochondrial base excision repair and is required for efficient transition from liver to blood stage infection

May 5, 2021 - 08:53 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Verma N, Shukla H, Tiwari A, Mishra S, Habib S
Reference: 
DNA Repair (Amst). 2021 May;101:103098

The malaria parasite has a single mitochondrion which carries multiple tandem repeats of its 6 kb genome encoding three proteins of the electron transport chain. There is little information about DNA repair mechanisms for mitochondrial genome maintenance in Plasmodium spp. Of the two AP-endonucleases of the BER pathway encoded in the parasite nuclear genome, the EndoIV homolog PfApn1 has been identified as a mitochondrial protein with restricted functions. We explored the targeting and biochemical properties of the ExoIII homolog PfApe1. PfApe1 localized in the mitochondrion and exhibited AP-site cleavage, 3'-5' exonuclease, 3'-phosphatase, nucleotide incision repair (NIR) and RNA cleavage activities indicating a wider functional role than PfApn1.

Widespread zoophagy and detection of Plasmodium spp. in Anopheles mosquitoes in southeastern Madagascar

January 13, 2021 - 08:25 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Micaela Finney, Benjamin A. McKenzie, Bernadette Rabaovola, Alice Sutcliffe, Ellen Dotson and Sarah Zohdy
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:25, 7 January 2021

Malaria is a top cause of mortality on the island nation of Madagascar, where many rural communities rely on subsistence agriculture and livestock production. Understanding feeding behaviours of Anopheles in this landscape is crucial for optimizing malaria control and prevention strategies. Previous studies in southeastern Madagascar have shown that Anopheles mosquitoes are more frequently captured within 50 m of livestock. However, it remains unknown whether these mosquitoes preferentially feed on livestock. Here, mosquito blood meal sources and Plasmodium sporozoite rates were determined to evaluate patterns of feeding behaviour in Anopheles spp. and malaria transmission in southeastern Madagascar.

NOT Open Access | Malaria-induced Alterations of Drug Kinetics and Metabolism in Rodents and Humans

January 6, 2021 - 12:46 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
De-Oliveira ACAX, Paumgartten FJR
Reference: 
Curr Drug Metab. 2021 Jan 1

Infections and inflammation lead to a downregulation of drug metabolism and kinetics in experimental animals. These changes in the expression and activities of drug-metabolizing enzymes may affect the effectiveness and safety of pharmacotherapy of infections and inflammatory conditions.

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