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plasmodium spp.

Factors influencing phagocytosis of malaria parasites: the story so far

July 21, 2021 - 17:55 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Caroline Lin Lin Chua, Ida May Jen Ng, Bryan Ju Min Yap and Andrew Teo
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:319, 16 July 2021

There are seven known species of Plasmodium spp. that can infect humans. The human host can mount a complex network of immunological responses to fight infection and one of these immune functions is phagocytosis. Effective and timely phagocytosis of parasites, accompanied by the activation of a regulated inflammatory response, is beneficial for parasite clearance.

NOT Open Access | Identification of novel antiplasmodial compound by hierarquical virtual screening and in vitro assays

June 5, 2021 - 07:17 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Costa Júnior DB, Araújo JSC, de Mattos Oliveira L, Neri FSM, Moreira POL, Taranto AG, Fonseca AL, de Pilla Varotti F, Leite FHA
Reference: 
J Biomol Struct Dyn. 2021 Jun;39(9):3378-3386

Malaria is an infectious disease caused by protozoa of the genus Plasmodium spp. with approximately 219 million cases in 2017. P. falciparum is main responsible for the most severe form of the disease, cerebral malaria. Despite of public health impacts, chemotherapy against malaria is still limited due to the emergence of drug resistance cases used in monotherapy and combination therapies.

Not Open Access | Laboratory Detection of Malaria Antigens: a Strong Tool for Malaria Research, Diagnosis, and Epidemiology

June 1, 2021 - 15:30 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Plucinski M, Aidoo M, Rogier E
Reference: 
Clin Microbiol Rev. 2021 May 26:e0025020

The identification and characterization of proteins produced during human infection with Plasmodium spp. have guided the malaria community in research, diagnosis, epidemiology, and other efforts. Recently developed methods for the detection of these proteins (antigens) in the laboratory have provided new types of data that can inform the evaluation of malaria diagnostics, epidemiological investigations, and overall malaria control strategies.

Epidemiological and entomological studies of malaria transmission in Tibati, Adamawa region of Cameroon 6 years following the introduction of long-lasting insecticide nets

May 12, 2021 - 09:41 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Feufack-Donfack LB, Sarah-Matio EM, Nsango SE, et al.
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2021 May 8;14(1):247

Malaria remains a serious public health problem in Cameroon. Implementation of control interventions requires prior knowledge of the local epidemiological situation. Here we report the results of epidemiological and entomological surveys carried out in Tibati, Adamawa Region, Cameroon, an area where malaria transmission is seasonal, 6 years after the introduction of long-lasting insecticidal bed nets.

Methods

Cross-sectional studies were carried out in July 2015 and 2017 in Tibati. Thick blood smears and dried blood spots were collected from asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals in the community and at health centers, respectively, and used for the molecular diagnosis of Plasmodium species. Adult mosquitoes were collected by indoor residual spraying and identified morphologically and molecularly. The infection status of Plasmodium spp. was determined by quantitative PCR, and positivity of PCR-positive samples was confirmed by Sanger sequencing.

NOT Open Access | Plasmodium Ape1 is a multifunctional enzyme in mitochondrial base excision repair and is required for efficient transition from liver to blood stage infection

May 5, 2021 - 08:53 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Verma N, Shukla H, Tiwari A, Mishra S, Habib S
Reference: 
DNA Repair (Amst). 2021 May;101:103098

The malaria parasite has a single mitochondrion which carries multiple tandem repeats of its 6 kb genome encoding three proteins of the electron transport chain. There is little information about DNA repair mechanisms for mitochondrial genome maintenance in Plasmodium spp. Of the two AP-endonucleases of the BER pathway encoded in the parasite nuclear genome, the EndoIV homolog PfApn1 has been identified as a mitochondrial protein with restricted functions. We explored the targeting and biochemical properties of the ExoIII homolog PfApe1. PfApe1 localized in the mitochondrion and exhibited AP-site cleavage, 3'-5' exonuclease, 3'-phosphatase, nucleotide incision repair (NIR) and RNA cleavage activities indicating a wider functional role than PfApn1.

Widespread zoophagy and detection of Plasmodium spp. in Anopheles mosquitoes in southeastern Madagascar

January 13, 2021 - 08:25 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Micaela Finney, Benjamin A. McKenzie, Bernadette Rabaovola, Alice Sutcliffe, Ellen Dotson and Sarah Zohdy
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:25, 7 January 2021

Malaria is a top cause of mortality on the island nation of Madagascar, where many rural communities rely on subsistence agriculture and livestock production. Understanding feeding behaviours of Anopheles in this landscape is crucial for optimizing malaria control and prevention strategies. Previous studies in southeastern Madagascar have shown that Anopheles mosquitoes are more frequently captured within 50 m of livestock. However, it remains unknown whether these mosquitoes preferentially feed on livestock. Here, mosquito blood meal sources and Plasmodium sporozoite rates were determined to evaluate patterns of feeding behaviour in Anopheles spp. and malaria transmission in southeastern Madagascar.

NOT Open Access | Malaria-induced Alterations of Drug Kinetics and Metabolism in Rodents and Humans

January 6, 2021 - 12:46 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
De-Oliveira ACAX, Paumgartten FJR
Reference: 
Curr Drug Metab. 2021 Jan 1

Infections and inflammation lead to a downregulation of drug metabolism and kinetics in experimental animals. These changes in the expression and activities of drug-metabolizing enzymes may affect the effectiveness and safety of pharmacotherapy of infections and inflammatory conditions.

Prevalence of and risk factors for Plasmodium spp. co-infection with hepatitis B virus: a systematic review and meta-analysis

October 15, 2020 - 08:46 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kwuntida Uthaisar Kotepui and Manas Kotepui
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:368, 15 October 2020

Plasmodium spp. and hepatitis B virus (HBV) are among the most common infectious diseases in underdeveloped countries. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of Plasmodium spp. and HBV co-infection in people living in endemic areas of both diseases and to assess the risk factors related to this co-infection.

NOT Open Access | A novel platform for peptide-mediated affinity capture and LC-MS/MS identification of host receptors involved in Plasmodium invasion

October 15, 2020 - 08:41 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Molina-Franky J, Plaza DF, Merali C, Merali S, Barrero C, Arévalo-Pinzón G, Patarroyo ME, Patarroyo MA
Reference: 
J Proteomics. 2020 Oct 9:104002

Successful Plasmodium falciparum invasion of red blood cells includes the orderly execution of highly specific receptor-ligand molecular interactions between the parasite's proteins and the red blood cell membrane proteins. There is a growing need for elucidating receptor-ligand pairings, which will help in understanding the parasite's biology and provide the fundamental basis for developing prophylactic or therapeutic alternatives leading to mitigating or eliminating this type of malaria.

Evaluation of the effectiveness of topical repellent distributed by village health volunteer networks against Plasmodium spp. infection in Myanmar: A stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial

August 24, 2020 - 13:25 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Agius PA, Cutts JC, Fowkes FJI, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS Med. 2020 Aug 20;17(8):e1003177

The World Health Organization has yet to endorse deployment of topical repellents for malaria prevention as part of public health campaigns. We aimed to quantify the effectiveness of repellent distributed by the village health volunteer (VHV) network in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) in reducing malaria in order to advance regional malaria elimination.

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