The malaria parasite has a single mitochondrion which carries multiple tandem repeats of its 6 kb genome encoding three proteins of the electron transport chain. There is little information about DNA repair mechanisms for mitochondrial genome maintenance in Plasmodium spp. Of the two AP-endonucleases of the BER pathway encoded in the parasite nuclear genome, the EndoIV homolog PfApn1 has been identified as a mitochondrial protein with restricted functions. We explored the targeting and biochemical properties of the ExoIII homolog PfApe1. PfApe1 localized in the mitochondrion and exhibited AP-site cleavage, 3'-5' exonuclease, 3'-phosphatase, nucleotide incision repair (NIR) and RNA cleavage activities indicating a wider functional role than PfApn1.
Malaria is a top cause of mortality on the island nation of Madagascar, where many rural communities rely on subsistence agriculture and livestock production. Understanding feeding behaviours of Anopheles in this landscape is crucial for optimizing malaria control and prevention strategies. Previous studies in southeastern Madagascar have shown that Anopheles mosquitoes are more frequently captured within 50 m of livestock. However, it remains unknown whether these mosquitoes preferentially feed on livestock. Here, mosquito blood meal sources and Plasmodium sporozoite rates were determined to evaluate patterns of feeding behaviour in Anopheles spp. and malaria transmission in southeastern Madagascar.
Infections and inflammation lead to a downregulation of drug metabolism and kinetics in experimental animals. These changes in the expression and activities of drug-metabolizing enzymes may affect the effectiveness and safety of pharmacotherapy of infections and inflammatory conditions.
Plasmodium spp. and hepatitis B virus (HBV) are among the most common infectious diseases in underdeveloped countries. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of Plasmodium spp. and HBV co-infection in people living in endemic areas of both diseases and to assess the risk factors related to this co-infection.
Successful Plasmodium falciparum invasion of red blood cells includes the orderly execution of highly specific receptor-ligand molecular interactions between the parasite's proteins and the red blood cell membrane proteins. There is a growing need for elucidating receptor-ligand pairings, which will help in understanding the parasite's biology and provide the fundamental basis for developing prophylactic or therapeutic alternatives leading to mitigating or eliminating this type of malaria.
The World Health Organization has yet to endorse deployment of topical repellents for malaria prevention as part of public health campaigns. We aimed to quantify the effectiveness of repellent distributed by the village health volunteer (VHV) network in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) in reducing malaria in order to advance regional malaria elimination.
Kerteszia cruzii is a sylvatic mosquito and the primary vector of Plasmodium spp., which can cause malaria in humans in areas outside the Amazon River basin in Brazil. Anthropic changes in the natural environments are the major drivers of massive deforestation and local climate change, with serious impacts on the dynamics of mosquito communities and on the risk of acquiring malaria.
Mixed Plasmodium malaria infections can lead to severe malaria. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to explore the prevalence of severe mixed Plasmodium malaria infection and to compare it with the prevalence of severe P. falciparum malaria mono-infection across the included studies. Original English-language research articles from PubMed, Scopus, and ISI Web of Science were identified and screened.
Malaria, a vector-borne disease caused by Plasmodium spp., remains a major global cause of mortality. Optimization of disease control strategies requires a thorough understanding of the processes underlying parasite transmission. While the number of transmissible stages (gametocytes) of Plasmodium in blood is frequently used as an indicator of host-to-mosquito transmission potential, this relationship is not always clear. Significant effort has been made in developing molecular tools that improve gametocyte density estimation and therefore prediction of mosquito infection rates.
Although mixed infection by two Plasmodium species has been recognized, mixed infection by three different Plasmodium species within one individual has not been clarified. This study sought to determine the pooled prevalence and proportion of triple mixed Plasmodium spp. infection compared with double mixed infection.