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clinical malaria

Nutritional status in young children prior to the malaria transmission season in Burkina Faso and Mali, and its impact on the incidence of clinical malaria

June 23, 2021 - 14:05 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Mariken de Wit, Matthew Cairns, Jean Bosco Ouedraogo, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:274, 22 June 2021

Malaria and malnutrition remain major problems in Sahel countries, especially in young children. The direct effect of malnutrition on malaria remains poorly understood, and may have important implications for malaria control. In this study, nutritional status and the association between malnutrition and subsequent incidence of symptomatic malaria were examined in children in Burkina Faso and Mali who received either azithromycin or placebo, alongside seasonal malaria chemoprevention.

Whole-genome analysis of Malawian Plasmodium falciparum isolates identifies possible targets of allele-specific immunity to clinical malaria

May 26, 2021 - 09:35 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Shah Z, Naung MT, Takala-Harrison S, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS Genet. 2021 May 25;17(5):e1009576

Individuals acquire immunity to clinical malaria after repeated Plasmodium falciparum infections. Immunity to disease is thought to reflect the acquisition of a repertoire of responses to multiple alleles in diverse parasite antigens. In previous studies, we identified polymorphic sites within individual antigens that are associated with parasite immune evasion by examining antigen allele dynamics in individuals followed longitudinally.

Prevalence of clinical malaria and household characteristics of patients in tribal districts of Pakistan

May 5, 2021 - 11:32 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Karim AM, Yasir M, Ali T, Malik SK, Ullah I, Qureshi NA, Yuanting H, Azhar EI, Jin HJ
Reference: 
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2021 May 3;15(5):e0009371

Malaria, disproportionately affects poor people more than any other disease of public health concern in developing countries. In resource-constrained environments, monitoring the occurrence of malaria is essential for the success of national malaria control programs. Militancy and military conflicts have been a major challenge in monitoring the incidence and controlling malaria and other emerging infectious diseases. The conflicts and instability in Afghanistan have resulted in the migration of refugees into the war-torn tribal districts of Pakistan’s Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) province and the possible introduction of many contagious epidemics. Although malaria is very common in all tribal districts, molecular, clinical and epidemiological data are scarce in these high-burden districts. Therefore, for the proper surveillance, detection, and control of malaria, obtaining and analyzing reliable data in these districts is essential.

Machine learning approaches classify clinical malaria outcomes based on haematological parameters

December 3, 2020 - 13:21 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Morang'a CM, Amenga-Etego L, Bah SY, Appiah V, Amuzu DSY, Amoako N, Abugri J, Oduro AR, Cunnington AJ, Awandare GA, Otto TD
Reference: 
BMC Med. 2020 Nov 30;18(1):375

Malaria is still a major global health burden, with more than 3.2 billion people in 91 countries remaining at risk of the disease. Accurately distinguishing malaria from other diseases, especially uncomplicated malaria (UM) from non-malarial infections (nMI), remains a challenge. Furthermore, the success of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) is threatened by Pfhrp2/3 deletions and decreased sensitivity at low parasitaemia. Analysis of haematological indices can be used to support the identification of possible malaria cases for further diagnosis, especially in travellers returning from endemic areas. As a new application for precision medicine, we aimed to evaluate machine learning (ML) approaches that can accurately classify nMI, UM, and severe malaria (SM) using haematological parameters.

Addressing challenges in routine health data reporting in Burkina Faso through Bayesian spatiotemporal prediction of weekly clinical malaria incidence

October 7, 2020 - 16:01 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Rouamba T, Samadoulougou S, Kirakoya-Samadoulougou F
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2020 Oct 6;10(1):16568

Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries' health systems are often vulnerable to unplanned situations that can hinder their effectiveness in terms of data completeness and disease control. For instance, in Burkina Faso following a workers' strike, comprehensive data on several diseases were unavailable for a long period in 2019. Weather, seasonal-malaria-chemoprevention (SMC), free healthcare, and other contextual data, which are purported to influence malarial disease, provide opportunities to fit models to describe the clinical malaria data and predict the disease spread.

NOT Open Access | Maximizing Impact: Can Interventions to Prevent Clinical Malaria Reduce Parasite Transmission

September 15, 2020 - 14:30 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
McCann RS, Cohee LM, Goupeyou-Youmsi J, Laufer MK
Reference: 
Trends Parasitol. 2020 Sep 8:S1471-4922(20)30196-3

Malaria interventions may reduce the burden of clinical malaria disease, the transmission of malaria parasites, or both. As malaria interventions are developed and evaluated, including those interventions primarily targeted at reducing disease, they may also impact parasite transmission.

NOT Open Access | Diagnosis of clinical malaria in endemic settings

August 11, 2020 - 07:36 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Varo R, Balanza N, Mayor A, Bassat Q
Reference: 
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2020 Aug 9

Malaria continues to be a major global health problem, with over 228 million cases and 405,000 deaths estimated to occur annually. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of malaria is essential to decrease the burden and impact of this disease, particularly in children. We aimed to review the main available techniques for the diagnosis of clinical malaria in endemic settings and explore possible future options to improve its rapid recognition.

High-efficiency enrichment enables identification of aptamers to circulating Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes

June 17, 2020 - 13:06 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Oteng EK, Gu W, McKeague M
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2020 Jun 16; 10(1):9706

Plasmodium falciparum is the causative agent of the deadliest human malaria. New molecules are needed that can specifically bind to erythrocytes that are infected with P. falciparum for diagnostic purposes, to disrupt host-parasite interactions, or to deliver chemotherapeutics. Aptamer technology has the potential to revolutionize biological diagnostics and therapeutics; however, broad adoption is hindered by the high failure rate of the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX). Here we performed parallel SELEX experiments to compare the impact of two different methods for single-strand recovery on the efficiency of aptamer enrichment.

Multiplicity of Asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum Infections and Risk of Clinical Malaria: A Systematic Review and Pooled Analysis of Individual Participant Data

February 22, 2020 - 17:16 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Eldh M, Hammar U, Arnot D, Beck HP, Garcia A, Liljander A, Mercereau-Puijalon O, Migot-Nabias F, Mueller I, Ntoumi F, Ross A, Smith T, Sondén K, Vafa Homann M, Yman V, Felger I, Färnert A
Reference: 
The Journal of Infectious Diseases, Volume 221, Issue 5, 1 March 2020, Pages 775–785

The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum holds an extensive genetic polymorphism. In this pooled analysis, we investigate how the multiplicity in asymptomatic P. falciparum infections—that is, the number of coinfecting clones—affects the subsequent risk of clinical malaria in populations living under different levels of transmission.

Risk factor assessment for clinical malaria among forest-goers in a pre-elimination setting in Phu Yen Province, Vietnam

December 30, 2019 - 14:25 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sara E. Canavati, Gerard C. Kelly, Nicholas J. Martin, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:435, 20 December 2019

The transition from malaria control to elimination requires understanding and targeting interventions among high-risk populations. In Vietnam, forest-goers are often difficult to test, treat and follow-up for malaria because they are highly mobile. If undiagnosed, forest-goers can maintain parasite reservoirs and contribute to ongoing malaria transmission.

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