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plasmodium falciparum

Characterization of Apicomplexan Amino Acid Transporters (ApiATs) in the Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum

December 28, 2021 - 20:57 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Wichers JS, van Gelder C, Bachmann A, et al.
Reference: 
mSphere. 2021 Dec 22;6(6):e0074321

During the symptomatic human blood phase, malaria parasites replicate within red blood cells. Parasite proliferation relies on the uptake of nutrients, such as amino acids, from the host cell and blood plasma, requiring transport across multiple membranes. Amino acids are delivered to the parasite through the parasite-surrounding vacuolar compartment by specialized nutrient-permeable channels of the erythrocyte membrane and the parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM). However, further transport of amino acids across the parasite plasma membrane (PPM) is currently not well characterized. In this study, we focused on a family of Apicomplexan amino acid transporters (ApiATs) that comprises five members in Plasmodium falciparum.

NOT Open Access | Anti-malarial activity in a Chinese herbal supplement containing Inonotus obliquus and Panax notoginseng

December 28, 2021 - 20:51 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Endo T, Nakagomi Y, Furuya T, et al.
Reference: 
Parasitol Int. 2021 Dec 18:102532

Plasmodium falciparum, the most virulent human malaria parasite, causes serious diseases among the infected patients in the world and is particularly important in African regions. Although artemisinin combination therapy is recommended by the WHO for treatment of P. falciparum-malaria, the emergence of artemisinin-resistant parasites has become a serious issue which underscores the importance of sustained efforts to obtain novel chemotherapeutic agents against malaria. As a part of such efforts, thirty-nine herbal extracts from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) were assayed for their anti-malarial activity using 3D7 strain of P. falciparum.

Not Open Access | 2-Methylthio-N7-methyl-cis-zeatin, a new antimalarial natural product isolated from a Streptomyces culture

December 28, 2021 - 20:46 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Lopez JAV, Nogawa T, Yoshida K, Futamura Y, Osada H
Reference: 
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2021 Dec 22;86(1):31-36

2-Methylthio-N7-methyl-cis-zeatin (1) was isolated from the culture broth of Streptomyces sp. 80H647 along with 2 known purine derivatives, 5'-methylthioinosine (2) and AT-265 (dealanylascamycin, 3).

Malaria Parasite Stress Tolerance Is Regulated by DNMT2-Mediated tRNA Cytosine Methylation

December 27, 2021 - 10:46 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Hammam E, Sinha A, Scherf A, et al.
Reference: 
mBio. 2021 Dec 21;12(6):e0255821

Malaria parasites need to cope with changing environmental conditions that require strong countermeasures to ensure pathogen survival in the human and mosquito hosts. The molecular mechanisms that protect Plasmodium falciparum homeostasis during the complex life cycle remain unknown. Here, we identify cytosine methylation of tRNAAsp (GTC) as being critical to maintain stable protein synthesis.

Barcoded Asaia bacteria enable mosquito in vivo screens and identify novel systemic insecticides and inhibitors of malaria transmission

December 27, 2021 - 10:41 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sturm A, Vos MW, Henderson R, Eldering M, Koolen KMJ, Sheshachalam A, Favia G, Samby K, Herreros E, Dechering KJ
Reference: 
PLoS Biol. 2021 Dec 20;19(12):e3001426

This work addresses the need for new chemical matter in product development for control of pest insects and vector-borne diseases. We present a barcoding strategy that enables phenotypic screens of blood-feeding insects against small molecules in microtiter plate-based arrays and apply this to discovery of novel systemic insecticides and compounds that block malaria parasite development in the mosquito vector.

NOT Open Access | THC shows activity against cultured Plasmodium falciparum

December 23, 2021 - 10:31 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
de Sousa ACC, Combrinck JM, Maepa K, Egan TJ
Reference: 
Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2021 Dec 15;54:128442

The FDA approved drug Dronabinol was identified in a previous study applying virtual screening using the haemozoin crystal as a target against malaria parasites. The active ingredient of dronabinol is synthetic tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is one of the major cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa. Traditional use of cannabis for malaria fever was reported in the world's oldest pharmacopoeia, dating to around 5000 years ago.

Malaria eradication revisited

December 23, 2021 - 10:05 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Douglas NM, Burkot TR, Price RN
Reference: 
Int J Epidemiol. 2021 Dec 16:dyab259

Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease that has shaped human populations and their economies since antiquity. It is caused by single-celled parasites belonging to the genus Plasmodium, of which P. falciparum is the most pathogenic. Following a latent period of replication within the liver, Plasmodium parasites are released into the bloodstream where they invade erythrocytes, causing acute haemolysis and varying degrees of microvascular obstruction and organ dysfunction.

Prevalence of potential mediators of artemisinin resistance in African isolates of Plasmodium falciparum

December 17, 2021 - 21:24 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Afolabi Owoloye, Michael Olufemi, Emmanuel T. Idowu and Kolapo M. Oyebola
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:451, 2 December 2021

The devastating public health impact of malaria has prompted the need for effective interventions. Malaria control gained traction after the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). However, the emergence of artemisinin (ART) partial resistance in Southeast Asia and emerging reports of delayed parasite sensitivity to ACT in African parasites signal a gradual trend towards treatment failure. Monitoring the prevalence of mutations associated with artemisinin resistance in African populations is necessary to stop resistance in its tracks. Mutations in Plasmodium falciparum genes pfk13, pfcoronin and pfatpase6 have been linked with ART partial resistance.

The emergence of chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum is influenced by selected communities in some parts of the Central Region of Ghana

December 15, 2021 - 21:17 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kwame Kumi Asare, Justice Africa, Jennifer Mbata and Yeboah Kwaku Opoku
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:447, 25 November 2021

The return of chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum in sub-Saharan Africa countries offers the opportunity for the reintroduction of chloroquine (CQ) either in combination with other drugs or as a single therapy for the management of malaria. This study assesses the influence of individual study sites on the selection of CQ sensitive P. falciparum markers in the Central region of Ghana.

Causal effects on low Apgar at 5-min and stillbirth in a malaria maternal–fetal health outcome investigation: a large perinatal surveillance study in the Brazilian Amazon

December 15, 2021 - 21:11 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Julio Abel Seijas-Chávez, Melissa S. Nolan, Mary K. Lynn, Maria José Francalino da Rocha, Muana da Costa Araújo, Fernando Luiz Affonso Fonseca and Gabriel Zorello Laporta
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:444, 25 November 2021

Malaria elimination in Brazil poses several challenges, including the control of Plasmodium falciparum foci and the hidden burden of Plasmodium vivax in pregnancy. Maternal malaria and fetal health outcomes were investigated with a perinatal surveillance study in the municipality of Cruzeiro do Sul, Acre state, Brazilian Amazon. The research questions are: what are the causal effects of low birth weight on low Apgar at 5-min and of perinatal anaemia on stillbirth?

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