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plasmodium falciparum

Differential expression of var subgroups and PfSir2a genes in afebrile Plasmodium falciparum malaria: a matched case–control study

September 24, 2019 - 15:04 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Himanshu Gupta, Beatriz Galatas, Alfredo Mayor, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:326, 23 September 2019

Poor knowledge on the afebrile Plasmodium falciparum biology limits elimination approaches to target asymptomatic malaria. Therefore, the association of parasite factors involved in cytoadhesion, parasite multiplication and gametocyte maturation with afebrile malaria was assessed.

Medical Condition: 

Not Open Access | Role of a patatin-like phospholipase in Plasmodium falciparum gametogenesis and malaria transmission

September 9, 2019 - 16:45 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Pallavi Singh, Aditi Alaganan, Chetan E. Chitnis, et al.
Reference: 
PNAS August 27, 2019 116 (35) 17498-17508

Transmission of Plasmodium falciparum involves a complex process that starts with the ingestion of gametocytes by female Anopheles mosquitoes during a blood meal.

Not Open Access | Role of a patatin-like phospholipase in Plasmodium falciparum gametogenesis and malaria transmission

September 7, 2019 - 15:51 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Pallavi Singh, Aditi Alaganan, Chetan E. Chitnis, et al.
Reference: 
PNAS August 27, 2019 116 (35) 17498-17508

Transmission of Plasmodium falciparum involves a complex process that starts with the ingestion of gametocytes by female Anopheles mosquitoes during a blood meal.

Medical Condition: 

Pairwise growth competitions identify relative fitness relationships among artemisinin resistant Plasmodium falciparum field isolates

September 3, 2019 - 15:25 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Abigail R. Tirrell, Katelyn M. Vendrely, Michael T. Ferdig, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:295, 28 August 2019

Competitive outcomes between co-infecting malaria parasite lines can reveal fitness disparities in blood stage growth. Blood stage fitness costs often accompany the evolution of drug resistance, with the expectation that relatively fitter parasites will be more likely to spread in populations. With the recent emergence of artemisinin resistance, it is important to understand the relative competitive fitness of the metabolically active asexual blood stage parasites. Genetically distinct drug resistant parasite clones with independently evolved sets of mutations are likely to vary in asexual proliferation rate, contributing to their chance of transmission to the mosquito vector.

Medical Condition: 

Low polymorphisms in pfact, pfugt and pfcarl genes in African Plasmodium falciparum isolates and absence of association with susceptibility to common anti-malarial drugs

September 2, 2019 - 15:29 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Francis Tsombeng Foguim, Marie Gladys Robert, Bruno Pradines, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:293, 28 August 2019

Resistance to all available anti-malarial drugs has emerged and spread including artemisinin derivatives and their partner drugs. Several genes involved in artemisinin and partner drugs resistance, such as pfcrt, pfmdr1, pfK13 or pfpm2, have been identified. However, these genes do not properly explain anti-malarial drug resistance, and more particularly clinical failures observed in Africa. Mutations in genes encoding for Plasmodium falciparum proteins, such as P. falciparum Acetyl-CoA transporter (PfACT), P. falciparum UDP-galactose transporter (PfUGT) and P. falciparum cyclic amine resistance locus (PfCARL) have recently been associated to resistance to imidazolopiperazines and other unrelated drugs.

Medical Treatment: 

Sero-identification of the aetiologies of human malaria exposure (Plasmodium spp.) in the Limu Kossa District of Jimma Zone, South western Ethiopia

September 2, 2019 - 15:27 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sindew Mekasha Feleke, Bokretsion Gidey Brhane, Hassen Mamo, Ashenafi Assefa, Adugna Woyessa, Guilherme Maerschner Ogawa and Vitaliano Cama
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:292, 27 August 2019

Malaria remains a very important public health problem in Ethiopia. Currently, only Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax are considered in the malaria diagnostic and treatment policies. However, the existence and prevalence of Plasmodium ovale spp. and Plasmodium malariae in Ethiopia have not been extensively investigated. The objective of this study was to use a multiplex IgG antibody detection assay to evaluate evidence for exposure to any of these four human malaria parasites among asymptomatic individuals.

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Are k13 and plasmepsin II genes, involved in Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinin derivatives and piperaquine in Southeast Asia, reliable to monitor resistance surveillance in Africa?

August 27, 2019 - 22:03 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Francis Foguim Tsombeng, Mathieu Gendrot, Marie Gladys Robert, Marylin Madamet and Bruno Pradines
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:285, 23 August 2019

Mutations in the propeller domain of Plasmodium falciparum kelch 13 (Pfk13) gene are associated with artemisinin resistance in Southeast Asia.

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Absence of kelch13 artemisinin resistance markers but strong selection for lumefantrine-tolerance molecular markers following 18 years of artemisinin-based combination therapy use in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa (2001–2018)

August 27, 2019 - 21:47 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Jaishree Raman, Frank M. Kagoro, Aaron Mabuza, Gillian Malatje, Anthony Reid, John Frean and Karen I. Barnes
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:280, 22 August 2019

The ability of Plasmodium falciparum parasites to develop resistance to widely used anti-malarials threatens malaria control and elimination efforts. Regular drug efficacy monitoring is essential for ensuring effective treatment policies. In low transmission settings where therapeutic efficacy studies are often not feasible, routine surveillance for molecular markers associated with anti-malarial resistance provides an alternative for the early detection of emerging resistance. Such a longitudinal survey of changes in the prevalence of selected molecular markers of resistance was conducted in the malaria-endemic regions of Mpumalanga Province, South Africa, where malaria elimination at a district-level is being pursued.

Medical Treatment: 

Serologic responses to the PfEMP1 DBL-CIDR head structure may be a better indicator of malaria exposure than those to the DBL-α tag

August 13, 2019 - 15:52 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Emily M. Stucke, Amadou Niangaly, Mark A. Travassos, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:273, 13 August 2019

Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein-1 (PfEMP1) antigens play a critical role in host immune evasion. Serologic responses to these antigens have been associated with protection from clinical malaria, suggesting that antibodies to PfEMP1 antigens may contribute to natural immunity. The first N-terminal constitutive domain in a PfEMP1 is the Duffy binding-like alpha (DBL-α) domain, which contains a 300 to 400 base pair region unique to each particular protein (the DBL-α “tag”). This DBL-α tag has been used as a marker of PfEMP1 diversity and serologic responses in malaria-exposed populations. In this study, using sera from a malaria-endemic region, responses to DBL-α tags were compared to responses to the corresponding entire DBL-α domain (or “parent” domain) coupled with the succeeding cysteine-rich interdomain region (CIDR).

Diverse origin of Plasmodium falciparum in northwest Ecuador

August 5, 2019 - 17:01 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Claudia A. Vera-Arias, L. Enrique Castro, Javier Gómez-Obando and Fabián E. Sáenz
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:251, 26 July 2019

Ecuador plans to eliminate malaria by 2020, and the country has already seen a decrease in the number of cases from more than 100,000 in 2000 to only 618 in 2015. Around 30% of malaria infections in Ecuador are caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Most malaria population genetics studies performed in Latin America, especially in the Pacific Coast, indicate a high clonality and a clear structure of P. falciparum populations. It was shown that an outbreak of P. falciparum in northwest Ecuador was the result of a clonal expansion of parasites circulating at low levels in the country or re-invading Ecuador from neighbouring territories. However, general characteristics of P. falciparum circulating in the northwest coast of Ecuador have not been determined. The main goal of this study was to genetically characterize the population structure of P. falciparum in coastal Ecuadorian localities bordering with Colombia.

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