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plasmodium falciparum

Genetic polymorphism of merozoite surface proteins 1 and 2 of Plasmodium falciparum in the China-Myanmar border region

December 2, 2019 - 17:54 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Zhang CL, Zhou HN, Liu Q, Yang YM
Reference: 
Malar J. 2019 Nov 19;18(1):367

Malaria is a major public health problem in the China-Myanmar border region. The genetic structure of malaria parasite may affect its transmission model and control strategies. The present study was to analyse genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum by merozoite surface proteins 1 and 2 (MSP1 and MSP2) and to determine the multiplicity of infection in clinical isolates in the China-Myanmar border region.

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NOT Open Access |Recent advances in transmission-blocking drugs for malaria elimination

December 2, 2019 - 15:10 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Wadi I, Nath M, Anvikar AR, Singh P, Sinha A.
Reference: 
Future Med Chem. 2019 Nov 29.

The scientific community worldwide has realized that malaria elimination will not be possible without development of safe and effective transmission-blocking interventions. Primaquine, the only WHO recommended transmission-blocking drug, is not extensively utilized because of the toxicity issues in G6PD deficient individuals.

Ultrasensitive and label-free biosensor for the detection of Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein II in saliva

November 27, 2019 - 16:18 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Soraya GV, Abeyrathne CD, Buffet C, Huynh DH, Uddin SM, Chan J, Skafidas E, Kwan P, Rogerson SJ
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2019 Nov 25;9(1):17495

Malaria elimination is a global public health priority. To fulfil the demands of elimination diagnostics, we have developed an interdigitated electrode sensor platform targeting the Plasmodium falciparum Histidine Rich Protein 2 (PfHRP2) protein in saliva samples. A protocol for frequency-specific PfHRP2 detection in phosphate buffered saline was developed, yielding a sensitivity of 2.5 pg/mL based on change in impedance magnitude of the sensor.

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NOT Open Access | A Malaria Transmission Model Predicts Holoendemic, Hyperendemic, and Hypoendemic Transmission Patterns Under Varied Seasonal Vector Dynamics

November 27, 2019 - 15:58 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Ratti V, Wallace DI
Reference: 
Journal of Medical Entomology, tjz186

A model is developed of malaria (Plasmodium falciparum) transmission in vector (Anopheles gambiae) and human populations that include the capacity for both clinical and parasite suppressing immunity. This model is coupled with a population model for Anopheles gambiae that varies seasonal with temperature and larval habitat availability. At steady state, the model clearly distinguishes uns hypoendemic transmission patterns from stable hyperendemic and holoendemic patterns of transmission.

Monitoring the threatened utility of malaria rapid diagnostic tests by novel high-throughput detection of Plasmodium falciparum hrp2 and hrp3 deletions: A cross-sectional, diagnostic accuracy study

November 26, 2019 - 20:43 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kreidenweiss A, Trauner F, Sandri TL, et al.
Reference: 
EBioMedicine. 2019 Nov 21. pii: S2352-3964(19)30723-6.

Plasmodium falciparum deficient for hrp2 and hrp3 genes are a threat to malaria management and elimination, since they escape widely used HRP2-based rapid diagnostic tests and treatment. Hrp2/hrp3 deletions are increasingly reported from all malaria endemic regions but are currently only identified by laborious methodologies.

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NOT Open Access | Prevalence of mutations in Plasmodium falciparum genes associated with resistance to different antimalarial drugs in Nyando, Kisumu County in Kenya

November 26, 2019 - 13:55 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Musyoka KB, Kiiru JN, Aluvaala E, Omondi P, Chege WK, Judah T, Kiboi D, Nganga JK, Kimani FT.
Reference: 
Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 19 November 2019, 104121

Resistance to the mainstay antimalarial drugs is a major concern in the control of malaria. Delayed Plasmodium falciparum parasite clearance has been associated with Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in the kelch propeller region (K13). However, SNPs in the Pf-adaptor protein complex 2 mu subunit (Pfap2-mu), Pfcrt and Pfmdr1 are possible markers associated with multi-drug resistance. Here, we explored the prevalence of SNPs in the K13, Pfap2-mu, Pfcrt, and Pfmdr1 in 94 dried blood spot field isolates collected from children aged below 12 years infected with P. falciparum during a cross-sectional study.

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Histone deacetylase inhibitors with high in vitro activities against Plasmodium falciparum isolates collected from Gabonese children and adults

November 26, 2019 - 13:39 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Koehne E, Kreidenweiss A, Zoleko Manego R, McCall M, Mombo-Ngoma G, Mackwitz MKW, Hansen FK, Held J.
Reference: 
Scientific Reports volume 9, Article number: 17336 (2019)

Histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes are targets for the development of antimalarial drugs with a different mode of action to established antimalarials. Broad-spectrum HDAC-inhibitors show high potency against Plasmodium falciparum, but displayed some toxicity towards human cells. Inhibitors of human HDAC6 are new drug candidates with supposed reduced toxicity to human cells and favorable activities against laboratory P. falciparum strains.

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NPC1161B, an 8-Aminoquinoline Analog, Is Metabolized in the Mosquito and Inhibits Plasmodium falciparum Oocyst Maturation

November 19, 2019 - 15:23 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Hamerly T, Tweedell RE, Hritzo B, Nyasembe VO, Tekwani BL, Nanayakkara NP, Walker LA, Dinglasan R
Reference: 
Front Pharmacol. 2019 Oct 25;10:1265.

We performed liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)/MS analysis of methanol extracts from the midguts of mosquitoes fed on an NPC1161B (434.15 m/z)-treated blood meal and identified a compound with a mass of 520.2 m/z, likely a conjugate of NPC1161B or an oxidized metabolite. These findings establish NPC1161B, and potentially its metabolites, as transmission-blocking candidates for the treatment of P. falciparum.

Not Open Access | Cyclooxygenase-2 haplotypes influence the longitudinal risk of malaria and severe malarial anemia in Kenyan children from a holoendemic transmission region

November 19, 2019 - 15:08 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Samuel B. Anyona, Nicolas W. Hengartner, Douglas J. Perkins, et al.
Reference: 
Journal of Human Genetics (2019)

The investigation was carried out in children (n = 1081, age; 2–70 months) residing in a holoendemic Plasmodium falciparum transmission region of western Kenya. At enrollment, genotypes/haplotypes (controlling for anemia-promoting covariates) did not reveal any strong effects on susceptibility to either malaria or SMA. 

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Antibodies to Cryptic Epitopes in Distant Homologues Underpin a Mechanism of Heterologous Immunity between Plasmodium vivax PvDBP and Plasmodium falciparum VAR2CSA

November 19, 2019 - 15:04 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Catherine J. Mitran, Angie Mena, Stephanie K. Yanow, et al.
Reference: 
American Society For Microbiology Volume 10 Issue 5 e02343-19

Here, we describe the molecular mechanism underlying this cross-species immunity. We identified an epitope in subdomain 1 (SD1) within the Duffy binding-like (DBL) domain of PvDBP that gives rise to cross-reactive antibodies to VAR2CSA and show that human antibodies affinity purified against a synthetic SD1 peptide block parasite adhesion to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) in vitro. 

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