Protein kinases are important mediators of signal transduction in cellular pathways, and calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) compose a unique class of calcium-dependent kinases present in plants and apicomplexans, including Plasmodium parasites, the causative agents of malaria. During the asexual stage of infection, the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum grows inside red blood cells, and P. falciparum calcium-dependent protein kinase 5 (PfCDPK5) is required for egress from the host cell.
Support vector machine (SVM) and general regression neural network (GRNN) were used to develop classification models for predicting the antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum. Only 15 molecular descriptors were used to build the classification models for the antimalarial activities of 4750 compounds, which were divided into a training set (3887 compounds) and a test set (863 compounds).
The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum traffics the virulence protein P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) to the surface of infected red blood cells (RBCs) via membranous organelles, known as the Maurer’s clefts. We developed a method for efficient enrichment of Maurer’s clefts and profiled the protein composition of this trafficking organelle. We identified 13 previously uncharacterized or poorly characterized Maurer’s cleft proteins.
Malaria is a major public health problem in Cameroon. The study of the genetic diversity within parasite population is essential for understanding the mechanism underlying malaria pathology and to determine parasite clones profile in an infection, for proper malaria control strategies. The objective of this study was to perform a molecular characterization of highly polymorphic genetic markers of Plasmodium falciparum, and to determine allelic distribution with their influencing factors valuable to investigate malaria transmission dynamics in Cameroon.
New strategies are needed to reduce the incidence of malaria, and promising approaches include the development of vaccines and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that target the circumsporozoite protein (CSP). To select the best candidates and speed development, it is essential to standardize preclinical assays to measure the potency of such interventions in animal models.
Malaria presents with unspecific clinical symptoms that frequently overlap with other infectious diseases and is also a risk factor for coinfections, such as non-Typhi Salmonella. Malaria rapid diagnostic tests are sensitive but unable to distinguish between an acute infection requiring treatment and asymptomatic malaria with a concomitant infection. We set out to test whether cytokine profiles could predict disease status and allow the differentiation between malaria and a bacterial bloodstream infection.
Mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (PfCRT) confer resistance to several antimalarial drugs such as chloroquine (CQ) or piperaquine (PPQ), a partner molecule in current artemisinin-based combination therapies. As a member of the Drug/Metabolite Transporter (DMT) superfamily, the vacuolar transporter PfCRT may translocate substrate molecule(s) across the membrane of the digestive vacuole (DV), a lysosome-like organelle.
Malaria parasites invade and replicate within red blood cells (RBCs), extensively modifying their structure and gaining access to the extracellular environment by placing the plasmodial surface anion channel (PSAC) into the RBC membrane. Expression of members of the cytoadherence linked antigen gene 3 (clag3) family is required for PSAC activity, a process that is regulated epigenetically.
Routine molecular surveillance for imported drug-resistant malaria parasites to the USA and European Union is an important public health activity. The obtained molecular data are used to help keep chemoprophylaxis and treatment guidelines up to date for persons traveling to malaria endemic countries. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies provide a new and effective way of tracking malaria drug-resistant parasites.
Artemisinin and partner-drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum are major threats to malaria control and elimination. Triple artemisinin-based combination therapies (TACTs), which combine existing co-formulated ACTs with a second partner drug that is slowly eliminated, might provide effective treatment and delay emergence of antimalarial drug resistance.