Toxoplasma gondii is an apicomplexan parasite with the ability to use foodborne, zoonotic, and congenital routes of transmission that causes severe disease in immunocompromised patients.
Therapeutics with novel modes of action and a low risk of generating resistance are urgently needed to combat drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria.
Substantial evidence indicates that cytophilic IgG responses to Plasmodium falciparum merozoite antigens play a role in protection from malaria. The specific targets mediating immunity remain unclear. Evaluating antibody responses in infants naturally-exposed to malaria will allow to better understand the establishment of anti-malarial immunity and to contribute to a vaccine development by identifying the most appropriate merozoite candidate antigens.
Malaria is more often considered a problem of the rural poor and the disease has been overlooked in urban settings for centuries due to the assumption that economic development in urban areas results in better life conditions, such as improved housing, drainage system and environmental changes that makes urban areas not conducive for breeding of the malaria vector. But, for many African countries, including Ethiopia, in most urban areas, although there are rapid developments, they are characterized by poor housing, lack of sanitation and drainage of surface water that would provide favourable conditions for vector breeding. Limited studies have been conducted as far as urban malaria is concerned in Ethiopia. The purpose of this study was to assess the status of falciparum and vivax malaria transmission in Adama City, Eastern Shoa Zone, Oromia, Ethiopia. Understanding the local epidemiology of malaria will help policy makers and other stakeholders to design and implement tailored cost effective and efficient intervention strategies targeting urban malaria.
A reduction in the global burden of malaria over the past two decades has encouraged efforts for regional malaria elimination.
Whole parasite vaccination is an efficacious strategy to induce sterile immunity and to prevent malaria transmission. Understanding the mechanism and response of immune cells to vaccines plays a critical role in deciphering correlates of protection against infection and disease. Immunoassays, such as ELISpot, are commonly used to assess the immunogenicity of vaccines towards T cells and B cells. To date, these assays only analyse responses to specific antigens since they are based on recombinant parasite-derived proteins or peptides. There is the need for an agnostic approach that allows the evaluation of all sporozoite-associated antigens.
HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART) require treatment with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) when infected with malaria. Artemether–lumefantrine (AL) is the most commonly used ACT for treatment of falciparum malaria in Africa but there is limited evidence on the safety and efficacy of AL in HIV-infected individuals on ART, among whom drug–drug interactions are expected. Day-42 adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR) and incidence of adverse events was assessed in HIV-infected individuals on efavirenz-based ART with uncomplicated falciparum malaria treated with AL.
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are important components of the vertebrate and invertebrate innate immune systems.
Malaria parasites possess the remarkable ability to maintain chronic infections that fail to elicit a protective immune response, characteristics that have stymied vaccine development and cause people living in endemic regions to remain at risk of malaria despite previous exposure to the disease.
Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is an important signalling molecule across evolution, but its role in malaria parasites is poorly understood.