Artemisinins have revolutionized the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria; however, resistance threatens to undermine global control efforts. To broadly explore artemisinin susceptibility in apicomplexan parasites, we employ genome-scale CRISPR screens recently developed for Toxoplasma gondii to discover sensitizing and desensitizing mutations.
Malaria remains a huge global health burden, and control of this disease has run into a severe bottleneck. To defeat malaria and reach the goal of eradication, a deep understanding of the parasite biology is urgently needed. The mitochondrion of the malaria parasite is essential throughout the parasite's life cycle and has been validated as a clinical drug target. In the asexual development of Plasmodium spp., the single mitochondrion grows from a small tubular structure to a complex branched network.
Plasmodium falciparum phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase (PfPI4K) has emerged as a promising new drug target for novel antimalarial therapeutics. In the absence of a reliable high-resolution three-dimensional structure, a homology model of PfPI4K was built as a tool for structure-based drug design.
Malaria is one of the deadliest diseases in the world. Novel chemotherapeutic agents are urgently required to combat the widespread Plasmodium resistance to frontline drugs. Here, we report the discovery of a novel benzonaphthyridine antimalarial, methnaridine, which was identified using a structural optimization strategy.
RTS,S/AS01E malaria vaccine safety, effectiveness, and impact will be assessed in pre- and post-vaccine introduction studies, comparing the occurrence of malaria cases and adverse events in vaccinated versus unvaccinated children. Because those comparisons may be confounded by potential year-to-year fluctuations in malaria transmission intensity and malaria control intervention usage, the latter should be carefully monitored to adequately adjust the analyses.
Historic levels of funding have reduced the global burden of malaria in recent years. Questions remain, however, as to whether scaling up interventions, in parallel with economic growth, has made malaria elimination more likely today than previously. The consequences of "trying but failing" to eliminate malaria are also uncertain. Reduced malaria exposure decreases the acquisition of semi-immunity during childhood, a necessary phase of the immunological transition that occurs on the pathway to malaria elimination.
Asymptomatic carriers of Plasmodium parasites hamper malaria control and eradication. Achieving malaria eradication requires ultrasensitive diagnostics for low parasite density infections (<100 parasites per microliter blood) that work in resource-limited settings (RLS). Sensitive point-of-care diagnostics are also lacking for nonfalciparum malaria, which is characterized by lower density infections and may require additional therapy for radical cure.
Malaria has had a major effect on the human genome, with many protective polymorphisms-such as the sickle-cell trait-having been selected to high frequencies in malaria-endemic regions1,2. The blood group variant Dantu provides 74% protection against all forms of severe malaria in homozygous individuals3-5, a similar degree of protection to that afforded by the sickle-cell trait and considerably greater than that offered by the best malaria vaccine.
The rapid and often uncontrolled rural–urban migration in Sub-Saharan Africa is transforming urban landscapes expected to provide shelter for more than 50% of Africa’s population by 2030. Consequently, the burden of malaria is increasingly affecting the urban population, while socio-economic inequalities within the urban settings are intensified. Few studies, relying mostly on moderate to high resolution datasets and standard predictive variables such as building and vegetation density, have tackled the topic of modeling intra-urban malaria at the city extent. In this research, we investigate the contribution of very-high-resolution satellite-derived land-use, land-cover and population information for modeling the spatial distribution of urban malaria prevalence across large spatial extents. As case studies, we apply our methods to two Sub-Saharan African cities, Kampala and Dar es Salaam.
Resistance towards known antimalarial drugs poses a significant problem, urging for novel drugs that target vital proteins in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. However, recombinant production of malaria proteins is notoriously difficult. To address this, we have investigated two putative K+ channels, PfKch1 and PfKch2, identified in the P. falciparum genome.