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plasmodium falciparum

Drug resistance profile and clonality of Plasmodium falciparum parasites in Cape Verde: the 2017 malaria outbreak

April 7, 2021 - 12:43 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Silvania Da Veiga Leal, Daniel Ward, Fatima Nogueira, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:172, 31 March 2021

Cape Verde is an archipelago located off the West African coast and is in a pre-elimination phase of malaria control. Since 2010, fewer than 20 Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases have been reported annually, except in 2017, when an outbreak in Praia before the rainy season led to 423 autochthonous cases. It is important to understand the genetic diversity of circulating P. falciparum to inform on drug resistance, potential transmission networks and sources of infection, including parasite importation.

Plasmodium falciparum malaria drives epigenetic reprogramming of human monocytes toward a regulatory phenotype

April 7, 2021 - 12:27 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Guha R, Mathioudaki A, Crompton PD, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS Pathog. 2021 Apr 6;17(4):e1009430

In malaria-naïve children and adults, Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells (Pf-iRBCs) trigger fever and other symptoms of systemic inflammation. However, in endemic areas where individuals experience repeated Pf infections over many years, the risk of Pf-iRBC-triggered inflammatory symptoms decreases with cumulative Pf exposure. The molecular mechanisms underlying these clinical observations remain unclear. Age-stratified analyses of uninfected, asymptomatic Malian individuals before the malaria season revealed that monocytes of adults produced lower levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF) in response to Pf-iRBC stimulation compared to monocytes of Malian children and malaria-naïve U.S. adults.

Not Open Access | Plasmodium falciparum-specific IgM B cells dominate in children, expand with malaria, and produce functional IgM

April 7, 2021 - 12:25 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Hopp CS, Sekar P, Crompton PD, et al.
Reference: 
J Exp Med. 2021 Apr 5;218(4):e20200901

IgG antibodies play a role in malaria immunity, but whether and how IgM protects from malaria and the biology of Plasmodium falciparum (Pf)-specific IgM B cells is unclear. In a Mali cohort spanning infants to adults, we conducted longitudinal analyses of Pf- and influenza-specific B cells. We found that Pf-specific memory B cells (MBCs) are disproportionally IgM+ and only gradually shift to IgG+ with age, in contrast to influenza-specific MBCs that are predominantly IgG+ from infancy to adulthood. B cell receptor analysis showed Pf-specific IgM MBCs are somatically hypermutated at levels comparable to influenza-specific IgG B cells.

NOT Open Access | Conserved Plasmodium protein (PF3D7_0406000) of unknown function, in-silico analysis and cellular localization

April 7, 2021 - 12:23 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Pandey I, Quadiri A, Wadi I, Pillai CR, Singh AP, Das A
Reference: 
Infect Genet Evol. 2021 Apr 3:104848

In spite of a decrease in malaria cases, the threat of malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum still prevails. The sequencing of Plasmodium falciparum reveals that approximately 60% of the Plasmodium genes code for hypothetical/putative proteins. Here we report an in silico characterization and localization of one such protein. This was encoded by one of the hub genes, in a weighted gene co-expression based systems network, from in-vivo samples of patients suffering from uncomplicated malaria or complicated malaria disease like jaundice and jaundice with renal failure.

Development of a bispecific immune engager using a recombinant malaria protein

April 7, 2021 - 12:15 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Nordmaj MA, Roberts ME, Salanti A, et al.
Reference: 
Cell Death Dis. 2021 Apr 6;12(4):353

As an immune evasion and survival strategy, the Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite has evolved a protein named VAR2CSA. This protein mediates sequestration of infected red blood cells in the placenta through the interaction with a unique carbohydrate abundantly and exclusively present in the placenta. Cancer cells were found to share the same expression of this distinct carbohydrate, termed oncofetal chondroitin sulfate on their surface.

A VLP for validation of the Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein junctional epitope for vaccine development

April 6, 2021 - 14:24 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Atcheson E, Hill AVS, Reyes-Sandoval A
Reference: 
NPJ Vaccines. 2021 Apr 1;6(1):46

Malaria continues to be a pressing global health issue, causing nearly half a million deaths per year. An effective malaria vaccine could radically improve our ability to control and eliminate this pathogen. The most advanced malaria vaccine, RTS,S, confers only 30% protective efficacy under field conditions, and hence the search continues for improved vaccines.

NOT Open Access | Transcriptional analysis identifies potential biomarkers and molecular regulators in acute malaria infection

April 6, 2021 - 14:22 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Bertrams W, Griss K, Han M, Seidel K, Hippenstiel S, Suttorp N, Finkernagel F, Wilhelm J, Vogelmeier CF, Schmeck B
Reference: 
Life Sci. 2021 Apr 1;270:119158

Malaria is a serious health threat in tropical countries. The causative parasite of Malaria tropica, the severe form, is the protozoan Plasmodium falciparum. In humans, it infects red blood cells, compromising blood flow and tissue perfusion. This study aims to identify potential biomarkers and RNA networks in leukocyte transcriptomes from patients suffering from Malaria tropica.

NOT Open Access | Synthesis and biological evaluation of benzhydryl-based antiplasmodial agents possessing Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (PfCRT) inhibitory activity

April 6, 2021 - 14:20 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Relitti N, Federico S, Pozzetti L, Campiani G, et al.
Reference: 
Eur J Med Chem. 2021 Apr 5;215:113227

Due to the surge in resistance to common therapies, malaria remains a significant concern to human health worldwide. In chloroquine (CQ)-resistant (CQ-R) strains of Plasmodium falciparum, CQ and related drugs are effluxed from the parasite's digestive vacuole (DV). This process is mediated by mutant isoforms of a protein called CQ resistance transporter (PfCRT). CQ-R strains can be partially re-sensitized to CQ by verapamil (VP), primaquine (PQ) and other compounds, and this has been shown to be due to the ability of these molecules to inhibit drug transport via PfCRT.

The ESCRT-III machinery participates in the production of extracellular vesicles and protein export during Plasmodium falciparum infection

April 6, 2021 - 14:08 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Avalos-Padilla Y, Georgiev VN, Lantero E, Pujals S, Verhoef R, N Borgheti-Cardoso L, Albertazzi L, Dimova R, Fernàndez-Busquets X
Reference: 
PLoS Pathog. 2021 Apr 2;17(4):e1009455

Infection with Plasmodium falciparum enhances extracellular vesicle (EV) production in parasitized red blood cells (pRBCs), an important mechanism for parasite-to-parasite communication during the asexual intraerythrocytic life cycle. The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT), and in particular the ESCRT-III sub-complex, participates in the formation of EVs in higher eukaryotes.

Gentisyl alcohol and homogentisic acid: Plasmodium falciparum dihydroorotate dehydrogenase inhibitors isolated from fungi

April 6, 2021 - 14:00 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Pramisandi A, Kurnia K, Shiomi K, et al.
Reference: 
J Gen Appl Microbiol. 2021 Apr 2

Two Indonesian fungi Aspergillus assiutensis BioMCC-f.T.7495 and Penicillium pedernalense BioMCC-f.T.5350 along with a Japanese fungus Hypomyces pseudocorticiicola FKI-9008 have been found to produce gentisyl alcohol (1), which inhibits Plasmodium falciparum dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (PfDHODH) with an IC50 value of 3.4 μM.

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