Plasmodium falciparum is an obligate intracellular parasite of humans that causes malaria. Falciparum malaria is a major public health threat to human life responsible for high mortality. Currently, the risk of multi-drug resistance of P. falciparum is rapidly increasing. There is a need to address new anti-malarial therapeutics strategies to combat the drug-resistance threat.
Artesunate-amodiaquine is a potential therapy for uncomplicated malaria in Cambodia.
Vietnam achieved outstanding success against malaria in the last few decades. The mortality and morbidity of malaria in Vietnam have decreased remarkably in recent years, but malaria is still a major public health concern in the country, particularly in the Central Highlands region. In this study, molecular analyses of malaria parasites in the Central Highlands were performed to understand the population structure and genetic diversity of the parasites circulating in the region.
Malaria persists as a major health problem due to the spread of drug resistance and the lack of effective vaccines. DNA gyrase is a well-validated and extremely effective therapeutic target in bacteria, and it is also known to be present in the apicoplast of malarial species including Plasmodium falciparum. This raises the possibility that it could be a useful target for novel antimalarials.
Among novel compounds under recent investigation as potential new antimalarial drugs are three independently developed inhibitors of the Plasmodium falciparum P-type ATPase (PfATP4): KAE609 (cipargamin), PA92, and SJ733. We assessed ex vivo susceptibilities to these compounds of 374 fresh P. falciparum isolates collected in Tororo and Busia districts, Uganda from 2016-2019. Median IC50s were 65 nM for SJ733, 9.1 nM for PA92, and 0.5 nM for KAE609. Sequencing of pfatp4 for 218 of these isolates demonstrated many non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms; the most frequent mutations were G1128R (69% of isolates mixed or mutant), Q1081K/R (68%), G223S (25%), N1045K (16%) and D1116G/N/Y (16%).
Early malaria diagnosis and its profiling require the development of new sensing platforms enabling rapid and early analysis of parasites in blood or saliva, aside the widespread rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs).
Following Plasmodium falciparum infection, individuals can remain asymptomatic, present with mild fever in uncomplicated malaria cases, or show one or more severe malaria symptoms. Several studies have investigated associations between parasite transcription and clinical severity, but no broad conclusions have yet been drawn. Here, we apply a series of bioinformatic approaches based on P. falciparum's tightly regulated transcriptional pattern during its ~48-hour intraerythrocytic developmental cycle (IDC) to publicly available transcriptomes of parasites obtained from malaria cases of differing clinical severity across multiple studies.
In northwestern Kenya, Turkana County has been historically considered unsuitable for stable malaria transmission because of its unfavorable climate and predominantly semi-nomadic population; consequently, it is overlooked during malaria control planning. However, the area is changing, with substantial development, an upsurge in travel associated with resource extraction, and more populated settlements forming. Recently, numerous malaria outbreaks have highlighted the need to characterize malaria transmission and its associated risk factors in the region to inform control strategies.
Clonally variant genes (CVGs) play fundamental roles in the adaptation of Plasmodium falciparum to fluctuating conditions of the human host. However, their expression patterns under the natural conditions of the blood circulation have been characterized in detail for only a few specific gene families. Here, we provide a detailed characterization of the complete P. falciparum transcriptome across the full intraerythrocytic development cycle (IDC) at the onset of a blood infection in malaria-naive human volunteers.
The human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum possesses unique gliding machinery referred to as the glideosome that powers its entry into the insect and vertebrate hosts. Several parasite proteins including Photosensitized INA-labelled protein 1 (PhIL1) have been shown to associate with glideosome machinery. Here we describe a novel PhIL1 associated protein complex that co-exists with the glideosome motor complex in the inner membrane complex of the merozoite.