In 2005, the Nigerian Federal Ministry of Health revised the treatment policy for uncomplicated malaria with the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs). This policy change discouraged the use of Sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) as the second-line treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria. However, SP is used as an intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) and seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) in children aged 3-59 months. There have been increasing reports of SP resistance especially in the non-pregnant population in Nigeria, thus, the need to continually monitor the efficacy of SP as IPTp and SMC by estimating polymorphisms in dihydropteroate synthetase (dhps) and dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) genes associated with SP resistance.
Despite major reductions in malaria burden across Myanmar, clusters of the disease continue to persist in specific subregions. This study aimed to assess the predictors of test positivity among people living in Paletwa Township of Chin State, an area of persistently high malaria burden.
Plasmodium falciparum proteasome (Pf20S) inhibitors are active against Plasmodium at multiple stages - erythrocytic stages, gametocyte stages, liver stages and gamete activation, indicating that selective Pf20S inhibitors possess the potential to be therapeutic, prophylactic and transmission-blocking antimalarials.
Activated Vγ9Vδ2 (γδ2) T lymphocytes that sense parasite-produced phosphoantigens are expanded in Plasmodium falciparum-infected patients. Although previous studies suggested that γδ2 T cells help control erythrocytic malaria, whether γδ2 T cells recognize infected red blood cells (iRBCs) was uncertain. Here we show that iRBCs stained for the phosphoantigen sensor butyrophilin 3A1 (BTN3A1). γδ2 T cells formed immune synapses and lysed iRBCs in a contact, phosphoantigen, BTN3A1 and degranulation-dependent manner, killing intracellular parasites.
Establishing robust genome engineering methods in the malarial parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, has the potential to substantially improve the efficiency with which we gain understanding of this pathogen's biology to propel treatment and elimination efforts. Methods for manipulating gene expression and engineering the P. falciparum genome have been validated. However, a significant barrier to fully leveraging these advances is the difficulty associated with assembling the extremely high AT content DNA constructs required for modifying the P. falciparum genome.
Transmission stemming from asymptomatic infections is increasingly being recognized as a threat to malaria elimination. In many regions, malaria transmission is seasonal. It is not well understood whether Plasmodium falciparum modulates its investment in transmission to coincide with seasonal vector abundance.
The World Health Organization recommends confirmatory diagnosis by microscopy or malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) in patients with suspected malaria. In recent years, mobile medical applications (MMAs), which can interpret RDT test results have entered the market. To evaluate the performance of commercially available MMAs, an evaluation was conducted by comparing RDT results read by MMAs to RDT results read by the human eye.
Characterizing the genetic diversity of malaria parasite populations in different endemic settings (from low to high) could be helpful in determining the effectiveness of malaria interventions. This study compared Plasmodium falciparum parasite population diversity from two sites with low (pre-elimination) and high transmission in Senegal and Nigeria, respectively.
Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite causing malaria, affects populations in many endemic countries threatening mainly individuals with low malaria immunity, especially children. Despite the approval of the first malaria vaccine Mosquirix™ and very promising data using cryopreserved P. falciparum sporozoites (PfSPZ), further research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms of humoral immunity for the development of next-generation vaccines and alternative malaria therapies including antibody therapy. A high prevalence of antibodies against AMA1 in immune individuals has made this antigen one of the major blood-stage vaccine candidates.
The sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum infected cells in the placenta results in placental malaria (PM). It activates the mother's immune cells and induces secretion of inflammatory cytokines, which might influence pregnancy outcomes. This study aims to investigate the cytokines (levels IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A, and INF γ) in maternal peripheral, placental, and umbilical cord blood in response to PM and the extent to which this may influence maternal haemoglobin levels and birth weight.