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Plasmodium knowlesi

Spatial distribution of Plasmodium knowlesi cases and their vectors in Johor, Malaysia: in light of human malaria elimination

November 20, 2021 - 13:11 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sandthya Pramasivan, Romano Ngui, Indra Vythilingam, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:426, 29 October 2021

Plasmodium knowlesi, a simian malaria parasite infection, increases as Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections decrease in Johor, Malaysia. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the distribution of vectors involved in knowlesi malaria transmission in Johor. This finding is vital in estimating hotspot areas for targeted control strategies.

Risk factor of plasmodium knowlesi infection in Sabah Borneo Malaysia, 2020: A population-based case-control study

September 14, 2021 - 15:07 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Chin AZ, Avoi R, Atil A, Awang Lukman K, Syed Abdul Rahim SS, Ibrahim MY, Ahmed K, Jeffree MS
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2021 Sep 10;16(9):e0257104

In the Malaysian state of Sabah, P. knowlesi notifications increased from 2% (59/2,741) of total malaria notifications in 2004 to 98% (2030/2,078) in 2017. There was a gap regarding P. knowlesi acquisition risk factors related to practice specifically in working age group. The main objective of this study was to identify the risk factors for acquiring P. knowlesi infection in Sabah among the working age group.

High incidence of Plasmodium knowlesi malaria compared to other human malaria species in several hospitals in Malaysia

September 1, 2021 - 17:35 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Lai MY, Rafieqin N, Lau YL, et al.
Reference: 
Trop Biomed. 2021 Sep 1;38(3):248-253

Through the regional control programme, Malaysia has been successfully reducing the incidence of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections. However, the incidence of zoonotic malaria Plasmodium knowlesi infection is increasing and now has been the major cause of malaria in Malaysia especially Malaysian Borneo. The emergence of knowlesi infection has threatened the malaria elimination programme which the government aims to reduce the overall malaria infections by 2020. Unlike other benign human Plasmodium spp., P. knowlesi can cause fatal infections.

Bioinformatics characterization of Plasmodium knowlesi apical membrane antigen 1 (PkAMA1) for multi-epitope vaccine design

September 1, 2021 - 17:14 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Azazi A, Haron FN, Chua KH, Lim YAL, Lee PC, Chew CH
Reference: 
Trop Biomed. 2021 Sep 1;38(3):265-275

Malaria caused by Plasmodium knowlesi species has become a public health concern, especially in Malaysia. Plasmodium knowlesi parasite which originates from the macaque species, infects human through the bite of the Anopheles mosquitoes. Research on malaria vaccine has been a continuous effort to eradicate the malaria infection, yet there is no vaccine against P. knowlesi malaria to date. Apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) is a unique surface protein of all apicomplexan parasites that plays a crucial role in parasite-host cell invasion and thus has been a long-standing malaria vaccine candidate.

NOT Open Access | The pharmacokinetic properties of artemether and lumefantrine in Malaysian patients with Plasmodium knowlesi malaria

July 28, 2021 - 14:05 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Sugiarto SR, Singh B, Page-Sharp M, Davis WA, Salman S, Hii KC, Davis TME
Reference: 
Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2021 Jul 23

To assess the pharmacokinetic properties of artemether, lumefantrine and their active metabolites in Plasmodium knowlesi malaria.

The seasonal dynamics and biting behavior of potential Anopheles vectors of Plasmodium knowlesi in Palawan, Philippines

July 14, 2021 - 10:22 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Malijan RPB, Mechan F, Ferguson HM, et al.
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2021 Jul 7;14(1):357

A small number of human cases of the zoonotic malaria Plasmodium knowlesi have been reported in Palawan Island, the Philippines. Identification of potential vector species and their bionomics is crucial for understanding human exposure risk in this setting. Here, we combined longitudinal surveillance with a trap-evaluation study to address knowledge gaps about the ecology and potential for zoonotic spillover of this macaque malaria in Palawan Island.

Environmental and spatial risk factors for the larval habitats of Plasmodium knowlesi vectors in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo

June 9, 2021 - 07:19 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Byrne I, Aure W, Manin BO, Vythilingam I, Ferguson HM, Drakeley CJ, Chua TH, Fornace KM
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2021 Jun 3;11(1):11810

Land-use changes, such as deforestation and agriculture, can influence mosquito vector populations and malaria transmission. These land-use changes have been linked to increased incidence in human cases of the zoonotic malaria Plasmodium knowlesi in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. This study investigates whether these associations are partially driven by fine-scale land-use changes creating more favourable aquatic breeding habitats for P. knowlesi anopheline vectors. Using aerial remote sensing data, we developed a sampling frame representative of all land use types within a major focus of P. knowlesi transmission.

Quantification of the misidentification of Plasmodium knowlesi as Plasmodium malariae by microscopy: an analysis of 1569 P. knowlesi cases

April 14, 2021 - 07:55 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Aongart Mahittikorn, Frederick Ramirez Masangkay, Kwuntida Uthaisar Kotepui, Giovanni De Jesus Milanez and Manas Kotepui
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:179, 9 April 2021

Plasmodium knowlesi is recognized as the fifth Plasmodium species causing malaria in humans. It is morphologically similar to the human malaria parasite Plasmodium malariae, so molecular detection should be used to clearly discriminate between these Plasmodium species. This study aimed to quantify the rate at which P. knowlesi is misidentified as P. malariae by microscopy in endemic and non-endemic areas.

New vectors that are early feeders for Plasmodium knowlesi and other simian malaria parasites in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo

April 13, 2021 - 13:37 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
De Ang JX, Yaman K, Kadir KA, Matusop A, Singh B
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2021 Apr 8;11(1):7739

Plasmodium knowlesi is the main cause of malaria in Sarawak, where studies on vectors of P. knowlesi have been conducted in only two districts. Anopheles balabacensis and An. donaldi were incriminated as vectors in Lawas and An. latens in Kapit. We studied a third location in Sarawak, Betong, where of 2169 mosquitoes collected over 36 days using human-landing catches, 169 (7.8%) were Anopheles spp. PCR and phylogenetic analyses identified P. knowlesi and/or P. cynomolgi, P. fieldi, P. inui, P. coatneyi and possibly novel Plasmodium spp. in salivary glands of An. latens and An. introlatus from the Leucosphyrus Group and in An. collessi and An. roperi from the Umbrosus Group.

Validation of SYBR green I based closed‐tube loop‐mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for diagnosis of knowlesi malaria

March 30, 2021 - 13:58 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Meng Yee Lai, Choo Huck Ooi and Yee Ling Lau
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:166, 25 March 2021

As an alternative to PCR methods, LAMP is increasingly being used in the field of molecular diagnostics. Under isothermal conditions at 65 °C, the entire procedure takes approximately 30 min to complete. In this study, we establish a sensitive and visualized LAMP method in a closed-tube system for the detection of Plasmodium knowlesi.

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