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Plasmodium knowlesi

New vectors in northern Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo, for the zoonotic malaria parasite, Plasmodium knowlesi

September 16, 2020 - 13:12 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ang JXD, Kadir KA, Mohamad DSA, Matusop A, Divis PCS, Yaman K, Singh B
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2020 Sep 15;13(1):472

Plasmodium knowlesi is a significant cause of human malaria in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. Only one study has been previously undertaken in Sarawak to identify vectors of P. knowlesi, where Anopheles latens was incriminated as the vector in Kapit, central Sarawak. A study was therefore undertaken to identify malaria vectors in a different location in Sarawak.

Human exposure to zoonotic malaria vectors in village, farm and forest habitats in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo

September 8, 2020 - 11:58 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Brown R, Chua TH, Fornace K, Drakeley C, Vythilingam I, Ferguson HM
Reference: 
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2020 Sep 4;14(9):e0008617

The zoonotic malaria parasite, Plasmodium knowlesi, is now a substantial public health problem in Malaysian Borneo. Current understanding of P. knowlesi vector bionomics and ecology in Sabah comes from a few studies near the epicentre of human cases in one district, Kudat. These have incriminated Anopheles balabacensis as the primary vector, and suggest that human exposure to vector biting is peri-domestic as well as in forest environments.

Population Genomic Structure and Recent Evolution of Plasmodium knowlesi, Peninsular Malaysia

August 4, 2020 - 15:13 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Hocking SE, Divis PCS, Kadir KA, Singh B, Conway DJ
Reference: 
Emerg Infect Dis. 2020 Aug; 26(8):1749-1758

Most malaria in Malaysia is caused by Plasmodium knowlesi parasites through zoonotic infection from macaque reservoir hosts. We obtained genome sequences from 28 clinical infections in Peninsular Malaysia to clarify the emerging parasite population structure and test for evidence of recent adaptation. The parasites all belonged to a major genetic population of P. knowlesi (cluster 3) with high genomewide divergence from populations occurring in Borneo (clusters 1 and 2).

Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) for the detection of Plasmodium knowlesi and Plasmodium vivax

July 14, 2020 - 09:19 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Punitha Mahendran, Jonathan Wee Kent Liew, Amirah Amir, Xiao-Teng Ching and Yee-Ling Lau
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:241, 10 July 2020

Plasmodium knowlesi and Plasmodium vivax are the predominant Plasmodium species that cause malaria in Malaysia and play a role in asymptomatic malaria disease transmission in Malaysia. The diagnostic tools available to diagnose malaria, such as microscopy and rapid diagnostic test (RDT), are less sensitive at detecting lower parasite density. Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR), which has been shown to have higher sensitivity at diagnosing malaria, allows direct quantification without the need for a standard curve. The aim of this study is to develop and use a duplex ddPCR assay for the detection of P. knowlesi and P. vivax, and compare this method to nested PCR and qPCR.

Efficient Surveillance of Plasmodium knowlesi Genetic Subpopulations, Malaysian Borneo, 2000-2018

July 8, 2020 - 15:23 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Divis PCS, Hu TH, Kadir KA, Mohammad DSA, Hii KC, Daneshvar C, Conway DJ, Singh B
Reference: 
Emerg Infect Dis. 2020 Jul;26(7):1392-1398

Population genetic analysis revealed that Plasmodium knowlesi infections in Malaysian Borneo are caused by 2 divergent parasites associated with long-tailed (cluster 1) and pig-tailed (cluster 2) macaques. Because the transmission ecology is likely to differ for each macaque species, we developed a simple genotyping PCR to efficiently distinguish between and survey the 2 parasite subpopulations.

Cross-species reactivity of antibodies against Plasmodium vivax blood-stage antigens to Plasmodium knowlesi

June 23, 2020 - 15:36 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Muh F, Kim N, Han ET, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 14(6): e0008323

Malaria is caused by multiple different species of protozoan parasites, and interventions in the pre-elimination phase can lead to drastic changes in the proportion of each species causing malaria. In endemic areas, cross-reactivity may play an important role in the protection and blocking transmission. Thus, successful control of one species could lead to an increase in other parasite species.

NOT Open Access | Detection of Plasmodium knowlesi using recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) combined with SYBR Green I

May 19, 2020 - 15:40 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Lai MY, Lau YL
Reference: 
Acta Tropica Volume 208, August 2020, 105511

In this study, recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) combined with SYBR Green I was developed for the detection of Plasmodium knowlesi. Positive samples were indicated with a green color while negative samples were orange.

Malaria cross-sectional surveys identified asymptomatic infections of Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, and Plasmodium knowlesi in Surat Thani, a southern province of Thailand

May 19, 2020 - 14:35 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Shimizu S, Chotirat S, Nguitragool W, et al.
Reference: 
Int J Infect Dis. 2020 May 10:S1201-9712(20)30329-5

Malaria cross-sectional surveys are rarely conducted in very low transmission settings. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of Plasmodium infection in a near-elimination setting in southern Thailand.

NOT Open Access | Two Genetically Distinct Plasmodium knowlesi Duffy Binding Protein Alpha Region II (PkDBPαII) Haplotypes Demonstrate Higher Binding Level to Fy(a+b+) Erythrocytes than Fy(a+b-) Erythrocytes

March 23, 2020 - 14:12 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Liew CC, Lau YL, Fong MY, Cheong FW
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Mar 16

Invasion of human erythrocytes by merozoites of Plasmodium knowlesi involves interaction between the P. knowlesi Duffy binding protein alpha region II (PkDBPαII) and Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARCs) on the erythrocytes. Information is scarce on the binding level of PkDBPαII to different Duffy antigens, Fya and Fyb.

NOT Open Access | Novel endochin-like quinolones exhibit potent in vitro activity against Plasmodium knowlesi but do not synergise with proguanil

March 2, 2020 - 15:06 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
van Schalkwyk DA, Riscoe MK, Pou S, Winter RW, Nilsen A, Duffey M, Moon RW, Sutherland CJ
Reference: 
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2020 Feb 24. pii: AAC.02549-19

Quinolones, such as the antimalarial atovaquone, are inhibitors of the malarial mitochondrial cytochrome bc1 complex, a target critical to the survival of both liver and blood stage parasites, making these drugs useful as both prophylaxis and treatment. Recently, several derivatives of endochin have been optimised to produce novel quinolones that are active in vitro and in animal models.

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