The sickle‐cell trait phenotype is associated with protection from malaria. Multiple molecular mechanisms have been proposed to explain this protection, but the role of the host immune system has been poorly investigated. We hypothesised that cellular immunity to malaria may develop differently in sickle‐cell trait children (HbAS) and children with normal haemoglobin (HbAA) repeatedly exposed to Plasmodium falciparum (Pf).
Owing to the large amount of host DNA in clinical samples, generation of high-quality Plasmodium falciparum whole genome sequencing (WGS) data requires enrichment for parasite DNA. Enrichment is often achieved by leukocyte depletion of infected blood prior to storage. However, leukocyte depletion is difficult in low-resource settings and limits analysis to prospectively-collected samples. As a result, approaches such as selective whole genome amplification (sWGA) are being used to enrich for parasite DNA. However, sWGA has had limited success in generating reliable sequencing data from low parasitaemia samples. In this study, enzymatic digestion with MspJI prior to sWGA and whole genome sequencing was evaluated to determine whether this approach improved genome coverage compared to sWGA alone. The potential of sWGA to cause amplification bias in polyclonal infections was also examined.
The study comprised of 1629 (m = 896; f = 733) children up to 5 years presenting with clinical malaria as cases and 445 (m = 257; f = 188) apparently healthy children as controls. The results indicated that there was a significant positive correlation between the monocytes to lymphocytes ratio and the presence of parasites (p = 0.04) and the level of parasitaemia within the age group of 0–3 years (p = 0.02) and 4–5 years (p = 0.03).
These results confirm the antimalarial potential of artefenomel for use in a single-exposure combination therapy. The observations from this study support and will assist further clinical development of artefenomel.
This study investigated the prevalence and risk factors for P. falciparum infection and malaria among pregnant women reporting for first antenatal care (ANC) clinic visit in the mount Cameroon area.
Here, a high-throughput, three-parameter (tri-colour) flow cytometry technique based on mitotracker red dye, the nucleic acid dye coriphosphine O (CPO) and the leucocyte marker CD45 for enumerating live parasites in bioassays was developed.
The aims of this study were: i) to identify such individual, household, community, and climatic/environmental risk factors for malaria in children under five years of age, and ii) to produce a parasitaemia risk map of Burkina Faso.
The described procedure allows obtaining a large scale synchronized parasite culture at a high parasitaemia with less manipulations than other methods previously described.
Among the 2,019 patients surveyed, 34% had confirmed malaria defined as presence of fever and parasitaemia on a reference blood smear.
The study provides evidence for the proposed role of β2-adrenoreceptor mediated molecular mechanisms in etiology of malaria, as well as asthma disease and drug response, for further clinical and therapeutic application studies.