Atovaquone and quinine significantly inhibit BCRP- and P-gp- mediated transport at concentrations within the clinically relevant prophylactic and therapeutic range.
A systematic assessment of the extent of substandard case management practices of malaria in pregnancy is required, as well as quality improvement interventions that reach all providers administering antimalarial drugs in the community.
Even with this caveat, a change of policy from quinine to AL for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria during the whole pregnancy period could be already envisaged.
Quinine and other cinchona-derived alkaloids, although recently supplanted by the artemisinins (ARTs), continue to be important for treatment of severe malaria.
In Ethiopian traditional medicine, the leaves of Otostegia integrifolia Benth. are used for the treatment of several diseases including malaria.
The study highlights the enormous potential for improving appropriate prescription of anti-malarials in pharmacies and preventing unnecessary use of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT).
The crude methanol extracts of leaf, stem bark, root bark and stem bark fractions of Trichilia megalantha (Meliaceae) were screened for in vivo antimalarial activities in mice against a chloroquine resistant Plasmodium berghei berghei ANKA clone using the 4-day suppressive test procedure.
In 2010 there were more than 200 million cases of malaria, and at least 655,000 deaths1.
In the absence of definite marker for artemisinin (ART) resistance, molecular monitoring of its partner drug sulfadoxine pyrimethamine (SP) in artemisinin based combination therapy (ACTs) together with chloroquine (CQ) for which ART is negatively correlated, may predict the effectiveness of ACT.
Artemisinins are proposed to act in the malaria parasite cytosol by oxidizing dihydroflavin cofactors of redox-active flavoenzymes, and under aerobic conditions by inducing their autoxidation.