The intrinsic fluorescence properties of two related pyrido[1,2-a]benzimidazole antimalarial compounds suitable for the cellular imaging of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum without the need to attach extrinsic fluorophores are described. Although these compounds are structurally related, they have been shown by confocal microscopy to not only accumulate selectively within P. falciparum but to also accumulate differently in the organelles investigated.
Half of the world's population lives in countries at risk of malaria infection, which results in approximately 450,000 deaths annually. Malaria parasites infect erythrocytes in a coordinated manner, with cycle durations in multiples of 24 hours, which reflects a behavior consistent with the host's circadian cycle. Interference in cycle coordination can help the immune system to naturally fight infection.
To better understand anti-malaria protective immune responses, we examined the cellular mechanisms that govern protective immunity in a murine Plasmodium yoelii 17X NL (PyNL) re-infection model. Initially, we confirmed that immune B cells generated during a primary PyNL infection were largely responsible for protection from a second PyNL infection.
Antimalarial candidates possessing novel mechanisms of action are needed to control drug resistant Plasmodium falciparum. We were drawn to Malaria Box compound 1 (MMV665831) by virtue of its excellent in vitro potency, and twelve analogs were prepared to probe its structure–activity relationship. Modulation of the diethyl amino group was fruitful, producing compound 25, which was twice as potent as 1 against cultured parasites.
Heparin is a promising antimalarial drug due to its activity in inhibiting Plasmodium invasion of red blood cells and to the lack of resistance evolution by the parasite against it, but its potent anticoagulant activity is preventing the advance of heparin along the clinical pipeline. We have determined, in in vitro Plasmodium falciparum cultures, the antimalarial activity of heparin-derived structures of different origins and sizes, to obtain formulations having a good balance of in vitro safety (neither cytotoxic nor hemolytic), low anticoagulant activity (≤23 IU/mL according to activated partial thromboplastin time assays), and not too low antimalarial activity (IC50 at least around 100 µg/mL).
Malaria represents one of the most common infectious diseases which becoming an impellent public health problem worldwide. Antimalarial classical medications include quinine-based drugs, like chloroquine, and artesunate, a derivative of artemisinin, a molecule found in the plant Artemisia annua. Such therapeutics are very effective but show heavy side effects like drug resistance. In this study, "green" silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been prepared from two Artemisia species (A. abrotanum and A. arborescens), traditionally used in folk medicine as a remedy for different conditions, and their potential antimalarial efficacy have been assessed.
Malaria continues to be a global health threat, affecting approximately 219 million people in 2018 alone. The recurrent development of resistance to existing antimalarials means that the design of new drug candidates must be carefully considered.
Malaria is counted amongst the deadly disease caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Recently, plasmepsin-II enzyme has gained much importance as an attractive drug target for the exploration of antimalarials. Therefore, the common feature pharmacophore models were generated from the crystallized complexes of the plasmepsin-II proteome. These models were subjected to a series of validation procedures, i.e. test set and Güner Henry studies to enlist the representative models. The selected representative hypotheses incorporating the most essential chemical features (common ZHHA) were screened against the natural product database to retrieve the potential candidates.
The protein kinase PfCLK3 plays a critical role in the regulation of malarial parasite RNA splicing and is essential for the survival of blood stage Plasmodium falciparum. We recently validated PfCLK3 as a drug target in malaria that offers prophylactic, transmission blocking, and curative potential. Herein, we describe the synthesis of our initial hit TCMDC-135051 (1) and efforts to establish a structure-activity relationship with a 7-azaindole-based series.
Progress in controlling malaria has slowed in recent years and the annual death toll remains above 400 000 globally, with most deaths caused by Plasmodium falciparum.