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Methods to estimate baseline creatinine and define acute kidney injury in lean Ugandan children with severe malaria: a prospective cohort study

October 1, 2020 - 15:22 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Batte A, Starr MC, Schwaderer AL, Opoka RO, Namazzi R, Phelps Nishiguchi ES, Ssenkusu JM, John CC, Conroy AL
Reference: 
BMC Nephrol. 2020 Sep 29;21(1):417

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is increasingly recognized as a consequential clinical complication in children with severe malaria. However, approaches to estimate baseline creatinine (bSCr) are not standardized in this unique patient population. Prior to wide-spread utilization, bSCr estimation methods need to be evaluated in many populations, particularly in children from low-income countries.

Estimating Annual Fluctuations in Malaria Transmission Intensity and in the Use of Malaria Control Interventions in Five Sub-Saharan African Countries

September 23, 2020 - 09:34 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Rts S Epidemiology Epi-Mal-Study Group, Adeniji E, Asante KP, Wéry S, et al.
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Sep 21

RTS,S/AS01E malaria vaccine safety, effectiveness, and impact will be assessed in pre- and post-vaccine introduction studies, comparing the occurrence of malaria cases and adverse events in vaccinated versus unvaccinated children. Because those comparisons may be confounded by potential year-to-year fluctuations in malaria transmission intensity and malaria control intervention usage, the latter should be carefully monitored to adequately adjust the analyses.

Clinical relevance of low-density Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia in untreated febrile children: A cohort study

September 23, 2020 - 08:53 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Hartley MA, Hofmann N, D'Acremont V, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS Med. 2020 Sep 21;17(9):e1003318

Low-density (LD) Plasmodium infections are missed by standard malaria rapid diagnostic tests (standard mRDT) when the blood antigen concentration is below the detection threshold. The clinical impact of these LD infections is unknown. This study investigates the clinical presentation and outcome of untreated febrile children with LD infections attending primary care facilities in a moderately endemic area of Tanzania.

Genetic diversity and complexity of Plasmodium falciparum infections in the microenvironment among siblings of the same household in North-Central Nigeria

September 17, 2020 - 13:50 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Segun Isaac Oyedeji, Peter Usman Bassi, Samuel Adeola Oyedeji, Olusola Ojurongbe and Henrietta Oluwatoyin Awobode
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:338, 16 September 2020

Plasmodium falciparum parasites are known to exhibit extensive genetic diversity in areas of high transmission intensity and infected individuals in such communities often harbour several complex mixtures of parasite clones with different genetic characteristics. However, in the micro-environment, the extent of genetic diversity of P. falciparum parasites remain largely unknown. In this study therefore, the complexity of P. falciparum infections in households was investigated among symptomatic siblings, living under the same roof in north-central Nigeria.

Community Voice Matters: Lessons from Field Studies of Malaria

September 15, 2020 - 15:06 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Aju-Ameh C
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Sep;103(3):945-946

I have always been curious about arthropods and the dis-eases they transmit to humans. Growing up in a malaria-endemic area (Benue, Nigeria) exposed my family members and me to the revulsions of malaria disease. Children were theworst hit.

Quality of clinical management of children diagnosed with malaria: A cross-sectional assessment in 9 sub-Saharan African countries between 2007-2018

September 15, 2020 - 14:40 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Cohen JL, Leslie HH, Saran I, Fink G
Reference: 
PLoS Med. 2020 Sep 14;17(9):e1003254

Appropriate clinical management of malaria in children is critical for preventing progression to severe disease and for reducing the continued high burden of malaria mortality. This study aimed to assess the quality of care provided to children under 5 diagnosed with malaria across 9 sub-Saharan African countries.

The clinical spectrum of severe childhood malaria in Eastern Uganda

September 5, 2020 - 15:01 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Peter Olupot-Olupot, Charles Engoru, Thomas N. Williams, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:322, 3 September 2020

Few recent descriptions of severe childhood malaria have been published from high-transmission regions. In the current study, the clinical epidemiology of severe malaria in Mbale, Eastern Uganda, is described, where the entomological inoculation rate exceeds 100 infective bites per year.

Evaluating the predictive performance of malaria antibodies and FCGR3B gene polymorphisms on Plasmodium falciparum infection outcome: a prospective cohort study

September 1, 2020 - 09:50 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Duah Dwomoh, Bright Adu, Daniel Dodoo, Michael Theisen, Samuel Iddi and Thomas A. Gerds
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:307, 27 August 2020

Malaria antigen-specific antibodies and polymorphisms in host receptors involved in antibody functionality have been associated with different outcomes of Plasmodium falciparum infections. Thus, to identify key prospective malaria antigens for vaccine development, there is the need to evaluate the associations between malaria antibodies and antibody dependent host factors with more rigorous statistical methods. In this study, different statistical models were used to evaluate the predictive performance of malaria-specific antibodies and host gene polymorphisms on P. falciparum infection in a longitudinal cohort study involving Ghanaian children.

How Does Blood-Retinal Barrier Breakdown Relate to Death and Disability in Pediatric Cerebral Malaria

August 27, 2020 - 08:21 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
MacCormick IJC, Barrera V, Beare NAV, Czanner G, Potchen M, Kampondeni S, Heyderman RS, Craig AG, Molyneux ME, Mallewa M, White VA, Milner D, Hiscott P, Taylor TE, Seydel KB, Harding SP
Reference: 
J Infect Dis. 2020 Aug 26:jiaa541

In cerebral malaria, the retina can be used to understand disease pathogenesis. The mechanisms linking sequestration, brain swelling and death remain poorly understood. We hypothesized that retinal vascular leakage would be associated with brain swelling.

Evaluation of seasonal malaria chemoprevention in two areas of intense seasonal malaria transmission: Secondary analysis of a household-randomised, placebo-controlled trial in Houndé District, Burkina Faso and Bougouni District, Mali

August 25, 2020 - 07:46 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Cairns ME, Sagara I, Dicko A, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS Med. 2020 Aug 21;17(8):e1003214

Seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) is now widely deployed in the Sahel, including several countries that are major contributors to the global burden of malaria. Consequently, it is important to understand whether SMC continues to provide a high level of protection and how SMC might be improved. SMC was evaluated using data from a large, household-randomised trial in Houndé, Burkina Faso and Bougouni, Mali.

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