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NOT Open Access | RTS,S/AS01(E) malaria vaccine induces IgA responses against CSP and vaccine-unrelated antigens in African children in the phase 3 trial

December 30, 2020 - 12:56 -- NOT Open Access
Suau R, Vidal M, Dobaño C, et al.
Vaccine. 2020 Dec 24:S0264-410X(20)31606-6

The evaluation of immune responses to RTS,S/AS01 has traditionally focused on immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies that are only moderately associated with protection. The role of other antibody isotypes that could also contribute to vaccine efficacy remains unclear. Here we investigated whether RTS,S/AS01E elicits antigen-specific serum IgA antibodies to the vaccine and other malaria antigens, and we explored their association with protection.

Acquisition and decay of IgM and IgG responses to merozoite antigens after Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Ghanaian children

December 23, 2020 - 09:50 -- Open Access
Walker MR, Knudsen AS, Partey FD, Bassi MR, Frank AM, Castberg FC, Sarbah EW, Ofori MF, Hviid L, Barfod L
PLoS One. 2020 Dec 17;15(12):e0243943

Developing a vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum malaria has been challenging, primarily due to high levels of antigen polymorphism and a complex parasite lifecycle. Immunization with the P. falciparum merozoite antigens PfMSRP5, PfSERA9, PfRAMA, PfCyRPA and PfRH5 has been shown to give rise to growth inhibitory and synergistic antisera. Therefore, these five merozoite proteins are considered to be promising candidates for a second-generation multivalent malaria vaccine. Nevertheless, little is known about IgG and IgM responses to these antigens in populations that are naturally exposed to P. falciparum. In this study, serum samples from clinically immune adults and malaria exposed children from Ghana were studied to compare levels of IgG and IgM specific for PfMSRP5, PfSERA9, PfRAMA, PfCyRPA and PfRH5.

Disparities in Risks of Malaria Associated with Climatic Variability among Women, Children and Elderly in the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh

December 23, 2020 - 09:12 -- Open Access
Emeto TI, Adegboye OA, Rumi RA, Khan MI, Adegboye M, Khan WA, Rahman M, Streatfield PK, Rahman KM
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Dec 17;17(24):E9469

Malaria occurrence in the Chittagong Hill Tracts in Bangladesh varies by season and year, but this pattern is not well characterized. The role of environmental conditions on the occurrence of this vector-borne parasitic disease in the region is not fully understood. We extracted information on malaria patients recorded in the Upazila (sub-district) Health Complex patient registers of Rajasthali in Rangamati district of Bangladesh from February 2000 to November 2009. Weather data for the study area and period were obtained from the Bangladesh Meteorological Department.

Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging Reveals Different Courses of Disease in Pediatric and Adult Cerebral Malaria

December 16, 2020 - 12:16 -- Open Access
Sahu PK, Hoffmann A, Wassmer SC, et al.
Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Dec 16:ciaa1647

Cerebral malaria is a common presentation of severe Plasmodium falciparum infection and remains an important cause of death in the tropics. Key aspects of its pathogenesis are still incompletely understood, but severe brain swelling identified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was associated with a fatal outcome in African children. In contrast, neuroimaging investigations failed to identify cerebral features associated with fatality in Asian adults.

NOT Open Access | Adults Are Not Big Children: What Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings Tell Us About Differences in Pediatric and Adult Cerebral Malaria

December 16, 2020 - 10:51 -- NOT Open Access
John CC
Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Dec 16:ciaa1659

Historically, research studies of infections in children have lagged behind those in adults. There are many reasons for this, including the smaller population of children, resulting in smaller numbers for research studies; a reluctance to subject children to the procedures required and the potential harms from new interventions; and a lack of financial incentive with the smaller market for drugs for pediatric conditions.

NOT Open Access | Diarrhea in Children with Plasmodium falciparum Malaria: A Case-Control Study on the Prevalence and Response to Antimalarial Treatment

December 16, 2020 - 10:10 -- NOT Open Access
Lo Vecchio A, Basile FW, Bruzzese D, Di Dato F, Aol P, Omona V, Smarrazzo A, Guarino A
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Dec 14

The role of Plasmodium in the etiology of acute diarrhea in developing countries remains controversial, and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are inconsistently reported in malaria. In this observational case-control study, we investigated the prevalence and risk factors for GI symptoms in hospitalized malarious children aged 1 month to 5 years in northern Uganda. Children with a diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria were enrolled as cases, and feverish children in whom malaria was excluded were enrolled as controls.

Management of uncomplicated malaria among children under five years at public and private sector facilities in Mali

December 15, 2020 - 16:01 -- Open Access
Fomba S, Koné D, Doumbia B, Diallo D, Druetz T, Florey L, Eisele TP, Eckert E, Mihigo J, Ashton RA
BMC Public Health. 2020 Dec 9;20(1):1888

Prompt and effective malaria diagnosis and treatment is a cornerstone of malaria control. Case management guidelines recommend confirmatory testing of suspected malaria cases, then prescription of specific drugs for uncomplicated malaria and for severe malaria. This study aims to describe case management practices for children aged 1–59 months seeking treatment with current or recent fever from public and private, rural and urban health providers in Mali.

Paediatric formulations of artemisinin-based combination therapies for treating uncomplicated malaria in children

December 9, 2020 - 07:48 -- Open Access
Bélard S, Ramharter M, Kurth F
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Dec 8;12:CD009568

In endemic malarial areas, young children have high levels of malaria morbidity and mortality. The World Health Organization recommends oral artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for treating uncomplicated malaria. Paediatric formulations of ACT have been developed to make it easier to treat children.

Classification of invasive bloodstream infections and Plasmodium falciparum malaria using autoantibodies as biomarkers

December 8, 2020 - 11:27 -- Open Access
Krumkamp R, Struck NS, Lorenz E, Zimmermann M, Boahen KG, Sarpong N, Owusu-Dabo E, Pak GD, Jeon HJ, Marks F, Jacobs T, May J, Eibach D
Sci Rep. 2020 Dec 3;10(1):21168

A better understanding of disease-specific biomarker profiles during acute infections could guide the development of innovative diagnostic methods to differentiate between malaria and alternative causes of fever. We investigated autoantibody (AAb) profiles in febrile children (≤ 5 years) admitted to a hospital in rural Ghana.

Seasonal malaria chemoprevention: closing the know-do gap

December 8, 2020 - 10:02 -- Open Access
Ashley EA, Yeka A
Lancet. 2020 Dec 5;396(10265):1778-1779

Malaria continues to impact on young lives, causing sickness, impaired school performance, disability, and preventable death, with little progress made to reduce the overall burden since 2014. In 2019, 274 000, or 67%, of all malaria deaths were in children younger than 5 years in sub-Saharan Africa. WHO has recommended seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) for malaria control in areas across the Sahel sub-region since 2012.


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