In the phase III RTS,S /AS01 trial, significant heterogeneity in efficacy of the vaccine across study sites was seen. Question on whether variations in socio - economic status (SES) of participant contributed to the heterogeinity of the vaccine efficacy (VE) remains unknown.
Integrated community case management (iCCM) of malaria complements and extends the reach of public health services to improve access to timely diagnosis and treatment of malaria. Such community-based programmes rely on standardised test-and-treat algorithms implemented by community health workers using malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). However, due to a changing epidemiology of fever causes, positive RDT results might not correctly reflect malaria-disease in all malaria-endemic settings in Africa. This study modelled diagnostic predictive values for all malaria-endemic African regions as an indicator of the programmatic usefulness of RDTs in iCCM campaigns on malaria.
Previous studies have found mixed evidence for an effect of malaria on stunting, but have suffered from concerns about confounding and/or power. Currently, an effect of malaria on stunting is not included in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) model.
The World Health Organization recommends regularly assessing the efficacy of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), which is a critical tool in the fight against malaria. This study evaluated the efficacy of two artemisinin-based combinations recommended to treat uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Burkina Faso in three sites: Niangoloko, Nanoro, and Gourcy.
Treating children in sub-Saharan Africa’s malaria-endemic areas with a monthly preventive drug regimen during the rainy season reduced children’s deaths from the disease by up to 57%, a study found.
In 2005, the Nigerian Federal Ministry of Health revised the treatment policy for uncomplicated malaria with the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs). This policy change discouraged the use of Sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) as the second-line treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria. However, SP is used as an intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) and seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) in children aged 3-59 months. There have been increasing reports of SP resistance especially in the non-pregnant population in Nigeria, thus, the need to continually monitor the efficacy of SP as IPTp and SMC by estimating polymorphisms in dihydropteroate synthetase (dhps) and dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) genes associated with SP resistance.
More than 200 million people live in areas of highly seasonal malaria transmission where Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention (SMC) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and amodiaquine (AQ) was recommended in 2012 by WHO. This strategy is now implemented widely and protected more than 19 million children in 2018. It was previously reported that exposure to SMC reduced antibody levels to AMA1, MSP-142 and CSP, but the duration of exposure to SMC up to three 3 years, had no effect on antibody levels to MSP-142 and CSP.
Elevated angiopoietin-2 (Angpt-2) concentrations are associated with worse overall neurocognitive function in severe malaria survivors, but the specific domains affected have not been elucidated.
The Plasmodium falciparum protein VAR2CSA is a critical mediator of placental malaria, and VAR2CSA antibodies (IgGs) are important to protect pregnant women. Although infrequently detected outside pregnancy, VAR2CSA IgGs were reported in men and children from Colombia and Brazil and in select African populations.
The emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum parasites resistant to artemisinin derivatives and their partners in southeastern Asia threatens malaria control and elimination efforts, and heightens the need for an alternative therapy. We have explored the distribution of P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (Pfcrt) and multidrug-resistant gene 1 (Pfmdr-1) haplotypes 10 years following adoption of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) in a bid to investigate the possible re-emergence of Chloroquine (CQ)-sensitive parasites in Nigeria, and investigated the effect of these P. falciparum haplotypes on treatment outcomes of patients treated with ACTs. A total of 271 children aged < 5 years with uncomplicated falciparum malaria were included in this study. Polymorphisms on codons 72-76 of the Pfcrt gene and codon 86 and 184 of Pfmdr-1 were determined using the high resolution melting (HRM) assay.