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Potential effect modification of RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine efficacy by household socio-economic status

February 2, 2021 - 16:26 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Gyaase S, Asante KP, Adeniji E, Boahen O, Cairns M, Owusu-Agyei S
Reference: 
BMC Public Health. 2021 Jan 28;21(1):240

In the phase III RTS,S /AS01 trial, significant heterogeneity in efficacy of the vaccine across study sites was seen. Question on whether variations in socio - economic status (SES) of participant contributed to the heterogeinity of the vaccine efficacy (VE) remains unknown.

Predictive performance of rapid diagnostic tests for falciparum malaria and its modelled impact on integrated community case management of malaria in sub-Saharan African febrile children

January 31, 2021 - 15:38 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Mischlinger J, Dudek V, Ramharter M
Reference: 
Clin Infect Dis. 2021 Jan 28:ciaa1942

Integrated community case management (iCCM) of malaria complements and extends the reach of public health services to improve access to timely diagnosis and treatment of malaria. Such community-based programmes rely on standardised test-and-treat algorithms implemented by community health workers using malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). However, due to a changing epidemiology of fever causes, positive RDT results might not correctly reflect malaria-disease in all malaria-endemic settings in Africa. This study modelled diagnostic predictive values for all malaria-endemic African regions as an indicator of the programmatic usefulness of RDTs in iCCM campaigns on malaria.

NOT Open Access | The effect of malaria on stunting: an instrumental variables approach

January 27, 2021 - 10:11 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Ateba FF, Doumbia S, Ter Kuile FO, Terlouw DJ, Lefebvre G, Kariuki S, Small DS
Reference: 
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Jan 25:traa183

Previous studies have found mixed evidence for an effect of malaria on stunting, but have suffered from concerns about confounding and/or power. Currently, an effect of malaria on stunting is not included in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) model.

Anti-malarial efficacy and resistance monitoring of artemether-lumefantrine and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine shows inadequate efficacy in children in Burkina Faso, 2017–2018

January 20, 2021 - 08:38 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Adama Gansané, Leah F. Moriarty, Halidou Tinto, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:48, 19 January 2021

The World Health Organization recommends regularly assessing the efficacy of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), which is a critical tool in the fight against malaria. This study evaluated the efficacy of two artemisinin-based combinations recommended to treat uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Burkina Faso in three sites: Niangoloko, Nanoro, and Gourcy.

Monthly Malaria Prophylaxis Cuts Child Deaths in Sub-Saharan Africa

January 20, 2021 - 06:58 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kuehn BM
Reference: 
JAMA. 2021 Jan 19;325(3):213

Treating children in sub-Saharan Africa’s malaria-endemic areas with a monthly preventive drug regimen during the rainy season reduced children’s deaths from the disease by up to 57%, a study found.

Polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum dihydropteroate synthetase and dihydrofolate reductase genes in Nigerian children with uncomplicated malaria using high-resolution melting technique

January 16, 2021 - 09:38 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kayode AT, Ajogbasile FV, Akano K, Uwanibe JN, Oluniyi PE, Eromon PJ, Folarin OA, Sowunmi A, Wirth DF, Happi CT
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2021 Jan 12;11(1):471

In 2005, the Nigerian Federal Ministry of Health revised the treatment policy for uncomplicated malaria with the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs). This policy change discouraged the use of Sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) as the second-line treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria. However, SP is used as an intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) and seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) in children aged 3-59 months. There have been increasing reports of SP resistance especially in the non-pregnant population in Nigeria, thus, the need to continually monitor the efficacy of SP as IPTp and SMC by estimating polymorphisms in dihydropteroate synthetase (dhps) and dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) genes associated with SP resistance.

Effect of 4 years of seasonal malaria chemoprevention on the acquisition of antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum antigens in Ouelessebougou, Mali

January 13, 2021 - 08:20 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Almahamoudou Mahamar, Djibrilla Issiaka, Alassane Dicko, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:23, 7 January 2021

More than 200 million people live in areas of highly seasonal malaria transmission where Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention (SMC) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and amodiaquine (AQ) was recommended in 2012 by WHO. This strategy is now implemented widely and protected more than 19 million children in 2018. It was previously reported that exposure to SMC reduced antibody levels to AMA1, MSP-142 and CSP, but the duration of exposure to SMC up to three 3 years, had no effect on antibody levels to MSP-142 and CSP.

Plasma angiopoietin-2 is associated with age-related deficits in cognitive sub-scales in Ugandan children following severe malaria

January 9, 2021 - 13:14 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Benson J. Ouma, Paul Bangirana, John M. Ssenkusu, Dibyadyuti Datta, Robert O. Opoka, Richard Idro, Kevin C. Kain, Chandy C. John and Andrea L. Conroy
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:17, 6 January 2021

Elevated angiopoietin-2 (Angpt-2) concentrations are associated with worse overall neurocognitive function in severe malaria survivors, but the specific domains affected have not been elucidated.

VAR2CSA Antibodies in Non-Pregnant Populations

January 7, 2021 - 09:08 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Gnidehou S, Yanow SK
Reference: 
Trends Parasitol. 2021 Jan;37(1):65-76

The Plasmodium falciparum protein VAR2CSA is a critical mediator of placental malaria, and VAR2CSA antibodies (IgGs) are important to protect pregnant women. Although infrequently detected outside pregnancy, VAR2CSA IgGs were reported in men and children from Colombia and Brazil and in select African populations.

Polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (Pfcrt) and multidrug-resistant gene 1 (Pfmdr-1) in Nigerian children 10 years post-adoption of artemisinin-based combination treatments

December 30, 2020 - 13:52 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kayode AT, Akano K, Happi CT, et al.
Reference: 
Int J Parasitol. 2020 Dec 23:S0020-7519(20)30318-0

The emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum parasites resistant to artemisinin derivatives and their partners in southeastern Asia threatens malaria control and elimination efforts, and heightens the need for an alternative therapy. We have explored the distribution of P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (Pfcrt) and multidrug-resistant gene 1 (Pfmdr-1) haplotypes 10 years following adoption of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) in a bid to investigate the possible re-emergence of Chloroquine (CQ)-sensitive parasites in Nigeria, and investigated the effect of these P. falciparum haplotypes on treatment outcomes of patients treated with ACTs. A total of 271 children aged < 5 years with uncomplicated falciparum malaria were included in this study. Polymorphisms on codons 72-76 of the Pfcrt gene and codon 86 and 184 of Pfmdr-1 were determined using the high resolution melting (HRM) assay.

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