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NOT Open Access | Malaria is a cause of iron deficiency in African children

February 25, 2021 - 08:29 -- NOT Open Access
Muriuki JM, Mentzer AJ, Atkinson SH, et al.
Nat Med. 2021 Feb 22

Malaria and iron deficiency (ID) are common and interrelated public health problems in African children. Observational data suggest that interrupting malaria transmission reduces the prevalence of ID1. To test the hypothesis that malaria might cause ID, we used sickle cell trait (HbAS, rs334 ), a genetic variant that confers specific protection against malaria2, as an instrumental variable in Mendelian randomization analyses.

Malaria and helminth co-infections in children living in endemic countries: A systematic review with meta-analysis

February 23, 2021 - 14:05 -- Open Access
Afolabi MO, Ale BM, Dabira ED, Agbla SC, Bustinduy AL, Ndiaye JLA, Greenwood B
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2021 Feb 18;15(2):e0009138

Current knowledge on the burden of, and interactions between malaria and helminth co-infections, as well as the impact of the dual infections on anaemia, remains inconclusive. We have conducted a systematic review with meta-analysis to update current knowledge as a first step towards developing and deploying coordinated approaches to the control and, ultimately, elimination of malaria-helminth co-infections among children living in endemic countries.

Cerebrospinal fluid pterins, pterin-dependent neurotransmitters, and mortality in pediatric cerebral malaria

February 23, 2021 - 13:03 -- Open Access
Rubach MP, Mukemba JP, Granger DL, et al.
J Infect Dis. 2021 Feb 22:jiab086

Cerebral malaria (CM) pathogenesis remains incompletely understood. Having shown low systemic levels of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), an enzymatic cofactor for neurotransmitter synthesis, we hypothesized that BH4 and BH4-dependent neurotransmitters would likewise be low in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in CM.

IgG acquisition against PfEMP1 PF11_0521 domain cassette DC13, DBLbeta3_D4 domain, and peptides located within these constructs in children with cerebral malaria

February 15, 2021 - 15:18 -- Open Access
Cyril B, Visitdesotrakul P, Tahar R, et al.
Sci Rep. 2021 Feb 11;11(1):3680

The Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte-membrane-protein-1 (PF3D7_1150400/PF11_0521) contains both domain cassette DC13 and DBLβ3 domain binding to EPCR and ICAM-1 receptors, respectively. This type of PfEMP1 proteins with dual binding specificity mediate specific interactions with brain micro-vessels endothelium leading to the development of cerebral malaria (CM).

Circumsporozoite Surface Protein-based malaria vaccines: a review

February 6, 2021 - 10:47 -- Open Access
Almeida MEM, Vasconcelos MGS, Tarragô AM, Mariúba LAM
Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2021 Jan 29;63:e11

Malaria represents a serious public health problem, presenting with high rates of incidence, morbidity and mortality in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. According to the World Health Organization, in 2018 there were 228 million cases and 405 thousand deaths caused by this disease in the world, affecting mainly children and pregnant women in Africa. Despite the programs carried out to control this disease, drug resistance and invertebrate vector resistance to insecticides have generated difficulties. An efficient vaccine against malaria would be a strategy with a high impact on the eradication and control of this disease.

Estimating the Fraction of Severe Malaria among Malaria-Positive Children: Analysis of Household Surveys in 19 Malaria-Endemic Countries in Africa

February 6, 2021 - 10:46 -- Open Access
Taylor C, Namaste SML, Lowell J, Useem J, Yé Y
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Feb 1:tpmd201351

To date, the only robust estimates of severe malaria cases include children who present to the formal healthcare system. It is a challenge to use these data because of varying age ranges of reporting, different diagnosis techniques, surveillance methods, and healthcare utilization. This analysis examined data from 37 Demographic and Health Surveys and Malaria Indicator Surveys across 19 countries in sub-Saharan Africa collected between 2011 and 2018.

Usage of and satisfaction with Integrated Community Case Management care in western Uganda: a cross-sectional survey

February 3, 2021 - 15:41 -- Open Access
James S. Miller, Palka Patel, Sara Mian-McCarthy, Andrew Christopher Wesuta, Michael Matte, Moses Ntaro, Shem Bwambale, Jessica Kenney, Geren S. Stone and Edgar Mugema Mulogo
Malaria Journal 2021 20:65, 30 January 2021

In some areas of Uganda, village health workers (VHW) deliver Integrated Community Case Management (iCCM) care, providing initial assessment of children under 5 years of age as well as protocol-based treatment of malaria, pneumonia, and diarrhoea for eligible patients. Little is known about community perspectives on or satisfaction with iCCM care. This study examines usage of and satisfaction with iCCM care as well as potential associations between these outcomes and time required to travel to the household’s preferred health facility.

Plasma MicroRNA Profiling of Plasmodium falciparum Biomass and Association with Severity of Malaria Disease

February 3, 2021 - 14:22 -- Open Access
Gupta H, Rubio M, Mayor A, et al.
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Feb;27(2):430-442

Severe malaria (SM) is a major public health problem in malaria-endemic countries. Sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in vital organs and the associated inflammation leads to organ dysfunction. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), which are rapidly released from damaged tissues into the host fluids, constitute a promising biomarker for the prognosis of SM.

Seasonal malaria chemoprevention in the Sahel subregion of Africa: a cost-effectiveness and cost-savings analysis

February 3, 2021 - 14:19 -- Open Access
Gilmartin C, Nonvignon J, Cairns M, Milligan P, Bocoum F, Winskill P, Moroso D, Collins D
Lancet Glob Health. 2021 Feb;9(2):e199-e208

The intermittent administration of seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) is recommended to prevent malaria among children aged 3–59 months in areas of the Sahel subregion in Africa. However, the cost-effectiveness and cost savings of SMC have not previously been evaluated in large-scale studies.

Pharmacokinetic study of rectal artesunate in children with severe malaria in Africa

February 2, 2021 - 16:41 -- Open Access
Fanello C, Hoglund RM, Onyamboko MA, et al.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2021 Feb 1:AAC.02223-20

When severe malaria is suspected in children, WHO recommends pre-treatment with a single rectal dose of artesunate before referral to an appropriate facility. This was an individually randomized, open-label, 2-arm, cross-over clinical trial in 83 Congolese children with severe falciparum malaria, to characterize the pharmacokinetics of rectal artesunate. At admission, children received a single dose of rectal artesunate (10 mg/kg) followed 12 hours later by intravenous artesunate (2.4 mg/kg) or the reverse order. All children also received standard doses of intravenous quinine.


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