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children

Environmental modifiers of RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine efficacy in Lilongwe, Malawi

June 15, 2020 - 15:39 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Bell GJ, Loop MS, Hoffman I, et al.
Reference: 
BMC Public Health. 2020 Jun 12; 20(1):910

RTS,S/AS01 is the first vaccine against malaria to undergo pilot implementation, beginning in 2019 and vaccinating 360,000 children per year in Malawi, Ghana, and Kenya. The four-dose vaccine is given as a primary three-dose series with a fourth dose given approximately 18 months later. The efficacy of RTS,S/AS01 was variable among the 11 sites participating in the 2009–2014 phase III trial (MALARIA-055, NCT00866619), possibly due to differences in transmission intensity. However, a within-site examination of environmental factors related to transmission intensity and their impact on vaccine efficacy has yet to be conducted.

Interferon-gamma polymorphisms and risk of iron deficiency and anaemia in Gambian children

June 12, 2020 - 13:58 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Abuga KM, Rockett KA, Muriuki JM, Koch O, Nairz M, Sirugo G, Bejon P, Kwiatkowski DP, Prentice AM, Atkinson SH
Reference: 
Wellcome Open Res. 2020 Jun 2; 5:40

Anaemia is a major public health concern especially in African children living in malaria-endemic regions. Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is elevated during malaria infection and is thought to influence erythropoiesis and iron status. Genetic variants in the IFN-γ gene (IFNG) are associated with increased IFN-γ production. We investigated putative functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes of IFNG in relation to nutritional iron status and anaemia in Gambian children over a malaria season.

Aetiology of acute febrile illness in children in a high malaria transmission area in West Africa

June 9, 2020 - 11:22 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kaboré B, Post A, de Mast Q, et al.
Reference: 
Clin Microbiol Infect. 2020 Jun 4:S1198-743X(20)30306-2

Areas with declining malaria transmission in sub-Saharan Africa have recently witnessed important changes in the aetiology of childhood acute febrile illness (AFI). Here, we describe the aetiology of AFI in a high malaria transmission area in rural Burkina Faso.

Determination of piperaquine concentration in human plasma and the correlation of capillary versus venous plasma concentrations

June 1, 2020 - 16:33 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Mwebaza N, Cheah V, Forsman C, Kajubi R, Marzan F, Wallender E, Dorsey G, Rosenthal PJ, Aweeka F, Huang L
Reference: 
PLoS ONE 15(5): e0233893

A considerable challenge in quantification of the antimalarial piperaquine in plasma is carryover of analyte signal between assays. Current intensive pharmacokinetic studies often rely on the merging of venous and capillary sampling. Drug levels in capillary plasma may be different from those in venous plasma, Thus, correlation between capillary and venous drug levels needs to be established.

NOT Open Access | Cerebral Blood Flow Velocity is Not Associated with Serum Hemoglobin in Children with Malaria-Associated Anemia

May 26, 2020 - 07:47 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Taty TM, Mabiala JB, Lovett ME, Pongo J, Musungufu DA, Uchama M, O'Brien NF
Reference: 
J Neuroimaging. 2020 May 25

Hemoglobin (Hbg) is often thought to impact cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV). This study was performed to investigate the relationship between Hbg value and CBFV in African children with malaria.

NOT Open Access | Feasibility of direct venous inoculation of the radiation-attenuated Plasmodium falciparum whole sporozoite vaccine in children and infants in Siaya, western Kenya

May 25, 2020 - 08:00 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Oneko M, Cherop YR, Steinhardt LC, et al.
Reference: 
Vaccine. 2020 May 19:S0264-410 X (20)30614-9

PfSPZ Vaccine, composed of radiation-attenuated, aseptic, purified, cryopreserved Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites, is administered by direct venous inoculation (DVI) for maximal efficacy against malaria. A critical issue for advancing vaccines that are administered intravenously is the ability to efficiently administer them across multiple age groups. As part of a pediatric safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy trial in western Kenya, we evaluated the feasibility and tolerability of DVI, including ease of venous access, injection time, and crying during the procedure across age groups.

NOT Open Access | Delayed iron does not alter cognition or behavior among children with severe malaria and iron deficiency

May 14, 2020 - 12:28 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Ssemata AS, Hickson M, Ssenkusu JM, Cusick SE, Nakasujja N, Opoka RO, Kroupina M, Georgieff MK, Bangirana P, John CC
Reference: 
Pediatr Res. 2020 May 13

Malaria and iron deficiency (ID) in childhood are both associated with cognitive and behavioral dysfunction. The current standard of care for children with malaria and ID is concurrent antimalarial and iron therapy. Delaying iron therapy until inflammation subsides could increase iron absorption but also impair cognition.

A novel vaccine target for malaria

May 13, 2020 - 13:46 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Wrighton KH
Reference: 
Nat Rev Microbiol. 2020 May 6

Malaria is a leading cause of death in children; however, developing an effective vaccine has been challenging. Raj et al. now show that Plasmodium falciparum glutamic-acid-rich protein (PfGARP), an 80 kDa antigen expressed on the surface of erythrocytes infected by P. falciparum, is a malaria vaccine candidate for specifically targeting the blood stage of P. falciparum.

Severe malaria in Cameroon: Pattern of disease in children at the Yaounde Gynaeco-Obstetric and Pediatric hospital

May 5, 2020 - 13:11 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Chiabi A, Djimafo ANM, Nguefack S, Mah E, Nguefack Dongmo F, Angwafo F
Reference: 
J Infect Public Health. 2020 Apr 29. pii: S1876-0341(20)30393-2

Malaria is the most widely spread parasitic disease in the world, especially in the tropics affecting mostly children and pregnant women. In children, mostly under-fives carry the heaviest burden in terms of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiological and clinical aspects, and outcome of children 3 months to 15 years old with severe malaria at the Yaounde Gynaeco-Obstetric and Pediatric Hospital (YGOPH), a referral hospital in Yaounde, Cameroon.

Central Nervous System Virus Infection in African Children with Cerebral Malaria

April 29, 2020 - 09:41 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Postels DG, Osei-Tutu L, Wilson MR, et al.
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Apr 27

We aimed to identify the contribution of central nervous system (CNS) viral coinfection to illness in African children with retinopathy-negative or retinopathy-positive cerebral malaria (CM). We collected cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 272 children with retinopathy-negative or retinopathy-positive CM and selected CSF from 111 of these children (38 retinopathy positive, 71 retinopathy negative, 2 retinopathy unknown) for analysis by metagenomic next-generation sequencing.

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