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children

Exploring association between MBL2 gene polymorphisms and the occurrence of clinical blackwater fever through a case–control study in Congolese children

January 20, 2020 - 15:47 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Joseph M. Bodi, Célestin N. Nsibu, Kenji Hirayama, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:25, 15 January 2020

Blackwater fever (BWF), one of the most severe and life-threatening forms of falciparum malaria, is characterized by acute massive intravascular haemolysis, often leading to acute renal failure. Thus far, the genetics of the underlying susceptibility to develop BWF is not fully elucidated. Deficiency in the MBL protein, an important component of the innate immune system, has previously been suggested to be a susceptibility factor for the development of severe malaria. This study aimed to evaluate the association between MBL2 gene polymorphisms, known to affect the MBL protein level/activity, and the occurrence of BWF among Congolese children.

Associations between red blood cell variants and malaria among children and adults from three areas of Uganda: a prospective cohort study

January 20, 2020 - 15:27 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Elijah Kakande, Bryan Greenhouse, Isabel Rodriguez-Barraquer, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:21, 15 January 2020

Multiple red blood cell (RBC) variants appear to offer protection against the most severe forms of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Associations between these variants and uncomplicated malaria are less clear.

NOT Open Access | High Circulation of Malaria and Low Prevalence of Bacteremia in Febrile and Afebrile Children in Northeastern Gabon

January 20, 2020 - 14:35 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Boumbanda Koyo CS, Oyegue-Liabagui SL, Mediannikov O, Cortaredona S, Kouna LC, Raoult D, Lekana-Douki JB, Fenollar F
Reference: 
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Volume 102, Issue 1, 8 Jan 2020, p. 121 - 129

The epidemiology of febrile illness etiologies is under-explored in resource-poor settings. Establishing a local repertory of microorganisms circulating in blood of febrile and afebrile people is important for physicians. Blood was collected from 428 febrile and 88 afebrile children in Makokou (Gabon) and analyzed using polymerase chain reaction. Plasmodium spp. were the pathogens, which were most detected in febrile children (69.6%; 298/428) and in afebrile children (31.8%; 28/88) (P < 0.0001).

Economic and Resource Use Associated With Management of Malaria in Children Aged <5 Years in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Literature Review

January 14, 2020 - 16:39 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
El-Houderi A, Constantin J, Castelnuovo E, Sauboin C
Reference: 
MDM Policy & Practice, 2019 Dec 21;4(2):2381468319893986.

Malaria is a major health, economic, and social burden in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective is to help understanding the economic impact of malaria and informing estimates of the potential economic impact of malaria prevention. To achieve this, we conducted a systematic review of published information on health system costs, health care resource use, and household costs for the management of malaria episodes in children aged <5 years in sub-Saharan Africa.

NOT Open Access | High-dose chloroquine for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria is well tolerated and causes similar QT prolongation as standard dose chloroquine in children

January 14, 2020 - 16:02 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Ursing J, Rombo L, Eksborg S, Larson L, Bruvoll A, Tarning J, Rodrigues A, Kofoed PE
Reference: 
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2020 Jan 6. pii: AAC.01846-19

Higher chloroquine doses can effectively treat up to 93-96% of malaria infections caused by P. falciparum carrying the resistance conferring chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt) 76T allele. The tolerability of 50 (double standard dose) and 70 mg/kg total chloroquine doses were assessed in this study.

In vivo/ex vivo efficacy of artemether–lumefantrine and artesunate–amodiaquine as first-line treatment for uncomplicated falciparum malaria in children: an open label randomized controlled trial in Burkina Faso

January 7, 2020 - 15:14 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Moussa Lingani, Léa Nadège Bonkian, Halidou Tinto, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:8, 6 January 2020

Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is recommended to improve malaria treatment efficacy and limit drug-resistant parasites selection in malaria endemic areas. 5 years after they were adopted, the efficacy and safety of artemether–lumefantrine (AL) and artesunate–amodiaquine (ASAQ), the first-line treatments for uncomplicated malaria were assessed in Burkina Faso.

Not Open Access | Severe Malaria in African Children — The Need for Continuing Investment

December 23, 2019 - 15:23 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Kathryn Maitland
Reference: 
N Engl J Med. 2016 Dec 22; 375(25): 2416–2417.

In large parts of sub-Saharan Africa, the start of the seasonal rains means that within weeks, hospitals will witness a sharp upsurge in admissions to their pediatric wards. Many children who are admitted will be suffering from life-threatening complications of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, such as coma and convulsions (cerebral malaria), severe anemia (requiring urgent lifesaving transfusion), and rapid breathing (due to severe metabolic acidosis).

NOT Open Access | Anemia and transfusion requirements among Ugandan children with severe malaria treated with intravenous artesunate

December 23, 2019 - 14:23 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Hawkes MT, Opoka RO, Conroy AL, Elphinstone RE, Hume HA, Namasopo S, Kain KC
Reference: 
Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2019 Dec 12:1-13

Parenteral artesunate for the treatment of severe malaria in non-immune travelers is associated with late-onset hemolysis. In children in sub-Saharan Africa, the hematologic effects of malaria and artesunate are less well documented. Here we report a prospective case series of 91 children with severe malaria treated with parenteral artesunate, managed at a resource-poor hospital in Africa, with longitudinal data on hemoglobin (Hb), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), haptoglobin, and erythrocyte morphology.

Artenimol–piperaquine in children with uncomplicated imported falciparum malaria: experience from a prospective cohort

December 17, 2019 - 16:36 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Lauren Pull, Jean-Marc Lupoglazoff, Matthew Beardmore, Jean-François Michel, Pierre Buffet, Olivier Bouchaud and Jean-Yves Siriez
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2019 18:419, 16 December 2019

Although malaria remains one of the major public health threats in inter-tropical areas, there is limited understanding of imported malaria in children by paediatricians and emergency practitioners in non-endemic countries, often resulting in misdiagnosis and inadequate treatment. Moreover, classical treatments (atovaquone-proguanil, quinine, mefloquine) are limited either by lengthy treatment courses or by side effects. Since 2010, the World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended the use of oral artemisinin-based combination therapy for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria worldwide. The benefits of artenimol–piperaquine in children have been validated in endemic countries but experience remains limited in cases of imported malaria.

CD8+ T cells target cerebrovasculature in children with cerebral malaria

December 16, 2019 - 16:57 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Riggle BA, Manglani M, Pierce SK, et al.
Reference: 
J Clin Invest. 2019 Dec 10, pii: 133474

Cerebral malaria (CM) accounts for nearly 400,000 deaths annually inAfrican children. Current dogma suggests that CM results from infected RBC (iRBC)sequestration in the brain microvasculature and resulting sequelae. Therapies targetingthese events have been unsuccessful; findings in experimental models suggest that CD8+ Tcells drive disease pathogenesis. However, these data have largely been ignored becausecorroborating evidence in humans is lacking. This work fills a critical gap in ourunderstanding of CM pathogenesis that is impeding development of therapeutics.

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