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NOT Open Access | Severe stridor and profound weakness after cerebral malaria

April 14, 2021 - 16:40 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Fuller C, Wooldridge G, Liomba A, Ray STJ
Reference: 
BMJ Case Rep. 2021 Apr 13;14(4):e237681

Cerebral malaria (CM) is defined by WHO as coma (Blantyre Coma Score 2 or less) in a patient with Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia and no alternative cause of coma identified. Mortality is approximately 15%-30% in African children and up to one-third of survivors have neurological sequelae. We present a patient with severe stridor and prolonged profound weakness during an intensive care admission with CM.

Efficacy and safety of dihydroartemisinin–piperaquine versus artemether–lumefantrine for treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Ugandan children: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized control trials

April 7, 2021 - 12:49 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Dawit Getachew Assefa, Eden Dagnachew Zeleke, Delayehu Bekele, Hanna Amanuel Tesfahunei, Emnet Getachew, Michele Joseph and Tsegahun Manyazewal
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:174, 1 April 2021

The emergence of artemisinin resistance in Southeast Asia and Plasmodium falciparum kelch13 propeller gene mutations in sub-Saharan African pose the greatest threat to global efforts to control malaria. This is a critical concern in Uganda, where artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is the first-line treatment for uncomplicated falciparum. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of dihydroartemisinin–piperaquine (DHA–PQ) and artemether–lumefantrine (AL) for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Ugandan children.

Not Open Access | Plasmodium falciparum-specific IgM B cells dominate in children, expand with malaria, and produce functional IgM

April 7, 2021 - 12:25 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Hopp CS, Sekar P, Crompton PD, et al.
Reference: 
J Exp Med. 2021 Apr 5;218(4):e20200901

IgG antibodies play a role in malaria immunity, but whether and how IgM protects from malaria and the biology of Plasmodium falciparum (Pf)-specific IgM B cells is unclear. In a Mali cohort spanning infants to adults, we conducted longitudinal analyses of Pf- and influenza-specific B cells. We found that Pf-specific memory B cells (MBCs) are disproportionally IgM+ and only gradually shift to IgG+ with age, in contrast to influenza-specific MBCs that are predominantly IgG+ from infancy to adulthood. B cell receptor analysis showed Pf-specific IgM MBCs are somatically hypermutated at levels comparable to influenza-specific IgG B cells.

School-based screening and treatment may reduce P. falciparum transmission

March 31, 2021 - 14:34 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Cohee LM, Valim C, Laufer MK, et al.
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2021 Mar 25;11(1):6905

In areas where malaria remains entrenched, novel transmission-reducing interventions are essential for malaria elimination. We report the impact screening-and-treatment of asymptomatic Malawian schoolchildren (n = 364 in the rainy season and 341 in the dry season) had on gametocyte-the parasite stage responsible for human-to-mosquito transmission-carriage.

NOT Open Access | Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-F and -G gene polymorphisms and haplotypes are associated with malaria susceptibility in the Beninese Toffin children

March 31, 2021 - 14:24 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Sonon P, Tokplonou L, Donadi EA, et al.
Reference: 
Infect Genet Evol. 2021 Mar 26:104828

Little attention has been devoted to the role of the immunoregulatory HLA-E/-F/−G genes in malaria. We evaluated the entire HLA-E/-F/−G variability in Beninese children highly exposed to Plasmodium falciparum (P.f.) malaria.

Gametocyte carriage after seasonal malaria chemoprevention in Plasmodium falciparum infected asymptomatic children

March 30, 2021 - 14:05 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Abdullahi Ahmad, Aurelia Prom, John Bradley, Mamadou Ndiath, Blessed Etoketim, Mamadou Bah, Jean-Pierre Van Geertruyden, Chris Drakeley, Teun Bousema, Jane Achan and Umberto D’Alessandro
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:169, 26 March 2021

Treatment of clinical Plasmodium falciparum malaria with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and amodiaquine (AQ) is associated with increased post-treatment gametocyte carriage. The effect of seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) with SP and AQ on gametocyte carriage was assessed in asymptomatic P. falciparum infected children.

Family, social and cultural determinants of long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) use in Madagascar: secondary analysis of three qualitative studies focused on children aged 5–15 years

March 30, 2021 - 14:04 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ammy Fiadanana Njatosoa, Chiarella Mattern, Christophe Rogier, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:168, 26 March 2021

Although it is accepted that long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) use is an effective means to prevent malaria, children aged 5 to 15 years do not appear to be sufficiently protected in Madagascar; the malaria prevalence is highest in this age group. The purpose of this research is to summarize recent qualitative studies describing LLIN use among the Malagasy people with a focus on children aged 5–15 years.

NOT Open Access | Molecular Identification and Characterization of Plasmodium ovale curtisi in Field Isolates from Symptomatic Children in North-Central Nigeria

March 17, 2021 - 17:10 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Oyedeji SI, Awobode HO, Ojurongbe O, Anumudu C, Bassi PU
Reference: 
Acta Parasitol. 2021 Mar 12

Plasmodium ovale is not usually the focus of most malaria research or intervention programmes and has lately been termed the neglected human malaria parasites. The parasite exists as two genetically distinct sympatric species namely P. ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri but information on the distribution of P. ovale sub-species is lacking in Nigeria. The objective of this study, therefore, was aimed at characterizing the P. ovale sub-species in isolates from symptomatic individuals in North-central Nigeria.

Home-Based Intervention for the Prevention and Treatment of Malaria Among Children Younger Than 5 Years in the West Region of Cameroon: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial

March 17, 2021 - 17:05 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Dongmo Kenfack E, Tendongfor N, Nsagha DS
Reference: 
JMIR Res Protoc. 2021 Mar 12;10(3):e19633

Although malaria is preventable and curable, 1 child dies of this disease every 2 minutes in Africa. Home-based management of malaria reduces the progression of severe malaria by more than 50%. Scalable, efficacious, and cost-effective strategies are needed to empower the capacities of home caregivers of children younger than 5 years of age in health education, diagnosis, and treatment of malaria at home.

NOT Open Access | Development and validation of an in silico decision-tool to guide optimisation of intravenous artesunate dosing regimens for severe falciparum malaria patients

March 10, 2021 - 13:55 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Zaloumis SG, Whyte JM, Simpson JA, et al.
Reference: 
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2021 Mar 8:AAC.02346-20

Most deaths from severe falciparum malaria occur within 24 hours of presentation to hospital. Intravenous (i.v.) artesunate is the first-line treatment for severe falciparum malaria, but its efficacy may be compromised by delayed parasitological responses. In patients with severe malaria the life-saving benefit of the artemisinin derivatives is their ability to clear circulating parasites rapidly, before they can sequester and obstruct the microcirculation.

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