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Comparison of leucocyte profiles between healthy children and those with asymptomatic and symptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infections

October 13, 2020 - 12:39 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Diana Ahu Prah, Linda Eva Amoah, Matthew P. Gibbins, Yaw Bediako, Aubrey J. Cunnington, Gordon A. Awandare and Julius Clemence R. Hafalla
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:364, 9 October 2020

The immune mechanisms that determine whether a Plasmodium falciparum infection would be symptomatic or asymptomatic are not fully understood. Several studies have been carried out to characterize the associations between disease outcomes and leucocyte numbers. However, the majority of these studies have been conducted in adults with acute uncomplicated malaria, despite children being the most vulnerable group.

Severe malaria in Cameroon: Pattern of disease in children at the Yaounde Gynaeco-Obstetric and Pediatric hospital

October 7, 2020 - 16:07 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Chiabi A, Djimafo ANM, Nguefack S, Mah E, Nguefack Dongmo F, Angwafo F 3rd
Reference: 
J Infect Public Health. 2020 Oct;13(10):1469-1472

Malaria is the most widely spread parasitic disease in the world, especially in the tropics affecting mostly children and pregnant women. In children, mostly under-fives carry the heaviest burden in terms of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiological and clinical aspects, and outcome of children 3 months to 15 years old with severe malaria at the Yaounde Gynaeco-Obstetric and Pediatric Hospital (YGOPH), a referral hospital in Yaounde, Cameroon.

Time for pragmatic, prospective clinical trials to determine the role of empirical antibacterial therapy in critically ill adults hospitalised with malaria

October 6, 2020 - 12:56 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Hanson J, Nyein PP, Aung NM, Kyi MM
Reference: 
Int J Infect Dis. 2020 Oct 2:S1201-9712(20)32188-3

Children with severe falciparum malaria in malaria-endemic regions are predisposed to developing life-threatening bacterial co-infection. International guidelines therefore recommend empirical broad-spectrum antibacterial therapy in these children. Few studies have examined co-infection in adults, although it has been believed to be relatively rare; anti-bacterial therapy is therefore not routinely recommended in adults.

Methods to estimate baseline creatinine and define acute kidney injury in lean Ugandan children with severe malaria: a prospective cohort study

October 1, 2020 - 15:22 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Batte A, Starr MC, Schwaderer AL, Opoka RO, Namazzi R, Phelps Nishiguchi ES, Ssenkusu JM, John CC, Conroy AL
Reference: 
BMC Nephrol. 2020 Sep 29;21(1):417

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is increasingly recognized as a consequential clinical complication in children with severe malaria. However, approaches to estimate baseline creatinine (bSCr) are not standardized in this unique patient population. Prior to wide-spread utilization, bSCr estimation methods need to be evaluated in many populations, particularly in children from low-income countries.

Estimating Annual Fluctuations in Malaria Transmission Intensity and in the Use of Malaria Control Interventions in Five Sub-Saharan African Countries

September 23, 2020 - 09:34 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Rts S Epidemiology Epi-Mal-Study Group, Adeniji E, Asante KP, Wéry S, et al.
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Sep 21

RTS,S/AS01E malaria vaccine safety, effectiveness, and impact will be assessed in pre- and post-vaccine introduction studies, comparing the occurrence of malaria cases and adverse events in vaccinated versus unvaccinated children. Because those comparisons may be confounded by potential year-to-year fluctuations in malaria transmission intensity and malaria control intervention usage, the latter should be carefully monitored to adequately adjust the analyses.

Clinical relevance of low-density Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia in untreated febrile children: A cohort study

September 23, 2020 - 08:53 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Hartley MA, Hofmann N, D'Acremont V, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS Med. 2020 Sep 21;17(9):e1003318

Low-density (LD) Plasmodium infections are missed by standard malaria rapid diagnostic tests (standard mRDT) when the blood antigen concentration is below the detection threshold. The clinical impact of these LD infections is unknown. This study investigates the clinical presentation and outcome of untreated febrile children with LD infections attending primary care facilities in a moderately endemic area of Tanzania.

Genetic diversity and complexity of Plasmodium falciparum infections in the microenvironment among siblings of the same household in North-Central Nigeria

September 17, 2020 - 13:50 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Segun Isaac Oyedeji, Peter Usman Bassi, Samuel Adeola Oyedeji, Olusola Ojurongbe and Henrietta Oluwatoyin Awobode
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:338, 16 September 2020

Plasmodium falciparum parasites are known to exhibit extensive genetic diversity in areas of high transmission intensity and infected individuals in such communities often harbour several complex mixtures of parasite clones with different genetic characteristics. However, in the micro-environment, the extent of genetic diversity of P. falciparum parasites remain largely unknown. In this study therefore, the complexity of P. falciparum infections in households was investigated among symptomatic siblings, living under the same roof in north-central Nigeria.

Community Voice Matters: Lessons from Field Studies of Malaria

September 15, 2020 - 15:06 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Aju-Ameh C
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Sep;103(3):945-946

I have always been curious about arthropods and the dis-eases they transmit to humans. Growing up in a malaria-endemic area (Benue, Nigeria) exposed my family members and me to the revulsions of malaria disease. Children were theworst hit.

Quality of clinical management of children diagnosed with malaria: A cross-sectional assessment in 9 sub-Saharan African countries between 2007-2018

September 15, 2020 - 14:40 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Cohen JL, Leslie HH, Saran I, Fink G
Reference: 
PLoS Med. 2020 Sep 14;17(9):e1003254

Appropriate clinical management of malaria in children is critical for preventing progression to severe disease and for reducing the continued high burden of malaria mortality. This study aimed to assess the quality of care provided to children under 5 diagnosed with malaria across 9 sub-Saharan African countries.

The clinical spectrum of severe childhood malaria in Eastern Uganda

September 5, 2020 - 15:01 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Peter Olupot-Olupot, Charles Engoru, Thomas N. Williams, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:322, 3 September 2020

Few recent descriptions of severe childhood malaria have been published from high-transmission regions. In the current study, the clinical epidemiology of severe malaria in Mbale, Eastern Uganda, is described, where the entomological inoculation rate exceeds 100 infective bites per year.

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