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children

Relationship between changing malaria burden and low birth weight in sub-Saharan Africa: A difference-in-differences study via a pair-of-pairs approach

July 20, 2021 - 12:48 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Heng S, O'Meara WP, Simmons RA, Small DS
Reference: 
Elife. 2021 Jul 14;10:e65133

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), in 2018, an estimated 228 million malaria cases occurred worldwide with most cases occurring in sub-Saharan Africa. Scale-up of vector control tools coupled with increased access to diagnosis and effective treatment has resulted in a large decline in malaria prevalence in some areas, but other areas have seen little change. Although interventional studies demonstrate that preventing malaria during pregnancy can reduce the rate of low birth weight (i.e. child’s birth weight <2500 g), it remains unknown whether natural changes in parasite transmission and malaria burden can improve birth outcomes.

Oxygen systems and quality of care for children with pneumonia, malaria and diarrhoea: Analysis of a stepped-wedge trial in Nigeria

July 14, 2021 - 10:12 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Graham HR, Maher J, Bakare AA, Nguyen CD, Ayede AI, Oyewole OB, Gray A, Izadnegahdar R, Duke T, Falade AG
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2021 Jul 8;16(7):e0254229

To evaluate the effect of improved hospital oxygen systems on quality of care (QOC) for children with severe pneumonia, severe malaria, and diarrhoea with severe dehydration.

Iron Deficiency Is Associated With Reduced Levels of Plasmodium falciparum-specific Antibodies in African Children

July 6, 2021 - 14:36 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Bundi CK, Nalwoga A, Atkinson SH, et al.
Reference: 
Clin Infect Dis. 2021 Jul 1;73(1):43-49

Iron deficiency (ID) and malaria are common causes of ill-health and disability among children living in sub-Saharan Africa. Although iron is critical for the acquisition of humoral immunity, little is known about the effects of ID on antibody responses to Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

Identifying prognostic factors of severe metabolic acidosis and uraemia in African children with severe falciparum malaria: a secondary analysis of a randomized trial

June 30, 2021 - 12:20 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Grace Mzumara, Stije Leopold, Kevin Marsh, Arjen Dondorp, Eric O. Ohuma and Mavuto Mukaka
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:282, 25 June 2021

Severe metabolic acidosis and acute kidney injury are major causes of mortality in children with severe malaria but are often underdiagnosed in low resource settings.

NOT Open Access | Utilization of a local 'Malaria Post' indicates that carers from a village in Mozambique respond appropriately to malaria attacks

June 30, 2021 - 09:33 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Charlwood JD, Tomás EVE, Enosse S, Saija SP, Sahlholdt J, Filemon L, Kampango A
Reference: 
Acta Trop. 2021 Jun 23:106017

As malaria elimination becomes a possibility the focus of interventions changes from vector control to disease control. It is important that treatment occurs early during an infection, in order for it to be efficacious, especially at the population level. The time between the onset of symptoms and treatment seeking is, therefore, crucial. Following a census and an oral autopsy survey of the inhabitants of Furvela, a village in southern Mozambique, a malaria post (MP) where malaria was diagnosed and treated was established in 2001.

Extended follow-up of children in a phase2b trial of the GMZ2 malaria vaccine

June 29, 2021 - 13:43 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Dassah S, Adu B, Theisen M, et al.
Reference: 
Vaccine. 2021 Jun 23:S0264-410X(21)00760-X

The GMZ2/alum candidate malaria vaccine had an efficacy of 14% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.6%, 23%) against clinical malaria over 6 months of follow-up in a phase2b multicentre trial in children 1–5 years of age. Here we report the extended follow up of safety and efficacy over 2 years.

Antibody Levels to Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1-DBLgamma11 and DBLdelta-1 Predict Reduction in Parasite Density

June 16, 2021 - 14:53 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Araj BN, Swihart B, Fried M, et al.
Reference: 
mSystems. 2021 Jun 15:e0034721

Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) is a variant surface antigen family expressed on infected red blood cells that plays a role in immune evasion and mediates adhesion to vascular endothelium. PfEMP1s are potential targets of protective antibodies as suggested by previous seroepidemiology studies. Here, we used previously reported proteomic analyses of PfEMP1s of clinical parasite isolates collected from Malian children to identify targets of immunity.

Use of the creating opportunities for parent empowerment programme to decrease mental health problems in Ugandan children surviving severe malaria: a randomized controlled trial

June 16, 2021 - 13:13 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Paul Bangirana, Annet Birabwa, Mary Nyakato, Ann J. Nakitende, Maria Kroupina, John M. Ssenkusu, Noeline Nakasujja, Seggane Musisi, Chandy C. John and Richard Idro
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:267, 13 June 2021

Severe malaria is associated with long-term mental health problems in Ugandan children. This study investigated the effect of a behavioural intervention for caregivers of children admitted with severe malaria, on the children’s mental health outcomes 6 months after discharge.

Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets Incorporating Piperonyl Butoxide Reduce the Risk of Malaria in Children in Western Kenya: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

June 16, 2021 - 09:40 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Minakawa N, Kongere JO, Sonye GO, Lutiali PA, Awuor B, Kawada H, Isozumi R, Futami K
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Jun 14:tpmd201069

Malaria vectors have acquired an enzyme that metabolizes pyrethroids. To tackle this problem, we evaluated long-lasting insecticidal nets incorporating piperonyl butoxide (PBO-LLINs) with a community-based cluster randomized control trial in western Kenya. The primary endpoints were anopheline density and Plasmodium falciparum polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive prevalence (PCRpfPR) of children aged 7 months to 10 years. Four clusters were randomly selected for each of the treatment and control arms (eight clusters in total) from 12 clusters, and PBO-LLINs and standard LLINs were distributed in February 2011 to 982 and 1,028 houses for treatment and control arms, respectively.

NOT Open Access | Epitope-Specific Antibody Responses to a Plasmodium falciparum Subunit Vaccine Target in a Malaria-Endemic Population

June 9, 2021 - 07:28 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Friedman-Klabanoff DJ, Travassos MA, Berry AA, et al.
Reference: 
J Infect Dis. 2021 Jun 4;223(11):1943-1947

Circumsporozoite protein (CSP) coats the Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite surface and is a major malaria subunit vaccine target. We measured epitope-specific reactivity to field-derived CSP haplotypes in serum samples from Malian adults and children on a custom peptide microarray. Compared to children, adults showed greater antibody responses and responses to more variants in regions proximal to and within the central repeat region.

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