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Antiviral Potential of the Antimicrobial Drug Atovaquone against SARS-CoV-2 and Emerging Variants of Concern

October 20, 2021 - 20:03 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Carter-Timofte ME, Arulanandam R, Olagnier D, et al.
Reference: 
ACS Infect Dis. 2021 Oct 18

The antimicrobial medication malarone (atovaquone/proguanil) is used as a fixed-dose combination for treating children and adults with uncomplicated malaria or as chemoprophylaxis for preventing malaria in travelers. It is an inexpensive, efficacious, and safe drug frequently prescribed around the world. Following anecdotal evidence from 17 patients in the provinces of Quebec and Ontario, Canada, suggesting that malarone/atovaquone may present some benefits in protecting against COVID-19, we sought to examine its antiviral potential in limiting the replication of SARS-CoV-2 in cellular models of infection.

NOT Open Access | Ultraviolet/Visible and Near-Infrared Dual Spectroscopic Method for Detection and Quantification of Low-Level Malaria Parasitemia in Whole Blood

October 16, 2021 - 12:20 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Adegoke JA, De Paoli A, Afara IO, Kochan K, Creek DJ, Heraud P, Wood BR
Reference: 
Anal Chem. 2021 Oct 5;93(39):13302-13310

The scourge of malaria infection continues to strike hardest against pregnant women and children in Africa and South East Asia. For global elimination, testing methods that are ultrasensitive to low-level ring-staged parasitemia are urgently required. In this study, we used a novel approach for diagnosis of malaria infection by combining both electronic ultraviolet-visible (UV/vis) spectroscopy and near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy to detect and quantify low-level (1-0.000001%) ring-staged malaria-infected whole blood under physiological conditions uisng Multiclass classification using logistic regression, which showed that the best results were achieved using the extended wavelength range, providing an accuracy of 100% for most parasitemia classes.

Malaria and Helminth Coinfection among Children at the Douala Gyneco-Obstetric and Pediatric Hospital

October 11, 2021 - 19:34 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Flavio A, Cedric Y, Nadia NAC, Payne VK
Reference: 
J Trop Med. 2021 Jul 1;2021:3702693

Malaria and helminth infections are major public health issues in sub-Saharan Africa including Cameroon. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence and risk factors associated with malaria and helminth coinfection among children in the Douala Gyneco-Obstetric and Pediatric Hospital (HGOPED) in Douala, southwestern Cameroon.

Asymptomatic and sub-microscopic Plasmodium falciparum infection in children in the Mount Cameroon area: a cross-sectional study on altitudinal influence, haematological parameters and risk factors

October 9, 2021 - 09:43 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Irene Ule Ngole Sumbele, Rene Ning Teh, Helen Kuokuo Kimbi, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:382, 26 September 2021

The Mount Cameroon area has experienced a 57.2% decline in confirmed malaria cases between 2006 and 2013 with the implementation of different control measures but, the disease is still of public health concern. The objective of the study was to assess the burden of asymptomatic and sub-microscopic Plasmodium infection, altitudinal influence on it, their effect on haematological parameters as well as identify the risk factors of infection.

Significant differences in FcγRIIa, FcγRIIIa and FcγRIIIb genes polymorphism and anti-malarial IgG subclass pattern are associated with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Saudi children

October 6, 2021 - 20:09 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Amre Nasr, Ahmad Aljada, Osama Hamid, Hatim A. Elsheikh, Emad Masuadi, Ahmad Al-Bawab, Themer H. Alenazi, Amir Abushouk and Ayman M. Salah
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:376, 22 September 2021

The FcγRs genotypes have been reported to play a key role in the defence against malaria parasites through both cellular and humoral immunity. This study aimed to investigate the possible correlation between FcγR (IIa, IIIa, and IIIb) genes polymorphism and the clinical outcome for anti‐malarial antibody response of Plasmodium falciparum infection among Saudi children.

NOT Open Access | Seasonal prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum infection and use of insecticide-treated nets among children in three agroecosystems in Aboisso, Cote d'Ivoire

October 2, 2021 - 13:06 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Sadia-Kacou CAM, Adja MA, Assi SB, Poinsignon A, Coulibaly JT, Ouattara AF, Remoué F, Koudou BG, Tano Y
Reference: 
Parasitol Res. 2021 Sep 29

Agroecosystems have been associated with risk of malaria. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between three agroecosystems: (i) rubber plantation (RP); (ii) oil palm plantation (OPP); (iii) no cash crop plantation (NCCP) and the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum infection among children living in the Aboisso region. In the three villages within (Ehania-V5) or close (N'zikro) or far from (Ayébo) to each agroecosystem (RP, OPP, and NCCP), two cross-sectional parasitological surveys were carried out during the dry and the peak of the long wet seasons. A total of 586 children aged 1-14 years were recruited in the three villages to determine the prevalence of malaria using conventional microscopy.

The prevalence and density of asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infections among children and adults in three communities of western Kenya

September 28, 2021 - 09:43 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Christina Salgado, George Ayodo, Tuan M. Tran, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:371, 17 September 2021

Further reductions in malaria incidence as more countries approach malaria elimination require the identification and treatment of asymptomatic individuals who carry mosquito-infective Plasmodium gametocytes that are responsible for furthering malaria transmission. Assessing the relationship between total parasitaemia and gametocytaemia in field surveys can provide insight as to whether detection of low-density, asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infections with sensitive molecular methods can adequately detect the majority of infected individuals who are potentially capable of onward transmission.

Novel transdermal bioadhesive surfactant-based system for release and solubility improvement of antimalarial drugs Artemether-Lumefantrine

September 23, 2021 - 08:35 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Volpe-Zanutto F, Fonseca-Santos B, Foglio MA, et al.
Reference: 
Biomed Mater. 2021 Sep 20

Artemether (ART) and lumefantrine (LUM) are the gold standard antimalarial drugs used for the treatment of malaria in children and pregnant women. Typically, ART and LUM are delivered orally in the form of a combined tablet, however, the appropriateness of this route of administration for these drugs is questionable due to the poor absorption and therefore bioavailability observed unless administered alongside lipid-rich foods.Transdermal drug delivery in the form of a patch-type system has been identified as a viable alternative to the conventional tablet-based therapy.

Adherence to community versus facility-based delivery of monthly malaria chemoprevention with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for the post-discharge management of severe anemia in Malawian children: A cluster randomized trial

September 15, 2021 - 11:28 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Nkosi-Gondwe T, Robberstad B, Mukaka M, Idro R, Opoka RO, Banda S, Kühl MJ, O Ter Kuile F, Blomberg B, Phiri KS
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2021 Sep 10;16(9):e0255769

The provision of post-discharge malaria chemoprevention (PMC) in children recently admitted with severe anemia reduces the risk of death and re-admissions in malaria endemic countries. The main objective of this trial was to identify the most effective method of delivering dihydroartemesinin-piperaquine to children recovering from severe anemia.

Hepcidin regulation in Kenyan children with severe malaria and non-typhoidal Salmonella bacteremia

September 14, 2021 - 09:34 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Abuga KM, Muriuki JM, Atkinson SH, et al.
Reference: 
Haematologica. 2021 Sep 9

Malaria and invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) are life-threatening infections that often co-exist in African children. The iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin is highly upregulated during malaria and controls the availability of iron, a critical nutrient for bacterial growth. We investigated the relationship between Plasmodium falciparum malaria and NTS bacteremia in all pediatric admissions aged ≤5 years between August 1998 and October 2019 (n=75,034). We then assayed hepcidin and measures of iron status in five groups: (1) children with concomitant severe malarial anemia (SMA) and NTS (SMA+NTS, n=16); and in matched children with (2) SMA (n=33); (3) NTS (n=33); (4) cerebral malaria (CM, n=34); and (5) community-based children.

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