The antimicrobial medication malarone (atovaquone/proguanil) is used as a fixed-dose combination for treating children and adults with uncomplicated malaria or as chemoprophylaxis for preventing malaria in travelers. It is an inexpensive, efficacious, and safe drug frequently prescribed around the world. Following anecdotal evidence from 17 patients in the provinces of Quebec and Ontario, Canada, suggesting that malarone/atovaquone may present some benefits in protecting against COVID-19, we sought to examine its antiviral potential in limiting the replication of SARS-CoV-2 in cellular models of infection.
The scourge of malaria infection continues to strike hardest against pregnant women and children in Africa and South East Asia. For global elimination, testing methods that are ultrasensitive to low-level ring-staged parasitemia are urgently required. In this study, we used a novel approach for diagnosis of malaria infection by combining both electronic ultraviolet-visible (UV/vis) spectroscopy and near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy to detect and quantify low-level (1-0.000001%) ring-staged malaria-infected whole blood under physiological conditions uisng Multiclass classification using logistic regression, which showed that the best results were achieved using the extended wavelength range, providing an accuracy of 100% for most parasitemia classes.
Malaria and helminth infections are major public health issues in sub-Saharan Africa including Cameroon. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence and risk factors associated with malaria and helminth coinfection among children in the Douala Gyneco-Obstetric and Pediatric Hospital (HGOPED) in Douala, southwestern Cameroon.
The Mount Cameroon area has experienced a 57.2% decline in confirmed malaria cases between 2006 and 2013 with the implementation of different control measures but, the disease is still of public health concern. The objective of the study was to assess the burden of asymptomatic and sub-microscopic Plasmodium infection, altitudinal influence on it, their effect on haematological parameters as well as identify the risk factors of infection.
The FcγRs genotypes have been reported to play a key role in the defence against malaria parasites through both cellular and humoral immunity. This study aimed to investigate the possible correlation between FcγR (IIa, IIIa, and IIIb) genes polymorphism and the clinical outcome for anti‐malarial antibody response of Plasmodium falciparum infection among Saudi children.
Agroecosystems have been associated with risk of malaria. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between three agroecosystems: (i) rubber plantation (RP); (ii) oil palm plantation (OPP); (iii) no cash crop plantation (NCCP) and the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum infection among children living in the Aboisso region. In the three villages within (Ehania-V5) or close (N'zikro) or far from (Ayébo) to each agroecosystem (RP, OPP, and NCCP), two cross-sectional parasitological surveys were carried out during the dry and the peak of the long wet seasons. A total of 586 children aged 1-14 years were recruited in the three villages to determine the prevalence of malaria using conventional microscopy.
Further reductions in malaria incidence as more countries approach malaria elimination require the identification and treatment of asymptomatic individuals who carry mosquito-infective Plasmodium gametocytes that are responsible for furthering malaria transmission. Assessing the relationship between total parasitaemia and gametocytaemia in field surveys can provide insight as to whether detection of low-density, asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infections with sensitive molecular methods can adequately detect the majority of infected individuals who are potentially capable of onward transmission.
Artemether (ART) and lumefantrine (LUM) are the gold standard antimalarial drugs used for the treatment of malaria in children and pregnant women. Typically, ART and LUM are delivered orally in the form of a combined tablet, however, the appropriateness of this route of administration for these drugs is questionable due to the poor absorption and therefore bioavailability observed unless administered alongside lipid-rich foods.Transdermal drug delivery in the form of a patch-type system has been identified as a viable alternative to the conventional tablet-based therapy.
The provision of post-discharge malaria chemoprevention (PMC) in children recently admitted with severe anemia reduces the risk of death and re-admissions in malaria endemic countries. The main objective of this trial was to identify the most effective method of delivering dihydroartemesinin-piperaquine to children recovering from severe anemia.
Malaria and invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) are life-threatening infections that often co-exist in African children. The iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin is highly upregulated during malaria and controls the availability of iron, a critical nutrient for bacterial growth. We investigated the relationship between Plasmodium falciparum malaria and NTS bacteremia in all pediatric admissions aged ≤5 years between August 1998 and October 2019 (n=75,034). We then assayed hepcidin and measures of iron status in five groups: (1) children with concomitant severe malarial anemia (SMA) and NTS (SMA+NTS, n=16); and in matched children with (2) SMA (n=33); (3) NTS (n=33); (4) cerebral malaria (CM, n=34); and (5) community-based children.