Innovative antimalarial strategies are urgently needed given the alarming evolution of resistance to every single drug developed against Plasmodium parasites. The sulfated glycosaminoglycan heparin has been delivered in membrane feeding assays together with Plasmodium berghei-infected blood to Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes.
Plasmodium falciparum parasite is the most deadly species of human malaria, and the development of an effective vaccine that prevents P. falciparum infection and transmission is a key target for malarial elimination and eradication programmes. P. falciparum cell-traversal protein for ookinetes and sporozoites (PfCelTOS) is an advanced vaccine candidate. A comparative study was performed to characterize the immune responses in BALB/c mouse immunized with Escherichia coli-expressed recombinant PfCelTOS (rPfCelTOS) in toll-like receptor (TLR)-based adjuvants, CpG and Poly I:C alone or in combination (CpG + Poly I:C), followed by the assessment of transmission-reducing activity (TRA) of anti-rPfCelTOS antibodies obtained from different vaccine groups in Anopheles stephensi.
Ivermectin (IVM) reduces the lifespan of malaria-transmitting mosquitoes after feeding on humans treated with IVM but limited data are available on the exact duration of the mosquitocidal effect of IVM. Daily mosquito feeding assays were conducted to determine this. Mosquito mortality was 70-100% when mosquitoes fed on mice, rats, or cynomolgus monkeys 1-2 days after the last IVM administration. The findings reported here, of a pronounced but short-lived mosquitocidal effect, makes the timing of IVM administration crucial to form a useful addition to anti-malarial drugs.