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ivermectin

NOT Open Access | Broadening the range of use cases for ivermectin - a review of the evidence

August 4, 2021 - 11:58 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Kositz C, Bradley J, Hutchins H, Last A, D'Alessandro U, Marks M
Reference: 
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Jul 29:trab114

Ivermectin is a broad-spectrum antiparasitic agent that interferes with glutamate-gated chloride channels found in invertebrates but not in vertebrate species. Mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin-based regimes has been a mainstay of elimination efforts targeting onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis for more than 3 decades. More recently, interest in the use of ivermectin to control other neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) such as soil-transmitted helminths and scabies has grown.

NOT Open Access | Ivermectin: A Promising Therapeutic for Fighting Malaria. Current Status and Perspective

July 13, 2021 - 14:45 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Singh L, Singh K
Reference: 
J Med Chem. 2021 Jul 9

Finding new chemotherapeutic interventions to treat malaria through repurposing of time-tested drugs and rigorous design of new drugs using tools of rational drug design remains one of the most sought strategies at the disposal of medicinal chemists.

The effect of cattle-administered ivermectin and fipronil on the mortality and fecundity of Anopheles arabiensis Patton

July 6, 2021 - 14:25 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Makhanthisa TI, Braack L, Lutermann H
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2021 Jul 2;14(1):349

Malaria control primarily depends on two vector control strategies: indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs). Both IRS and LLIN target indoor-biting mosquitoes. However, some of the most important malaria vectors have developed resistance against the chemical compounds used in IRS and LLINs. Insecticide-induced behavioural changes in vectors, such as increased outdoor feeding on cattle and other animals, also limit the effectiveness of these strategies. Novel vector control strategies must therefore be found to complement IRS and LLINs. A promising tool is the use of cattle-applied endectocides. Endectocides are broad-spectrum systemic drugs that are effective against a range of internal nematodes parasites and blood-feeding arthropods. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of two endectocide drugs, injectable ivermectin and topical fipronil, on the survival and fecundity of zoophilic Anopheles arabiensis.

NOT Open Access | Design and analysis of a 2-year parallel follow-up of repeated ivermectin mass drug administrations for control of malaria: Small sample considerations for cluster-randomized trials with count data

July 6, 2021 - 13:45 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Jackson CL, Colborn K, Gao D, Rao S, Slater HC, Parikh S, Foy BD, Kittelson J
Reference: 
Clin Trials. 2021 Jul 3:17407745211028581

Cluster-randomized trials allow for the evaluation of a community-level or group-/cluster-level intervention. For studies that require a cluster-randomized trial design to evaluate cluster-level interventions aimed at controlling vector-borne diseases, it may be difficult to assess a large number of clusters while performing the additional work needed to monitor participants, vectors, and environmental factors associated with the disease. One such example of a cluster-randomized trial with few clusters was the “efficacy and risk of harms of repeated ivermectin mass drug administrations for control of malaria” trial. Although previous work has provided recommendations for analyzing trials like repeated ivermectin mass drug administrations for control of malaria, additional evaluation of the multiple approaches for analysis is needed for study designs with count outcomes.

Ivermectin treatment in humans for reducing malaria transmission

June 30, 2021 - 09:40 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
de Souza DK, Thomas R, Bradley J, Leyrat C, Boakye DA, Okebe J
Reference: 
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021 Jun 29;6:CD013117

Malaria is transmitted through the bite of Plasmodium‐infected adult female Anopheles mosquitoes. Ivermectin, an anti‐parasitic drug, acts by killing mosquitoes that are exposed to the drug while feeding on the blood of people (known as blood feeds) who have ingested the drug. This effect on mosquitoes has been demonstrated by individual randomized trials. This effect has generated interest in using ivermectin as a tool for malaria control.

From informed consent to adherence: factors influencing involvement in mass drug administration with ivermectin for malaria elimination in The Gambia

April 28, 2021 - 15:47 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Alexandra Fehr, Claudia Nieto-Sanchez, Koen Peeters Grietens, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:198, 26 April 2021

The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends consideration of mass drug administration (MDA) for malaria control in low-endemic settings approaching elimination. However, MDA remains a controversial strategy, as multiple individual, social, and operational factors have shown to affect its acceptability at local levels. This is further complicated by inconsistent definitions of key indicators derived from individual and community involvement—coverage, adherence, and compliance—that cast doubts about the actual and potential epidemiological impact of MDA on disease control and elimination. This study aimed to identify limitations and enabling factors impacting involvement at different stages of a large cluster-randomized trial assessing the effect of combining dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) and ivermectin (IVM) in malaria transmission in The Gambia.

Ivermectin Treatment for Cattle Reduced the Survival of Two Malaria Vectors, Anopheles dirus and Anopheles epiroticus, Under Laboratory Conditions in Central Vietnam

April 28, 2021 - 13:51 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Cramer EY, Quang NX, Hertz JC, Van Nguyen D, Quang HH, Mendenhall I, Lover AA
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 26:tpmd201239

Ivermectin is a low-cost and nontoxic mosquitocide that may have a role in malaria elimination. However, the extent to which this drug impacts the mortality of Anopheles dirus and Anopheles epiroticus, two important malaria vectors in Southeast Asia, is unknown. This study compared quantified anopheline mortality after feeding on ivermectin-treated cattle and control cattle in Vietnam.

Potential metabolic resistance mechanisms to ivermectin in Anopheles gambiae: a synergist bioassay study

March 23, 2021 - 14:39 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Nicolas P, Kiuru C, Wagah MG, Muturi M, Duthaler U, Hammann F, Maia M, Chaccour C
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2021 Mar 20;14(1):172

Despite remarkable success obtained with current malaria vector control strategies in the last 15 years, additional innovative measures will be needed to achieve the ambitious goals for malaria control set for 2030 by the World Health Organization (WHO). New tools will need to address insecticide resistance and residual transmission as key challenges. Endectocides such as ivermectin are drugs that kill mosquitoes which feed on treated subjects. Mass administration of ivermectin can effectively target outdoor and early biting vectors, complementing the still effective conventional tools. Although this approach has garnered attention, development of ivermectin resistance is a potential pitfall. Herein, we evaluate the potential role of xenobiotic pumps and cytochrome P450 enzymes in protecting mosquitoes against ivermectin by active efflux and metabolic detoxification, respectively.

Endectocides as a complementary intervention in the malaria control program: a systematic review

January 20, 2021 - 07:25 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Khaligh FG, Jafari A, Silivanova E, Levchenko M, Rahimi B, Gholizadeh S
Reference: 
Syst Rev. 2021 Jan 18;10(1):30

Malaria is the most common vector-borne disease transmitted to humans by Anopheles mosquitoes. Endectocides and especially ivermectin will be available as a vector control tool soon. The current review could be valuable for trial design and clinical studies to control malaria transmission.

Mass Drug Administration With High-Dose Ivermectin and Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine for Malaria Elimination in an Area of Low Transmission With High Coverage of Malaria Control Interventions: Protocol for the MASSIV Cluster Randomized Clinical Trial

November 25, 2020 - 12:10 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Dabira ED, Soumare HM, D'Alessandro U, et al.
Reference: 
JMIR Res Protoc. 2020 Nov 19;9(11):e20904

With a decline in malaria burden, innovative interventions and tools are required to reduce malaria transmission further. Mass drug administration (MDA) of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) has been identified as a potential tool to further reduce malaria transmission, where coverage of vector control interventions is already high. However, the impact is limited in time. Combining an ACT with an endectocide treatment that is able to reduce vector survival, such as ivermectin (IVM), could increase the impact of MDA and offer a new tool to reduce malaria transmission.

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