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LLIN

Changing malaria fever test positivity among paediatric admissions to Tororo district hospital, Uganda 2012–2019

November 24, 2020 - 13:45 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Arthur Mpimbaza, Asadu Sserwanga, Damian Rutazaana, James Kapisi, Richard Walemwa, Laurissa Suiyanka, David Kyalo, Moses Kamya, Jimmy Opigo and Robert W. Snow
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:416, 19 November 2020

The World Health Organization (WHO) promotes long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) and indoor residual house-spraying (IRS) for malaria control in endemic countries. However, long-term impact data of vector control interventions is rarely measured empirically.

Study design and operational framework for a community-based Malaria Elimination Demonstration Project (MEDP) in 1233 villages of district Mandla, Madhya Pradesh

November 17, 2020 - 13:20 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Harsh Rajvanshi, Praveen K. Bharti, Altaf A. Lal, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:410, 16 November 2020

In the past decade substantial reduction in malaria morbidity and mortality has been observed through well-implemented case management and vector control strategies. India has also achieved a significant reduction in malaria burden in 2018 and has committed to eliminate malaria by 2030. The Mandla Malaria Elimination Demonstration Project (MEDP) was started in 2017 in 1233 villages of District Mandla to demonstrate malaria elimination in a tribal district with hard-to-reach areas was possible using active and passive surveillance, case management, vector control, and targeted information, education and communication campaigns. An operational plan was developed to strengthen the existing surveillance and malaria elimination systems, through fortnightly active case detection to ensure that all cases including those that are introduced into the communities are rapidly identified and treated promptly. The plan also focused on the reduction of human-mosquito contact through the use of Long-Lasting Insecticial Nets (LLINs) and Indoor Residual Spray (IRS). The operational plan was modified in view of the present COVID-19 pandemic by creating systems of assistance for the local administration for COVID-related work while ensuring the operational integrity of malaria elimination efforts.

Comparative assessment of insecticide resistance phenotypes in two major malaria vectors, Anopheles funestus and Anopheles arabiensis in south-eastern Tanzania

November 14, 2020 - 16:00 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Polius G. Pinda, Claudia Eichenberger, Halfan S. Ngowo, Dickson S. Msaky, Said Abbasi, Japhet Kihonda, Hamis Bwanaly and Fredros O. Okumu
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:408, 11 November 2020

Long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) have greatly reduced malaria transmission in sub-Saharan Africa, but are threatened by insecticide resistance. In south-eastern Tanzania, pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles funestus are now implicated in > 80% of malaria infections, even in villages where the species occurs at lower densities than the other vector, Anopheles arabiensis. This study compared the insecticide resistance phenotypes between the two malaria vectors in an area where pyrethroid-LLINs are widely used.

Reduced long-lasting insecticidal net efficacy and pyrethroid insecticide resistance are associated with over-expression of CYP6P4, CYP6P3 and CYP6Z1 in populations of Anopheles coluzzii from South-East Côte d'Ivoire

November 12, 2020 - 15:38 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Meiwald A, Clark E, Kristan M, Edi C, Jeffries CL, Pelloquin B, Irish SR, Walker T, Messenger LA
Reference: 
J Infect Dis. 2020 Nov 11:jiaa699

Resistance to major public health insecticides in Côte d’Ivoire has intensified and now threatens the long-term effectiveness of malaria vector control interventions.

Efficacy evaluation of Veeralin LN, a PBO-incorporated alpha-cypermethrin long-lasting insecticidal net against Anopheles culicifacies in experimental huts in Odisha State

November 11, 2020 - 14:28 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Gunasekaran Kasinathan, Sudhansu Sekhar Sahu, Nallan Krishnamoorthy, Mohammed Mustafa Baig, Sonia Thankachy, Smrutidhara Dash, Swaminathan Subramanian and Purushothaman Jambulingam
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:402, 10 November 2020

The success of malaria control using long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) is threatened by pyrethroid resistance developed by the malaria vectors, worldwide. To combat the resistance, synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO) incorporated LLINs is one of the available options. In the current phase II hut trial, the efficacy of Veeralin®LN (an alpha-cypermethrin and PBO-incorporated net) was evaluated against Anopheles culicifacies, a pyrethroid resistant malaria vector.

Tenebenal: a meta-diamide with potential for use as a novel mode of action insecticide for public health

November 11, 2020 - 14:17 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Rosemary Susan Lees, Pauline Ambrose, Jessica Williams, John Morgan, Giorgio Praulins, Victoria A. Ingham, Chris T. Williams, Rhiannon Agnes Ellis Logan, Hanafy M. Ismail and David Malone
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:398, 10 November 2020

There is an urgent need for insecticides with novel modes of action against mosquito vectors. Broflanilide is a meta-diamide, discovered and named Tenebenal™ by Mitsui Chemicals Agro, Inc., which has been identified as a candidate insecticide for use in public health products.

Clients' satisfaction with preventive services for malaria during pregnancy in Anambra state, Nigeria

November 7, 2020 - 12:44 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Obagha EC, Ajayi I, Abdullahi GA, Umeokonkwo CD
Reference: 
BMC Public Health. 2020 Nov 4;20(1):1660

Burden of Malaria in pregnancy (MIP) is still high despite availability of proven cost-effective interventions. Considerable progress has been made on improving antenatal attendance, but MIP preventive services utilization remains low. Factors responsible for this include dissatisfaction with the services provided. We assessed clients’ satisfaction with preventative services for malaria during pregnancy delivered at antenatal clinics (ANC) in Anambra State Nigeria.

Evaluating the impact of larviciding with Bti and community education and mobilization as supplementary integrated vector management interventions for malaria control in Kenya and Ethiopia

November 4, 2020 - 10:08 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Clifford M. Mutero, Collins Okoyo, Melaku Girma, Joseph Mwangangi, Lydia Kibe, Peter Ng’ang’a, Dereje Kussa, Gracious Diiro, Hippolyte Affognon and Charles M. Mbogo
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:390, 3 November 2020

Malaria prevention in Africa is mainly through the use of long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs). The objective of the study was to assess the effect of supplementing LLINs with either larviciding with Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) or community education and mobilization (CEM), or with both interventions in the context of integrated vector management (IVM).

Malaria vector species composition and entomological indices following indoor residual spraying in regions bordering Lake Victoria, Tanzania

October 31, 2020 - 09:55 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Charles Kakilla, Alphaxard Manjurano, Stephen M. Magesa, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:383, 28 October 2020

Vector control through long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and focal indoor residual spraying (IRS) is a major component of the Tanzania national malaria control strategy. In mainland Tanzania, IRS has been conducted annually around Lake Victoria basin since 2007. Due to pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors, use of pyrethroids for IRS was phased out and from 2014 to 2017 pirimiphos-methyl (Actellic® 300CS) was sprayed in regions of Kagera, Geita, Mwanza, and Mara. Entomological surveillance was conducted in 10 sprayed and 4 unsprayed sites to determine the impact of IRS on entomological indices related to malaria transmission risk.

How useful are malaria risk maps at the country level? Perceptions of decision-makers in Kenya, Malawi and the Democratic Republic of Congo

October 6, 2020 - 12:47 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ludovica Ghilardi, George Okello, Jayne Webster, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:353, 2 October 2020

Declining malaria prevalence and pressure on external funding have increased the need for efficiency in malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Modelled Plasmodium falciparum parasite rate (PfPR) maps are increasingly becoming available and provide information on the epidemiological situation of countries. However, how these maps are understood or used for national malaria planning is rarely explored. In this study, the practices and perceptions of national decision-makers on the utility of malaria risk maps, showing prevalence of parasitaemia or incidence of illness, was investigated.

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