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NOT Open Access | Patterns of human exposure to early-evening and outdoor biting mosquitoes and residual malaria transmission in Ethiopia

January 27, 2021 - 10:53 -- NOT Open Access
Degefa T, Githeko AK, Lee MC, Yan G, Yewhalaw D
Acta Trop. 2021 Jan 21:105837

Ethiopia has shown a notable progress in reducing malaria burden over the past decade, mainly due to the scaleup of vector control interventions such as long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS). Based on the progress, the country has set goals to eliminate malaria by 2030. However, residual malaria transmission due to early-evening and outdoor biting vectors could pose a challenge to malaria elimination efforts. This study assessed vector behavior, patterns of human exposure to vector bites and residual malaria transmission in southwestern Ethiopia. Anopheles mosquitoes were collected monthly from January to December 2018 using human landing catches (HLCs), human-baited double net traps, CDC light traps and pyrethrum spray catches.

Textile testing to assess the resistance to damage of long-lasting insecticidal nets for malaria control and prevention

January 20, 2021 - 08:35 -- Open Access
Amy Wheldrake, Estelle Guillemois, Hamidreza Arouni, Vera Chetty and Stephen J. Russell
Malaria Journal 2021 20:47, 19 January 2021

LLINs are susceptible to forming holes within a short time in use, compromising their ability to provide long-term physical protection against insect-borne vectors of disease. Mechanical damage is known to be responsible for the majority of holes, with most being the result of snagging, tearing, hole enlargement, abrasion and seam failure, which can readily occur during normal household use. To enable an assessment of the ability of LLINs to resist such damage prior to distribution, a new suite of testing methods was developed to reflect the main damage mechanisms encountered during normal use of LLINs.

Development of a single resistance to damage metric for mosquito nets related to physical integrity in the field

January 20, 2021 - 08:33 -- Open Access
Amy Wheldrake, Estelle Guillemois, Vera Chetty, Albert Kilian and Stephen J. Russell
Malaria Journal 2021 20:46, 19 January 2021

In common with the majority of personal protective equipment and healthcare products, the ability for long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) to remain in good physical condition during use is a key factor governing fitness for purpose and serviceability. The inherent ability of a product to resist physical deterioration should be known in advance of it being used to ensure it has maximum value to both the end-user and procurer. The objective of this study was to develop a single performance metric of resistance to damage (RD) that can be applied to any LLIN product prior to distribution.

The causes of holes and loss of physical integrity in long‐lasting insecticidal nets

January 20, 2021 - 08:30 -- Open Access
Amy Wheldrake, Estelle Guillemois, Hamidreza Arouni, Vera Chetty and Stephen J. Russell
Malaria Journal 2021 20:45, 19 January 2021

Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are expected to last for at least 3 years, but whilst this may be achieved from an insecticidal perspective, physical protection is frequently compromised much earlier because of the rapid accumulation of holes during use. To understand why LLINs are so susceptible to loss of physical integrity, thousands of hole damage sites in LLINs retrieved from the field in Africa and Asia were forensically studied to identify the persistent underlying causes.

Householders' perception about sustaining the useful life of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets in Ghana

January 20, 2021 - 07:19 -- Open Access
Opoku R, Amoah PA, Nyamekye KA
Int Health. 2021 Jan 14;13(1):57-62

This article explores the multifaceted perceptions among householders about the care, efficacy and disposal of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs), especially those regarding the end of the useful life of LLINs, and their implications for malaria control.

Insecticide resistance status of malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) of southwest Burkina Faso and residual efficacy of indoor residual spraying with microencapsulated pirimiphos-methyl insecticide

January 20, 2021 - 06:07 -- Open Access
Soma DD, Zogo B, Dabiré RK, et al.
Parasit Vectors. 2021 Jan 18;14(1):58

The rapid spread of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors and the rebound in malaria cases observed recently in some endemic areas underscore the urgent need to evaluate and deploy new effective control interventions. A randomized control trial (RCT) was conducted with the aim to investigate the benefit of deploying complementary strategies, including indoor residual spraying (IRS) with pirimiphos-methyl in addition to long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) in Diébougou, southwest Burkina Faso.

Correlation of textile ‘resistance to damage’ scores with actual physical survival of long-lasting insecticidal nets in the field

January 13, 2021 - 08:39 -- Open Access
Albert Kilian, Emmanuel Obi, Hannah Koenker, et al.
Malaria Journal 2021 20:29, 7 January 2021

Attempts have been made to link procurement of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) not only to the price but also the expected performance of the product. However, to date it has not been possible to identify a specific textile characteristic that predicts physical durability in the field. The recently developed resistance to damage (RD) score could provide such a metric. This study uses pooled data from durability monitoring to explore the usefulness of the RD methodology.

Variation of physical durability between LLIN products and net use environments: summary of findings from four African countries

January 13, 2021 - 08:28 -- Open Access
Albert Kilian, Emmanuel Obi, Paul Mansiangi, Ana Paula Abílio, Khamis Ameir Haji, Sean Blaufuss, Bolanle Olapeju, Stella Babalola and Hannah Koenker
Malaria Journal 2021 20:26, 7 January 2021

Physical durability of long-lasting-insecticidal nets (LLIN) is an important aspect of the effectiveness of LLIN as a malaria prevention tool, but there is limited data on performance across locations and products. This secondary analysis of data from the VectorWorks project from 10 sites in four African countries involving six LLIN brands provides such data.

NOT Open Access | Community Knowledge, Attitude and Practices on Malaria Vector Control Strategies in Lagos State, South-West Nigeria

January 12, 2021 - 15:16 -- NOT Open Access
Omotayo AI, Ande AT, Oduola AO, Olakiigbe AK, Ghazali AK, Adeneye A, Awolola ST
J Med Entomol. 2021 Jan 9:tjaa278

Malaria is a leading public health challenge causing mortality and morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa. Prominent malaria vector control methods employed in sub-Saharan Africa include Long Lasting Insecticide Nets (LLINs) and Indoor Residual spraying (IRS). This study investigated knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of malaria vector control methods in Lagos, South-West Nigeria. Structured questionnaires were employed for the cross-sectional survey which was carried out between May and August 2018. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select Lagos Mainland, Kosofe, and Ojo local government areas (LGAs).

NOT Open Access | Using pastoralist community knowledge to locate and treat dry-season mosquito breeding habitats with pyriproxyfen to control Anopheles gambiae s.l. and Anopheles funestus s.l. in rural Tanzania

January 12, 2021 - 14:35 -- NOT Open Access
Lupenza ET, Kihonda J, Limwagu AJ, Ngowo HS, Sumaye RD, Lwetoijera DW
Parasitol Res. 2021 Jan 6

Fundamentally, larviciding with pyriproxyfen (PPF) has potential to complement Long Lasting Insecticide Nets (LLINs) and indoor residual sprays (IRS) in settings where resistance to pyrethroids and residual malaria transmission exist. In this study, we evaluated the field effectiveness of larviciding using PPF to reduce dry season productivity of mosquito breeding habitats that were located by pastoralists within the study area.


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